Brian R Flay

Brian R Flay
Oregon State University | OSU · School of Social and Behavioural Sciences

D.Phil.

About

365
Publications
174,035
Reads
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26,576
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
Boise State University
Position
  • Professor
September 2005 - September 2017
Oregon State University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2000 - August 2005
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Stepped down from Director of Research Institute to focus on my own research.
Education
March 1976 - July 1978
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Evaluation Research and Social Psychology
February 1973 - February 1976
The University of Waikato
Field of study
  • Social Psychology

Publications

Publications (365)
Article
Full-text available
The Social-Emotional and Character Development Scale (SECDS) is intended as a measure of social-emotional skills and character for elementary and middle school-age children. Its psychometric properties were previously supported using data collected over five waves for a cohort of students followed from grades three to five in 14 urban elementary sc...
Article
The purpose of this article is to present a study that can serve as a model of program evaluation for school personnel that can be used to improve services and demonstrate program efficacy to key stakeholders. The study presented in this article evaluated the impact of a brief, bystander bullying program (“stealing the show,” “turning it over,” “ac...
Article
Despite the escalation of alcohol use through high school, the majority of research on school‐based alcohol interventions has been conducted with junior high students or first and second‐year high school students. Preliminary research indicates a brief, web‐based personalized feedback intervention developed for college students (eCHECKUP TO GO) may...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to examine sex as a moderator of the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (eCHECKUP TO GO) on decreasing cognitive risk factors for alcohol use, increasing protective behavioral strategies, and reducing alcohol use among high school seniors. Method: Parti...
Article
Prior research has yet to elucidate how constellations of protective factors in childhood and prevention efforts simultaneously may influence youth involvement in problem behaviors across different points in development. The current study examines how latent classes of social and emotional learning (SEL) skills, parent-child relationships, and peer...
Article
Sensation seeking has been identified as a significant risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the process by which sensation seeking impacts heavy alcohol use. The current study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships among sensation seeking, age of drinking initiation, and heavy alcohol...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Experiencing relational victimization (e.g., peer exclusion, untrue rumors) during adolescence can have negative social-emotional consequences, including increased antisocial behavior and substance use. The negative impact of relational victimization may be lessened by spending time with supportive, prosocial peers. Methods: This s...
Article
Readability studies routinely report that resources with physical activity-related content exceed the eighth-grade reading level (RL), the maximum recommended for health education resources. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to determine the extent that findings in the literature represented true differences and whether production sources d...
Presentation
Full-text available
Citation to freely available copy of conference proceedings: Thomas, J. D., Flay, B. R., & Cardinal, B. J. (2018). Readability of publicly available physical activity information: An opportunity for kinesiology to improve knowledge translation. Proceedings of the Oregon Academy of Science, 77(2nd Rev.), 31. http://www.oregonacademyscience.org/OAS20...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of ReviewEvidence suggests prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) exposure effects on human neurodevelopment, but this is controversial due to conflicting research results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available peer-reviewed data of prenatal PBDE exposure effects on cognitive function, motor funct...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Evidence of the positive effects of school physical activity (PA) interventions, including classroom-based PA (CBPA), is rapidly growing. However, few studies examine how variations in scheduled PA opportunities and teacher-implemented CBPA affect students' PA outcomes. Methods: Teachers at five elementary schools attended training o...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to examine the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences among high school seniors. Method: Participants (n = 221) were high school seniors randomized by class period to either a brief, web-b...
Article
Full-text available
Preventing the illicit use of prescription stimulants, a particularly high-risk form of substance use, requires approaches that utilize theory-guided research. We examined this behavior within the context of a random sample of 554 undergraduate students attending a university in northern California. Approximately 17% of students self-reported engag...
Article
Few studies have examined in detail how specific behaviors of close friends put adolescents at risk for specific types of substance use. Using a prospective, longitudinal design, we examined how well the substance use of 248 young urban adolescents was predicted by perceptions of their 3 closest friends’ problematic behaviors: (1) using substances,...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated effects of Positive Action (PA), a school-based social-emotional and character development program, on self-esteem levels and processes among minority, low-income, urban youth. A matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 Chicago Public Schools with outcomes assessed longitudinally for a cohort of you...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We report results from the first randomized trial of the Positive Action (PA) intensive family program. Eighteen families (parents and teens) were randomly assigned to receive the program, consisting of 7 weekly meetings, with parents and teens attending separate sessions for the first half of each session (90 minutes) and then attendin...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual assault is a major public health issue. Bystander engagement programs are becoming widely used to combat sexual assault on college campuses. The purpose of this study was to examine students’ intervention norms, intentions, opportunities, and behaviors as bystanders to sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 779) completed the Sexual Ass...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixt...
