Brian Hanley

Brian Hanley
Leeds Beckett University | LEEDS MET · Carnegie School of Sport

PhD

About

140
Publications
77,211
Reads
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1,055
Citations
Citations since 2016
88 Research Items
951 Citations
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Introduction
As a researcher in track and field athletics, I study issues that are common to many of its disciplines such as biomechanics of technique, pacing in endurance events, athlete development, competition structure, sports technology and training methods. I am particularly interested in the science of distance running and race walking, with a particular focus on real-world data obtained in elite competition and the neuromuscular aspects of performance.
Additional affiliations
February 2000 - present
Leeds Beckett University
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Sport & Exercise Biomechanics
Education
October 2006 - July 2014
Leeds Beckett University
Field of study
  • Sports Biomechanics
January 2004 - December 2013
The Open University (UK)
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1996 - June 1999
Leeds Beckett University
Field of study
  • Sport & Exercise Science

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze footstrike patterns in elite marathon runners at the 2017 IAAF World Championships. Seventy-one men and 78 women were analyzed in their respective races. Athletes’ footstrike patterns were recorded (120 Hz) at approximately 8.5, 19, 29.5 and 40 km (“Laps 1 – 4”) and categorized as either rearfoot (RFS), midfoot...
Article
Full-text available
World-class marathon runners make initial contact with the rearfoot, midfoot or forefoot. This novel study analyzed kinematic similarities and differences between rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers within the men's and women's 2017 IAAF World Championship marathons across the last two laps. Twenty-eight men and 28 women, equally divided by footstri...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this novel study was to analyse performance changes across qualifying heats, semifinals and finals in world-class sprinters and hurdlers. Finalists' finishing positions, times and rankings at the Olympic Games and IAAF World Championships (2012-2019) were obtained. 78% of gold, 67% of silver and 38% of bronze medallists won their qualify...
Article
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The 800 m race challenges the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems, and athletes adopt a technique that allows for running efficiency as well as sprinting speeds. The aim of this novel study was to compare important kinematic variables between the two laps of the 2017 IAAF World Championships women's final. Video data (150 Hz) were collected of all...
Article
Full-text available
English Premier League soccer players run at multiple speeds throughout a game. The aim of this study was to assess how well the duty factor, a dimensionless ratio based on temporal variables, described running styles in professional soccer players. A total of 25 players ran on an instrumented treadmill at 12, 16, and 20 km/h. Spatiotemporal and gr...
Article
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Pacing behavior is typically described through graphical profiles and coefficient of variation (CV%) with respect to the mean speed of the race. Given that races during major championships are highly stochastic because of runners’ tactical behaviors, it may be valuable to use alternative methods to better describe and capture the occurrence of paci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine biomechanical differences between footstrike patterns in elite 10,000m racing. Video data of 53 men and 33 women were recorded in competition and used to compare spatiotemporal and joint kinematic variables between rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot strikers, and to find associations. There were no differences betwe...
Article
Full-text available
The pole vault is a highly technical event where the athletes must successfully convert horizontal velocity during the run-up to vertical velocity at takeoff. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of men's and women's world-class pole vaulting. Video data were collected of the best clearances by 14 men and 11 women at the 2018 IAAF Wo...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to compare joint kinematics and center of mass parameters throughout hurdle clearance between world-class men and women sprint hurdlers, who were competing in a World Championships final. This was the first study to present time-series kinematic data around hurdle clearance, and given the technical ability of the athletes analyzed,...
Chapter
The middle- and long-distance running events comprise the 800m, 1500m, 3000m steeplechase, 5000m, 10,000m and marathon. Although these events are described as race distances, it is useful for the physiologist to consider running duration, which will differ between athletes dependent on ability, age, and sex (March et al., 2011), highlighted in Figu...
