Brian J. Butterworth

Brian J. Butterworth
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)

PhD Atmospheric Science

About

30
Publications
4,236
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193
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (30)
Article
Full-text available
The Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-balance Study Enabled by a High-density Extensive Array of Detectors 2019 (CHEESEHEAD19) is an ongoing National Science Foundation project based on an intensive field campaign that occurred from June-October 2019. The purpose of the study is to examine how the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) responds...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic marine environment plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, there remain large uncertainties in how sea ice affects air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), partially due to disagreement between the two main methods (enclosure and eddy covariance) for measuring CO2 flux (FCO2). The enclosure method has appeared to prod...
Article
Full-text available
Direct carbon dioxide flux measurements using eddy covariance from an icebreaker in the high-latitude Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone are reported. Fluxes were combined with the measured water-air carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (ΔpCO2) to compute the air-sea gas transfer velocity (k, normalized to Schmidt number 660). The...
Article
Full-text available
A ruggedized closed-path eddy covariance (EC) system was designed for unattended direct measurements of air-sea momentum, heat, and CO2 flux, and was deployed on the Research Vessel Icebreaker (RV/IB) Nathaniel B. Palmer (NBP), an Antarctic research and supply vessel. The system operated for nine cruises during 18 months from January 2013 to June 2...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive summary • Target audience: AmeriFlux community, AmeriFlux Science Steering Committee & Department of Energy (DOE) program managers [ARM/ASR (atmosphere), TES (surface), and SBR (subsurface)] • Problem statement: The atmospheric boundary layer mediates the exchange of energy and matter between the land surface and the free troposphere in...
Chapter
Processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) occur at varying scales in both time and space. This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of scale and explains in detail the two broad areas within boundary layer meteorology where this becomes important: “scale-invariance” and “scale-dependency.” “Scale-invariance” involves coming up with w...
Preprint
Warming of the Arctic due to climate change means the Arctic Ocean is now ice-free for longer as sea ice melts earlier and refreezes later. It remains unclear how the extended ice-free period will impact carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes due to scarcity of surface ocean CO2 measurements. Baseline measurements are urgently needed to understand how air−sea...
Article
Full-text available
Structurally complex forests optimize resources to assimilate carbon more effectively, leading to higher productivity. Information obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)‐derived canopy structural complexity (CSC) metrics across spatial scales serves as a powerful indicator of ecosystem‐scale functions such as gross primary productivity (...
Article
Full-text available
The air-sea gas transfer velocity (K660) is typically assessed as a function of the 10-m neutral wind speed (U10n), but there remains substantial uncertainty in this relationship. Here K660 of CO2 derived with the eddy covariance (EC) technique from eight datasets (11 research cruises) are reevaluated with consistent consideration of solubility and...
Preprint
The Earth's surface is heterogeneous at multiple scales owing to spatial variability in various properties. The atmospheric responses to these heterogeneities through fluxes of energy, water, carbon and other scalars are scale-dependent and non-linear. Although these exchanges can be measured using the eddy covariance technique, widely used tower-b...
Article
The marginal sea ice zone has been identified as a source of different climate-active gases to the atmosphere due to its unique biogeochemistry. However, it remains highly undersampled, and the impact of summertime changes in sea ice concentration on the distributions of these gases is poorly understood. To address this, we present measurements of...
Article
Sparse in situ measurements and poor understanding of the impact of sea ice on air-sea gas exchange introduce large uncertainties to models of polar oceanic carbon uptake. The eddy covariance technique can be used to produce insightful air-sea gas exchange datasets in the presence of sea ice, but results differ between studies. We present a critica...
Article
Full-text available
The observing system design of multidisciplinary field measurements involves a variety of considerations on logistics, safety, and science objectives. Typically, this is done based on investigator intuition and designs of prior field measurements. However, there is potential for considerable increases in efficiency, safety, and scientific success b...
Preprint
Full-text available
The marginal sea ice zone has been identified as a source of different climate active gases to the atmosphere due to its unique biogeochemistry. However, it remains highly undersampled and the impact of changes in sea ice concentration on the distributions of these gases is poorly understood. To address this, we present measurements of dissolved me...
Article
Full-text available
Surface‐atmosphere fluxes and their drivers vary across space and time. A growing area of interest is in downscaling, localizing, and/or resolving sub‐grid scale energy, water, and carbon fluxes and drivers. Existing downscaling methods require inputs of land surface properties at relatively high spatial (e.g., sub‐kilometer) and temporal (e.g., ho...
Article
