Brian F G Katz

Brian F G Katz
Sorbonne Université | UPMC · Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert (IJLRA) - UMR 7190

Ph.D. in Acoustics, 1998
Experimental Virtual Archaeological-Acoustics, Spatial Audio, Multimodal Virtual Reality, Room Acoustics

About

258
Publications
77,064
Reads
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3,525
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
Sorbonne Université
Position
  • Research Director
December 2016 - present
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Research Director
November 2015 - December 2016
Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI)
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (258)
Article
Full-text available
Spatial cognition is a daily life ability, developed in order to be able to understand and interact with our environment. Even if all the senses are involved in mental representation of space elaboration, the lack of vision makes it more difficult, especially because of the importance of peripheral information in updating the relative positions of...
Article
Full-text available
This interdisciplinary study brings together acousticians and anthropologists to examine the memory of the acoustics of Notre-Dame de Paris before the fire of April 2019, using a qualitative approach to collect the testimonies of 18 people involved in the sound usages of the cathedral. Testimonies were analyzed in light of research conducted in the...
Conference Paper
No PDF available ABSTRACT The study of acoustics as intangible cultural heritage is an active field of research with implications beyond the scientific community. This study examines the influence of the acoustics of the new Gothic cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris on the medieval singers who pioneered a style of plainchant known as the School of No...
Article
Auralization technology has reached a satisfactory level of ecological validity, enabling its use in architectural acoustic design. Only recently have the actual uses of auralization in the consulting community been explored, resulting in the identification of a variety of uses, including (1) to present to clients, (2) to test design ideas, (3) as...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the efficiency of a training protocol using a virtual reality application designed to accelerate individual’s selection of, and accommodation to, non-individualized HRTF profiles. This training introduces three elements to hasten audio localization performance improvement: an interactive HRTF selection method, a parametric train...
Article
The head-related transfer function (HRTF) defines the acoustic path from a source to the two ears of a listener in a manner that is highly dependent on direction. This directional dependence arises from the highly individual morphology of the pinna, which results in complex reflections and resonances. While this notion is generally accepted, there...
Article
Full-text available
Prior to Sabine’s work on the Fogg Art Museum and Boston Symphony Hall, several numerical guidelines had been developed and applied to the design of rooms with specific acoustic demands such as theatres, concert halls, and opera houses. Previous papers have discussed guidelines based on the following principles: voice directivity, which was employe...
Article
Auralizations can be computed in a variety of ways as well as be rendered over different sound reproduction systems. They are used as a design tool in architectural projects and for fundamental studies on spatial perception and cognition, hence requiring reliability and confidence in the obtained results. This study assessed this reliability throug...
Article
Full-text available
The Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris is amongst the most well-known worship spaces in the world. Its large volume, in combination with a relatively bare stone construction and marble floor, leads to rather long reverberation times. The cathedral suffered from a significant fire in 2019, resulting in damage primarily to the roof and vaulted ceiling. D...
Article
"Culture et Recherche" informe sur la recherche au ministère de la Culture dans toutes ses composantes : architecture, patrimoine, création, médias, industries culturelles, développements technologiques appliqués au secteur culturel.
Chapter
Hearing is one of our most pervasive senses. There is no equivalent to closing our eyes, or averting our gaze, for the ears. When we think about great architectural achievements in European history, such as ancient amphitheatres or Gothic cathedrals, their importance is strongly tied to their acoustic environment. The acoustics of a heritage site i...
Article
Full-text available
When a personalized set of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) is not available, a common solution is identifying a perceptually appropriate substitute from a database. There are various approaches to this selection process whether based on localization cues, subjective evaluations, or anthropomorphic similarities. This study investigates wheth...
Article
For almost 3 decades, research on auditory displays and sonification has been well advanced. Now, the auditory display community has arrived at the stage of sonic information design with a more systematic, refined necessity, going beyond random mappings between the referents and sounds. Due to its innate transdisciplinary nature of auditory display...
Article
With his work on the Fogg Art Museum and Boston Symphony Hall between 1895 and 1900, Wallace C. Sabine laid a foundation for the field of architectural acoustics as a science. Prior to that, architects employed various quantifiable notions in acoustic design. Previous studies have reviewed metric guidelines based on the directivity of the human voi...