Book
Full-text available
Running technique has been analyzed since antiquity, and yet the study of gait biomechanics is continually developing and unearthing new insights. This is undoubtedly linked to the great variety of skills required in the running and race walking events, despite their apparent simplicity: a fast but fair sprint start, safe and effective hurdle clear...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated sprint mechanical asymmetry in world‐class competitors and evaluate whether inter‐limb sex‐based differences in sprinting mechanics exist. The eight finalists in the men’s and women’s 100 m events at the 2017 IAAF World Championships were studied. Five high‐speed cameras (150 Hz) were used to capture two consecutive steps of the whole...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of muscle-tendon unit passive mechanical properties are often used to illustrate acute and chronic responses to a training stimulus. The purpose of this study was to quantify the inter-session repeatability of triceps surae passive stiffness measurements in athletic and non-athletic populations, with the view to discussing its usefulne...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the influence of running wide on bends regarding intermediate changes of position, dispersion of athletes, and speed relative to season best (SB) between medalists and non-medalists in men's and women's 800 m championship finals. Extra distance covered on bends was measured using official videos. The total dis...
Article
Racewalking is an unconventional form of competitive gait that elicits a unique loading profile on lower limb muscles and tendons. This study mapped the structural and mechanical properties of lower limbs in competitive racewalkers and made associations with World Athletics competition performance points. Fourteen international racewalkers (seven m...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the pacing profiles of Olympic and International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championship long-distance finalists, including the relationship with their recent best times. The times for each 1,000-m split were obtained for 394 men and women in 5,000-and 10,000-m finals at 5 championships. A...
Article
Full-text available
Casado, A, Hanley, B, Santos-Concejero, J, and Ruiz-Pérez, LM. World-class long-distance running performances are best predicted by volume of easy runs and deliberate practice of short-interval and tempo runs. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2525-2531, 2021-The aim of this novel study was to analyze the effect of deliberate practice (DP) and easy contin...
Article
Full-text available
The sprint hurdle events require athletes to cross ten hurdles between the start and finish line. The height of the hurdles, and the distances between them, differ for men and women, possibly resulting in technical differences. The aim of this study was to provide a kinematic comparison of in-competition hurdle technique for world-class men and wom...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze the link between the upper and lower body during racewalking. Fifteen male and 16 female racewalkers were recorded in a laboratory as they racewalked at speeds equivalent to their 20-km personal records [men: 1:23:12 (±2:45); women: 1:34:18 (±5:15)]; a single representative trial was chosen from each athlete for...
Presentation
Full-text available
Preparing for successful running performances in major championships, where an athlete’s primary aim is to achieve a high finishing position, can differ greatly from one-off races like the Diamond League where faster running times are emphasised. In this presentation, it was explained how, in planning for championship racing, it is beneficial to co...
Article
The aim was to investigate the kinematic factors associated with successful performance in the initial acceleration phase of a sprint in the best male athletes in the World at the 2018 World Indoor Athletics Championships. High speed video (150 Hz) was captured for eight sprinters in the men’s 60 m final. Spatio-temporal and joint kinematic variabl...
Article
Whole body digitizing used to calculate whole body center of mass (CM) variables from competitions is particularly time-consuming, and “shortcut” methods that substitute for it could expediate the calculation of spatiotemporal variables. The aim of this study was to measure the appropriateness of using the head as a proxy for the CM when calculatin...
Article
Full-text available
The current study analysed the pacing behaviour of athletes competing in the middle-long track event finals of the IAAF Under 18 and Under 20 World Championships between 2015 and 2018. Official finishing times, 1000-m split times and positioning data of 116 female and 153 male athletes, competing in the middle-long distance running (3000m, 5000m an...
Article
Midfoot- (MFS) and forefoot-striking (FFS) runners usually switch to rearfoot-striking (RFS) during marathons. However, world-class runners might resist modifications during shorter races. The purpose of this study was to analyse footstrike patterns, ground contact times and running speeds in a World Championship men’s 10,000 m final. Footstrike pa...