The atmospheric boundary layer mediates the exchange of energy, matter, and momentum between the land surface and the free troposphere, integrating a range of physical, chemical, and biological processes and is defined as the lowest layer of the atmosphere (ranging from a few meters to 3 km). In this review, we investigate how continuous, automated...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating sea–air CO2 fluxes in coastal seas remains a source of uncertainty in global carbon budgets because processes like primary production, upwelling, water mixing, and freshwater inputs produce high spatial and temporal variability of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). As a result, improving our pCO2 baseline observations in these regions is impor...
Preprint
Full-text available
The observing system design of multi-disciplinary field measurements involves a variety of considerations on logistics, safety, and science objectives. Typically, this is done based on investigator intuition and designs of prior field measurements. However, there is potential for considerable increase in efficiency, safety, and scientific success b...
Article
Full-text available
Studying carbon dioxide in the ocean helps to understand how the ocean will be impacted by climate change and respond to increasing fossil fuel emissions. The marine carbonate system is not well characterized in the Arctic, where challenging logistics and extreme conditions limit observations of atmospheric CO2 flux and ocean acidification. Here, w...
Article
Papers are invited for a new cross-journal special collection on insights in scaling land-atmosphere interactions from field experiments, data analyses, and modeling.
Preprint
Full-text available
The observing system design of multi-disciplinary field measurements involves a variety of considerations on logistics, safety, and science objectives. Typically, this is done based on investigator intuition and designs of prior field measurements. However, there is potential for considerable increase in efficiency, safety, and scientific success b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Surface-atmosphere interactions are traditionally in the vanguard of inter-disciplinary research, with efforts ranging from empirical studies over theoretical generalizations to computational simulations. More recently, data-intensive information discovery promises to further expand our insight into momentum, energy, water, and trace gas cycling. H...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic marine environment plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, there remain large uncertainties in how sea ice affects air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), partially due to disagreement between the two main methods (enclosure and eddy covariance) for measuring CO2 flux (FCO2). The enclosure method has appeared to prod...
Article
Thermally-driven upslope winds are one of the many different wind patterns unique to mountainous terrain. While the general mechanics of these winds have been widely studied, there is a lack of information on how transitions in land cover influence these wind systems. Questions also remain about how these wind systems affect the biological function...
Article
Full-text available
A host-specific Asian weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, was approved in 2004 for release in North America for control of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (formerly Polygonum perfoliatum L.), an invasive annual vine from Asia. The impact of R. latipes feeding on P. perfoliata was studied in field cages over a 2-year per...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
Archived project
Project
Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-balance Study Enabled by a High-density Extensive Array of Detectors The living biosphere interacts with atmospheric processes at a multitude of scales. Understanding these processes requires integration of multiple observations for comparison to theories embedded in atmospheric models. But, all observations mismatch the scale of all models. Therefore, spatial and temporal scaling of surface fluxes is fundamental to how we evaluate theories on what happens within the sub-grid of atmospheric models and how those feed back onto larger scale dynamics. The Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-balance Study Enabled by a High-density Extensive Array of Detectors (CHEESEHEAD) is an intensive field-campaign designed specifically to address long-standing puzzles regarding the role of atmospheric boundary-layer responses to scales of spatial heterogeneity in surface-atmosphere heat and water exchanges. The high-density observing network is coupled to LES and machine-learning scaling-experiments to better understand sub-mesoscale responses and improve numerical weather and climate prediction formulations of sub-grid processes. This project will advance spatiotemporal scaling methods for heterogeneous land surface properties and fluxes and theories on the scales at which the lower atmosphere responds to surface heterogeneity. CHEESEHEAD aims to provide a level of observation density and instrumentation reliability never previously achieved to test and develop hypotheses on spatial heterogeneity and atmosphere feedbacks. The proposed experiment generates knowledge that advances the science of surface flux measurement and modeling, relevant to many scientific applications such as numerical weather prediction, climate change, energy resources, and computational fluid dynamics. We intend to train next generation land- atmosphere graduate and undergraduate students. Field support outreach and teacher training is included via middle, high school, and undergraduate student involvement at nearby schools and colleges in coordination with the GLOBE program, Northland College, and local school districts. The database of observations and models will be made immediately available to the community and public for general use for further scientific advancement.