Article
With the popularity of immersive media, developing usable tools for content development is important for the production process. In the context of 3D audio production, user interfaces for authoring and editing 3D audio trajectories enable content developers, composers, practitioners, and recording and mixing engineers to define how audio sources tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The French ECHO project studies the use of voice in the recent history of theater. It is a multidisciplinary project which combines the efforts of historians, theater scientists, and acousticians. In the scope of this project an audiovisual simulation was created which combines auralizations with visualizations of former Théâtre de l'Athénée config...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the details related to the creation of a public database of anechoic audio and 3D-video recordings of several small music ensemble performances. Musical extracts range from baroque to jazz music. This work aims at extending the already available public databases of anechoic stimuli, providing the community with flexible audiovis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spectral cues in head-related transfer functions (HRTF), such as peaks and notches occurring above 4 kHz, are important for sound localization in the median plane. However, it may be complicated for the auditory system to detect absolute frequency and level peaks and notches, mapping them to three-dimensional positions. In contrast, it may be more...
Article
While auralization technology is used in a variety of fields, particularly in architectural acoustics, there is a lack of data on the auralization tools used and actual practices. In this perspective, this work presents the results of a survey study on auralization uses in the acoustical design and consulting community, targeting acoustical consult...
Article
During the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, a room acoustic theory arose with design goal to avoid echoes from occurring by quantifying the perception threshold between direct sound and 1st-order reflections. The room acoustic design of the large 19th century concert hall Palais du Trocadero (1878–1937) was based on this theory. As the resulting aco...
Article
Full-text available
Comment entendre les sons du passé ? Même si les objets sonores et l’acoustique des bâtiments étaient restés exactement les mêmes, notre écoute, elle, n’est plus celle des auditeurs d’autrefois, un phénomène vérifié pour l’époque peu lointaine – la seconde moitié du xxe siècle – étudiée dans le projet ECHO. Les facteurs objectifs existent cependant...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the effect of adaptation to non-ideal auditory localization cues represented by the Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF) and the retention of training for up to three months after the last session. Continuing from a previous study on rapid non-individual HRTF learning, subjects using non-individual HRTFs were tested alongside c...
Preprint
Le site "Entendre le théâtre" [http://classes.bnf.fr/echo] a été conçu dans le cadre du projet ANR ECHO dont les partenaires étaient l'UMR ARIAS (puis THALIM), le laboratoire LIMSI-CNRS (groupe Audio & Acoustique), le département des Arts du spectacle de la BnF (associé au département de l'Audiovisuel), avec la contribution du CRIalt de Montréal et...
Book
Sensory Evaluation of Sound provides a detailed review of the latest sensory evaluation techniques, specifically applied to the evaluation of sound and audio. This three-part book commences with an introduction to the fundamental role of sound and hearing, which is followed by an overview of sensory evaluation methods and associated univariate and...
Article
With the work of Wallace C. Sabine on the lecture hall of the Fogg Art Museum and concert hall of Boston Symphony Hall, a foundation for the field of architectural acoustics as a science was laid between 1895 and 1900. Prior to that, architects employed various notions in acoustic design. Previous studies by the authors have reviewed 18th and 19th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in computational power have opened the doors to higher resolution acoustic modelling for large-scale spaces where acoustics is crucial and spaces are increasingly complicated. As such, auralizations are becoming more prevalent in architectural acoustics and virtual reality. However, there have been few studies examining the perceptual qual...
Chapter
Virtual Reality (VR) reconstructions of architectural acoustics situations are used in the context of design and renovation projects for acoustically sensitive spaces and historical studies. In such studies, it is important to understand the impact of the visual rendering on auditory perceptions of the spaces concerned. For such a study, a virtual...
Article
Auralizations have become more prevalent in architectural acoustics and virtual reality. Studies have shown that by employing a methodical calibration procedure, ecologically/perceptually valid auralizations can be obtained. Another study demonstrated a manner to include dynamic voice directivity with results indicating these auralizations were jud...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Auralizations have become more prevalent in architectural acoustics. Auralizations in listening tests are typically presented in a uni-modal fashion (audio only). However, in everyday-life one perceives complex multi-modal information. Multi-sensory research has shown that visuals can influence auditory perceptions, such as with the McGurk and vent...
Conference Paper
Nous étudions ici l'impact de la composante visuelle sur l'évaluation subjective d'auralisations, permettant également d'évaluer l'impact du support de rendu visuel (comparaison entre CAVE-portable ou Head Mounted Display-HMD). Une visualisation 3D du Théâtre de l'Athénée incorporant une performance virtuelle de deux acteurs jouant sur scène, et in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our demonstration presents recent developments of the EVERTims project, an auralization framework for virtual acoustics and real-time room acoustic simulation. The developments presented here concern the complete re-design of the scene graph editor unit, and the C++ implementation of a new spatial renderer based on the JUCE framework. EVERTims now...