Chapter
Full-text available
A knowledge of the biomechanics of running is invaluable when describing an athlete’s technique, explaining how they speed up or slow down, and understanding the external and internal forces that cause their movements. As the outward expression of movement, an athlete’s biomechanics translates their underlying physiological, nutritional and psychol...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews the theory that explains how pacing is achieved, describes observations of pacing behaviour that have been published, and ends with some practical recommendations for coaches and runners aiming to improve their pacing ability. Although various models have been proposed to explain the regulation of pace during exercise, a common...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of energetic resources in world-class distance running is a key aspect of performance, with athletes relying on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to greater extents during different parts of the race. The purpose of this study is to model 10,000 m championship performances to enable a deeper understanding of the factors affecting ru...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Measurements of passive stiffness (PS) are often used to quantify the passive resistance of a muscle-tendon unit (MTU) to stretching, which is interesting in populations who undergo chronic loading and/or excessive stretching through exercise (Moltubakk et al., 2018). This metric may also be used to monitor the ‘neuromuscular conditi...
Article
Purpose: To determine different relationships between, and predictive ability of, performance variables at intermediate distances with finishing time in elite male 10,000-m runners. Methods: Official electronic finishing and 100-m split times of the men's 10,000-m finals at the 2008 and 2016 Olympic Games and IAAF World Championships in 2013 and...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyse changes in gait variability and symmetry with increasing speed in race walkers. Eighteen international athletes race walked on an instrumented treadmill at speeds of 11, 12, 13 and 14 km·h −1 in a randomised order for 3 min each. Spatiotemporal and ground reaction force data were recorded for 30 s at each speed....
Article
Full-text available
We mapped structural and functional characteristics of muscle‐tendon units in a population exposed to very long‐term routine overloading. Twenty‐eight military academy cadets (age: 21.00 ± 1.1 yrs; height: 176.1 ± 4.8 cm; mass: 73.8 ± 7.0 kg) exposed for over 24 months to repetitive overloading were profiled via ultrasonography with a senior subgro...
Article
Full-text available
The pacing behaviors used by elite athletes differ among individual sports, necessitating the study of sport-specific pacing profiles. Additionally, pacing behaviors adopted by elite runners differ depending on race distance. An “all-out” strategy, characterized by initial rapid acceleration and reduction in speed in the later stages, is observed d...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of barriers in the steeplechase increases energy cost and makes successful pacing more difficult. This was the first study to analyze pacing profiles of successful (qualifiers for the final/Top 8 finalists) and unsuccessful (non-qualifiers/non-Top 8 finalists) Olympic steeplechasers across heats and finals, and to analyze differences b...
Article
The development of performance adaptations resulting from an uphill-downhill training program and monitoring of the decline of adaptations during detraining.
Article
Development and maintenance of sprint training adaptations: an uphill-downhill study. J Strength Cond Res 36(1): 90–98, 2022-We examined the development of performance adaptations resulting from an uphill-downhill training program and monitored the decline of adaptations during detraining. Twenty-eight men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sprint tr...
Article
The aim of this novel study was to analyse key kinematic variables during the water jump clearance amongst world-class 3,000 m steeplechasers. Thirteen men and 13 women were recorded as they negotiated the last water jump in the 2017 IAAF World Championship finals. Video footage (100 Hz) was recorded using three high-definition camcorders to derive...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. To compare season’s best times preceding major championships (SBprior) and times achieved in major championship flat track races. Material and methods. 2320 men’s and 2312 women’s finishing times over 100 m, 400 m, 800 m, 1500 m and 5000 m at the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships and Olympic G...
Article
Racewalking is an Olympic event where athletes are not permitted a visible loss of contact, with the result that competitors try to minimize flight times. The accuracy of measurements taken during testing is dependent on valid and reliable systems to determine temporal values. The aim of the study was to compare different methodologies used to meas...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this novel research was to compare the amount of systematic training and the different training activities undertaken by elite-standard long-distance runners during their first seven years of systematic training. Participants were divided into three performance groups: world-class Kenyans (N = 19), European-standard Spanish athletes (N =...
Presentation
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A summary of research on elite race walkers conducted at Leeds Beckett University from 2006 to 2019.
Article
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The effect of the inclusion of a high hurdle 13.72 m after the start line on elite sprint start and initial acceleration technique has yet to be investigated or understood. This highly novel study addresses that lack of information in an exceptional manner, through detailed biomechanical analysis of the world's best sprint and hurdle athletes, with...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to establish whether the lane and heat draw influenced placings and progression in world-class 800-m track running. Finishing positions and times of 1,086 performances at the Olympic Games and IAAF World Championships between 1999 and 2017 were obtained. Mean finishing and season's best times (SB), as well as placings and...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This was the first study to analyze high-resolution pacing data from multiple global championships, allowing for deeper and rigorous analysis of pacing and tactical profiles in elite-standard middle-distance racing. The aim of this study was to analyze successful and unsuccessful middle-distance pacing profiles and variability across qual...