Article
Full-text available
We describe challenges in the 6-year longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) of Positive Action (PA), a social–emotional and character development (SECD) program, conducted in 14 low-income, urban Chicago Public Schools. Challenges pertained to logistics of study planning (school recruitment, retention of schools during the trial, c...
Article
Background: This study investigates the association of activity space-based exposure to neighborhood disadvantage with momentary perceived stress and safety, and the moderation of substance use on those associations, among a sample of 139 urban, primarily African American, adolescents. Method: Geospatial technologies are integrated with Ecologic...
Article
Full-text available
Limited research is available that explains complex contextual and interactive effects of microsystems such as family relationships, peer networks, and place based influences have on urban adolescent substance use. We contend that research into these complex processes is improved by integrating psychological, social, and geographic data to better u...
Article
Youths’ perceptions of their neighborhood are shaped by continued exposure to neighborhood influences. African-American boys in poor, urban contexts are more directly affected by their neighborhoods and are more likely to develop related difficulties such as victimization experiences, and exposure to violence. This study examines African-American b...
Article
African American boys are more likely than same-aged counterparts to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods characterized by exposure to physical violence, lower socioeconomic status, poor parent education, and acts of violence. The current study used structural equation modeling to test the associations between witnessing violence, peer and parent ex...
Article
Full-text available
There is considerable research that suggests that school-based social-emotional programs can foster improved mental health and reduce problem behaviors for participating youth; in contrast, much less is known about the impact of these programs on physical health, even though some of these programs also include at least limited direct attention to p...
Article
Sexual assault is a major concern on the U.S. college campus. Engaging students as pro-social bystanders has become more common as a potentially effective mechanism for reducing the incidence of sexual assault and mitigating the harm of assaults that have already occurred. Understanding the influences of pro-social bystander behavior is imperative...
Article
Full-text available
Major advances in population health will not occur unless we translate existing knowledge into effective multicomponent interventions, implement and maintain these in communities, and develop rigorous translational research and evaluation methods to ensure continual improvement and sustainability. We discuss challenges and offer approaches to evalu...
Article
Full-text available
The recent shift in sexual assault prevention programming aims to engage college students as prosocial bystanders. Bystanders to sexual assault have the opportunity to make a positive impact on the incidence of sexual assault on the college campus, in addition to reducing the harm of one that has already occurred. Given the spectrum of sexual assau...
Article
We comment on the 2015 Society for Prevention Research standards of evidence document, summarizing major changes from the previous 2005 Standards, and point to ways in which the Standards could be further improved. We endorse important new standards, such as those on testing the causal theory and mechanisms of the intervention, improved trial repor...
Article
Full-text available
The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess prevalenc...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated effects of Positive Action, a school-based social-emotional and character development intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school level. A multiple...
Article
Organizational climate has been proposed as a factor that might influence a school's readiness to successfully implement school-wide prevention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of teachers' perceptions of three dimensions of school organizational climate on the dosage and quality of teacher implementation of Positive Ac...
Article
Objective: To investigate whether an increase in daily tooth brushing frequency in children was predicted by either a) having a strong intention to brush twice a day or b) their parents receiving information about their new caries experience. Basic research design: Secondary data analyses were conducted on two waves of data from the Aban Aya You...
Article
Objective To test a theory-driven model of health behavior to predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) among college students. Participants A probability sample of 554 students from one university located in California (response rate = 90.52%). Methods Students completed a paper-based survey developed with guidance from the Theor...
Article
Full-text available
There is a definite need for effective intervention programmes that address the social–emotional, character and healthy development of preschool children. Strong social-emotional skills are necessary for successful transitions to formal schooling and for healthy developmental trajectories. The Positive Action (PA) programme has a long history of ef...
Article
Full-text available
School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. St...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the effects of Positive Action (PA), a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program, on the emotional health of predominately low-income and ethnic minority urban youth. The study was a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 14 Chicago public schools. Outcomes were assessed over a 6-year perio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-i...
Conference Paper
Introduction: The Positive Action (PA) program is a comprehensive, school-based, social-emotional and character development program with demonstrated effects on behavioral and mental health outcomes. In the Hawaii randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PA, the program’s impact on substance use, violence, and sexual activity were mediated by positive...
Article
Background: The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) has emerged as a high-risk behavior of the 21st century college student. As the study of IUPS is relatively new, we aimed to understand (1) characteristics of IUPS (i.e., initiation, administration routes, drug sources, motives, experiences), and (2) theory-guided intrapersonal, interpe...
Article
This article presents an adapted version of an established model for assessing community readiness along with an illustrative case example from the evaluation of Positive Action, a school-based social and character development intervention, implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial in Chicago Public Schools from 2004 through 2010. Commun...
Article
Full-text available
A theory-guided instrument for examining prescription stimulant misuse in the college population was developed and its psychometric properties were evaluated from 2011 to 2012 at one Pacific Northwest (United States) university. Study methods included instrument development, assessment by five health and measurement professionals, group interviews...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Examine the effects of a comprehensive, school-wide social-emotional and character development program using a positive youth development perspective. Specifically, we examined a mediation mechanism whereby positive academic-related behaviors mediated the intervention effects on substance use, violence, and sexual activity. Design: Matc...
Article
Nonprescription stimulant use is a high-risk behavior prevalent in the college population. To date, research on this substance use behavior lacks a comprehensive theoretical lens as well as geographical diversity. Guided by the Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI), multilevel (i.e., students within schools) modeling was used to analyze survey data fro...
Article
Full-text available
The recent Institute of Medicine report on prevention (NationalResearch Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009) noted the substantial interrelationship among mental, emotional,and behavioral disorders and pointed out that, to a great extent, these problems stem from a set of common conditions. However, despite the evidence, current research and prac...
Article
Full-text available
Mitigating and preventing substance use among adolescents requires approaches that address the multitude of factors that influence this behavior. Such approaches must be tested, not only for evidence of empirical effectiveness, but also to determine the mechanisms by which they are successful. The aims of the present study were twofold: 1) To deter...
Article
Most youth cessation treatment research consists of efficacy studies in which treatments are evaluated under optimal conditions of delivery. Less is known about the effectiveness of youth cessation treatments delivered in real-world, community based settings. A national sample of 41 community-based youth cessation programs participated in a longitu...
Article
Full-text available
Person mobility is an inescapable fact of life for most cluster-randomized (e.g., schools, hospitals, clinic, cities, state) cohort prevention trials. Mobility rates are an important substantive consideration in estimating the effects of an intervention. In cluster-randomized trials, mobility rates are often correlated with ethnicity, poverty and o...
Article
Full-text available
The recent Institute of Medicine report on prevention (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009) noted the substantial interrelationship among mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and pointed out that, to a great extent, these problems stem from a set of common conditions. However, despite the evidence, current research and pr...
Article
School safety and quality affect student learning and success. This study examined the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-wide social-emotional and character education program, Positive Action, on teacher, parent, and student perceptions of school safety and quality utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The Posi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social psychology plays an important role in explicating mechanisms of legal effect. Social psychological theories offer theoretical constructs that help explain the web of psychological and social causes and mediators of intentions and behaviors that legal processes seek to modify. Social psychology pertains primarily to the “Changes in Behavior”...
Chapter
Social psychology has played a central role in both describing and predicting health behaviors, and those behaviors are related to a range of important health outcomes (Flay, Snyder, & Petraitis, 2009; Glass & McAtee, 2006; Jolls, Sunstein, & Thaler, 1998; Petraitis, Flay, & Miller, 1995). Public health increasingly has acknowledged the important e...
Conference Paper
A large portion of public health is based on behavioral and sociological theory, ranging from the individual to interpersonal to population level perspectives. These theories contribute to public health law research by offering causal mechanisms for how the law does and can potentially influence health behaviors. The presentation will review the di...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of a school-based social-emotional and character development program, Positive Action, on the developmental trajectory of social-emotional and character-related behaviors was evaluated using data from three school-based randomized trials in elementary schools. Results come from 1) 4 years of data from students in 20 Hawai'i schools, 2)...
Article
Full-text available
Replication research is essential for the advancement of any scientific field. In this paper, we argue that prevention science will be better positioned to help improve public health if (a) more replications are conducted; (b) those replications are systematic, thoughtful, and conducted with full knowledge of the trials that have preceded them; and...
Article
Full-text available
Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Res...