Article
Several studies have reported a collapse of externalization (source location is perceived as being inside the head) when listening to binaural content with nonindividualized HRTFs. A previous experiment conducted with experienced subjects revealed that large head movements coupled with a head-tracking device could substantially improve the external...
Article
The inter-aural time difference (ITD) is a fundamental cue for human sound localization. Over the past decades several methods have been proposed for its estimation from measured head-related impulse response (HRIR) data. Nevertheless, inter-method variations in ITD calculation have been found to exceed the known just noticeable differences (JNDs),...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents recent developments of the EVERTims project, an auralization framework for virtual acoustics and real-time room acoustic simulation. The EVERTims framework relies on three independent components: a scene graph editor, a room acoustic modeler, and a spatial audio renderer for auralization. The framework was first published and de...
Article
This presentation will provide an overview of recent and ongoing studies regarding evaluations of sound fields using virtual loudspeaker binaural synthesis. Of specific interest is an identification of perceptual attributes affected by Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF) choice beyond basic localization error and the sensitivity of listeners to h...
Article
The Inter-aural Time Difference (ITD) is a fundamental cue for human sound localization. Over the past decades, several methods have been proposed for its estimation from measured Head-Related Impulse Response (HRIR) data. Nevertheless, inter-method variations in ITD calculation have been found to exceed the known Just Noticeable Differences (JNDs)...
Article
As part of the 850-year anniversary of Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris, there was a special performance of “La Vierge.” A close-mic recording of the concert was made by the Conservatoire de Paris. In an attempt to provide a new type of experience, a virtual recreation of the performance using these roughly 45 audio channels was made via auralization. A...
Article
Full-text available
Auralizations have become more prevalent in architectural acoustics. Auralizations in listening tests are typically presented in a uni-modal fashion (audio only). However, in everyday-life one perceives complex multi-modal information. Multi-sensory research has shown that visuals can influence auditory perceptions, such as with the McGurk and vent...
Article
3D audio production tools vary from low-level programming libraries to higher-level user interfaces that are used across a wide range of applications. However, many of the user interfaces for authoring 3D audio parameters are underdeveloped, forcing users to resort to ad hoc solutions with other tools or programming languages. Identifying these lim...
Article
Binaural reproduction aims at recreating a realistic audio scene at the ears of the listener using headphones. In the real acoustic world, sound sources tend to be externalized (that is perceived to be emanating from a source out in the world) rather than internalized (that is perceived to be emanating from inside the head). Unfortunately, several...
Article
It is possible to include static directivity patterns into auralizations to better represent the way in which real sources radiate sound and subsequently excite the room. Sources such as the voice have directivity patterns which vary with frequency and also due to dynamic movements of the performer. This study presents an investigation of the inclu...
Article
Recently, auralizations have become more prevalent in architectural acoustics and virtual reality. However, there have been few studies examining the perceptual quality achievable by room acoustic simulations and auralizations. Such studies have highlighted potential problems in creating perceptually equivalent simulations when compared to measured...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Binaural rendering can integrate, through the use of a head-tracker, the movements of the listener. This means the rendering can be updated as a function of listener’s head rotation and position, allowing for the virtual sound source to be perceived as being fixed relative to the real world, as well as enhancing the externalisation of the sources....
Article
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A framework conceived and designed to enable ecological assessments of theater, concert hall, and auditorium acoustics is presented. Coupling real-time convolution based auralization and 3D visualization with the inclusion of a 3D audiovisual (3D-AV) recorded performance provides for an animated visual anchor, allowing for appropriate orientation a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Notre-Dame de Paris is amongst the most well-known worship spaces in the world. Its large volume, in combination with a relatively bare stone construction and marble floor, leads to rather long reverberation times. Despite the notoriety of this space, there are few examples of published data on the acoustical parameters of this space, and these dat...
Article
Various methods exist for room acoustic measurements. To increase the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), averaging of repeated room impulse responses (RIR) can be performed under the assumption of time-invariant systems. Associated with a study of the Paris Notre Dame cathedral, time-variances due to minute temperature changes were observed which confoun...
Article
The research community on Auditory Design has been active and organized now for almost 25 years. Work in Auditory Display is pluri-disciplinary/inter-disciplinary in nature, and involves disciplines such as perception, acoustics, digital signal processing, multimodality, ergonomics, aesthetics, cognition, etc. Published works have spanned fundament...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As part of the 850-year anniversary of the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris, there was a special performance of 'La Vierge', by Jules Massenet. A close mic recording of the concert was made by the Conservatoire de Paris. In an attempt to provide a new type of experience for those unable to attend, a virtual recreation of the performance using these ro...
Conference Paper
Head tracking has been shown to improve the quality of multiple aspects of binaural rendering for single sound sources, such as reduced front-back confusions. This paper presents the results of an AB experiment to investigate the influence of tracker latency on the perceived stability of virtual sounds. The stimuli used are a single frontal sound s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the repeatability of an HRTF evaluation protocol, assessing the spatial quality of binaural stimuli, moving along pre-defined trajectories on the horizontal and median planes, on a forced-choice 9-point rating scale. The protocol assessment was based on data simulations and subjective studies. Repeatability was evaluated as...
Article
This paper presents a comparative study on common Parameter Mapping Sonifications (PMSons) designed to reduce the perception of instabilities during the real-time interactive exploration of noisy data streams. The objective of this study is to evaluate the capacity of these PMSons in reducing the perceived fluctuations while preserving both efficie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of room acoustic auralizations has been increasing due to the improving computing power available and the quality of numerical modelling software. In such auralizations, it is often possible to prescribe the directivity of an acoustic source in order to better represent the way in which a given acoustic source excites the room. However, suc...
Article
In the absence of a well-suited measure for quantifying binaural data variations, this study presents a global perceptual distance metric which can describe both HRTF and listener similarities. The metric is derived based on subjective evaluations of binaural renderings of a sound moving along predefined trajectories on the horizontal and median pl...
Article
We report the advantages and drawbacks of three protocols (adjustment, AFC-yes/no, and AFC-left/right discrimination protocols) evaluating the estimation of the interaural time differences (ITDs) for correct lateralization perception. The protocols were compared with respect to reliability of the perceived ITD and just noticeable difference (JND) e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over recent decades, auralizations have become more prevalent in historic research and archaeological acoustics. With these techniques it is possible to explore the acoustic conditions of buildings which have been significantly modified over time, providing that the original geometry and the acoustic characteristics of their surfaces are known. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Opened in January 2015, the new Philharmonie de Paris concert hall (Philharmonie 1) follows a modern complex architectural form, far from traditional shoebox designs. To complement numerical simulations, a 1:10 scale model was commissioned in order to evaluate various elements of the design. The interconnected nature of the architectural design, wi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
September 2012 saw the opening of a new concert hall in Stavanger, Norway. The 1,500-seat Fartein Valen Hall has been critically acclaimed and is considered by musicians as well as critical listeners as one of the most successful recent concert halls. The acoustic design includes geometrically optimized surfaces for early reflection direction to al...
Article
This paper studies a new sensorial approach to improving communication between partners during collaborative tasks taking place in abstract and non-visual virtual reality environments. The sensorial approach was investigated in the context of the search and identification of targets in a simplified 2D environment. It consists in finding a spatial c...
Article
Virtual reality provides the possibility for interactive visits to historic buildings and sites. The majority of current virtual reconstructions have focused on creating realistic virtual environments, by concentrating on the visual component. However, by incorporating more authentic acoustical properties into visual models, a more realistic render...
Article
Full-text available
Reverberation in coupled volume concert halls can be modified by changing the coupling surface connecting the main hall and the control chamber(s). This study aims at investigating how trained listeners evaluate subtle changes in reverberation of coupled spaces for different musical excerpts. Previous research has focused on acoustical parameters a...
Article
Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF) measurements underlie the signal processing used in binaural auditory displays, but measurement techniques, equipment, and postprocessing vary substantially between laboratories. This variation can result in significant differences in measured spectral and timing data taken from the same subject for the same so...
Article
Full-text available
The room acoustic parameter “strength of sound G” is a measure of room amplification relative to a 10 m free-field reference. Due to this reference requirement, G is often considered excessively difficult to measure. Standards require reference measurements using reverberation or anechoic chambers. While possible for well-equipped laboratories, thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the absence of a well suited measure for quantifying binaural data variations, this study presents the use of a global perceptual distance metric which can describe both HRTF as well as listener similarities. The metric is derived based on subjective evaluations of binaural renderings of a sound moving along predefined trajectories in the horizo...