Article
Full-text available
IAAF Rule 230.2 states that racewalkers must have no visible (to the human eye) loss of contact with the ground and that their advancing leg must be straightened from first contact with the ground until the "vertical upright position." The aims of this study were first to analyze racewalking judges' accuracy in assessing technique and, second, to m...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine whether World Championship and Olympic medallist endurance athletes pace similarly to their race opponents, where and when critical differences in intra-race pacing occur, and the tactical strategies employed to optimally manage energy resources. We analyzed pacing and tactics across the 800, 1,500, 5,000, 1...
Presentation
Full-text available
Race walking is an Olympic event dictated by a rule that states that no visible loss of contact with the ground should occur and that the leg must be straightened from first contact with the ground until the ‘vertical upright position’ (IAAF Rule 230.2). The measurement of contact and flight times during race walking is therefore of great interest...
Article
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PURPOSE:: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between muscle activation patterns on oxygen cost of transport in elite race walkers over the entire gait waveform. METHODS:: Twenty-one Olympic race walkers performed overground walking trials at 14 km∙h-1 where muscle activity of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, rectus femoris,...
Research
Full-text available
This report provides a detailed analysis of the men's pole vault final, including key parameters during the run up and take-off. Data on the pole angle, horizontal velocity at pole plant and take-off, and last three step lengths are included. The full report is available from the IAAF website: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Research
Full-text available
This report provides a detailed analysis of the women's pole vault final, including key parameters during the run up and take-off. Data on the pole angle, horizontal velocity at pole plant and take-off, and last three step lengths are included. The full report is available from the IAAF website: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Article
Full-text available
Much research has explored the physiological, energetic, environmental, and psychological factors that influence pacing in endurance events. Although this research has generally neglected the role of psychological variation across individuals, recent studies have hinted at its importance. Here we conducted an online survey of over 1,300 marathon ru...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation was given at the 8th European Pole Vault and High Jump Symposium held at the German Sport University in Cologne, Germany (9th-11th November 2018).
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze changes in gait variability and symmetry in distance runners. Fourteen competitive athletes ran on an instrumented treadmill for 10,000 m at speeds equivalent to 103% of their season's best time. Spatiotemporal and ground reaction force data were recorded at 1500, 3000, 5000, 7500 and 9500 m. Gait variability an...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyse qualification patterns in middle distance running and identify whether athletes adopt theoretically optimal tactics, or whether the will to win overrides these. The performances of 295 men and 258 women finalists in the Olympic and IAAF World Championship 800 m and 1500 m events from 1999 to 2017 were analysed a...
Research
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This biomechanical report focusses on the kinematics of the top eight finishers in the men's marathon. The full report can be downloaded via the IAAF website at: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Research
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This report includes measurements of key kinematic variables in women's marathon running, including step length, step rate and joint angles of the lower and upper limbs. The report is available for download from: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Research
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This biomechanical and time analysis report highlights the key kinematic and pacing data from the men's 10,000 m final. The full report is available from the IAAF website: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Research
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This time analysis of the women’s 1,500 m event includes the splits for each 100 m segment across heats, semi-finals and finals and is an invaluable tool for those who wish to understand the pacing patterns of elite middle distance runners. The full report is available from the IAAF website: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Research
Full-text available
This biomechanical report focussed on the athletes as they crossed the final water jump. The analysis was broken down into three phases: the approach (including take-off characteristics), the clearance of the barrier, and the landing phase. The full report is available from the IAAF website: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/research
Research
Full-text available
This biomechanical report comprises an analysis of the final water jump, which proved to be crucial to the final race outcome. This analysis of the top eight finishers focuses on three aspects of the water jump technique: the approach, the clearance, and the landing. The full report is available from the IAAF website: https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaa...