Brett P Lyons

Brett P Lyons
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | CEFAS · Weymouth Laboratory

About

196
Publications
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4,235
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Publications

Publications (196)
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization considers antimicrobial resistance as one of the most pressing global issues which poses a fundamental threat to human health, development, and security. Due to demographic and environmental factors, the marine environment of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region may be particularly susceptible to the threat of ant...
Preprint
Full-text available
The World Health Organization considers antimicrobial resistance as one of the most pressing global issues which poses a fundamental threat to human health, development, and security. Due to demographic and environmental factors, the marine environment of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region may be particularly susceptible to the threat of ant...
Article
Full-text available
Nine metals including Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed from sediment samples collected from 29 stations since 2007 from Bahraini waters. Within this study, it was investigated whether concentrations of these determinants are at concentrations above internationally established Assessment Criteria (AC). The majority of sites were c...
Article
Full-text available
Intricate links between aquatic animals and their environment expose them to chemical and pathogenic hazards, which can disrupt seafood supply. Here we outline a risk schema for assessing potential impacts of chemical and microbial hazards on discrete subsectors of aquaculture—and control measures that may protect supply. As national governments de...
Article
Marine ecosystems across the world's largest ocean – the Pacific Ocean – are being increasingly affected by stressors such as pollution, overfishing, ocean acidification, coastal development and warming events coupled with rising sea levels and increasing frequency of extreme weather. These anthropogenic-driven stressors, which operate cumulatively...
Article
Full-text available
Water Quality issues in many Pacific countries are rising, with the increase in coastal populations and associated urban runoff but management requires contamination issues in the aquatic environment to be identified and prioritised. In Vanuatu and Solomon Islands there are few laboratories and resources to assess for the presence or impact of comp...
Article
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The tropical waters of the Northern Arabian Gulf have a long history of maritime resource richness. High levels of biodiversity result from the complex matrix of coastal habitats, coral reefs and sea grass beds that characterise the region. Insight into the ongoing health of such habitats and the broader Kuwait maritime environment can be gauged by...
Article
Full-text available
Microplastic (MP) pollution of the marine environment is now a growing global concern posing a threat to a variety of species through the ingestion and transfer within food webs. This is considered a potential toxicological threat to marine species due to the chemical additives used to make many plastic products, or the persistent organic pollutant...
Article
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A baseline survey of sediment contamination was undertaken at 14 locations around the coastline of Bahrain in May 2017, followed by a focused survey of 20 sites, in November 2019. Samples were assessed for industrial pollutants, including metals, PAHs and a suite of organohalogen compounds. The data generated indicated that levels of chemical conta...
Conference Paper
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The NPRP9-394-1-090 project “Pearl Oyster: from national icon to guardian of Qatar's marine environment” had as main aim to develop and apply an integrated suite of chemical and biological methods as early warning tools to assess the “health” of Qatar’s marine environment. The central theme consisted in an investigative monitoring program around th...
Article
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Nearshore deterioration of water quality in Pacifc coastal waters is a growing problem, associated with increasing urban and industrial sewage discharges, and agricultural runoff. Published water quality studies in the Pacifc region are limited in both number and scope, making it difcult to resolve the extent of the issue or quantify the variability...
Technical Report
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New global standards on sulphur content in marine fuels have led to an increasing number of ships installing exhaust gas cleaning systems (EGCS), also known as scrubbers, to reduce their emissions of sulphur oxides to the atmosphere. Ships equipped with a scrubber can continue to use heavy fuel oil, and the process results in discharges of large vo...
Article
Microplastics (MP), the debris that collectively refers to plastic fragments and particles of <5 mm in size within marine environments, has been the subject of interest within the past decade. Evidence of its occurrence and abundance, has been recorded in this communication after examining gastrointestinal specimens of eight commercially available...
Article
The pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata is an iconic species in Qatar, representing an integral part of the nation's cultural heritage and one of the main economic foundations upon which the nation developed. During the early part of the 20th century, nearly half the Qatar population was involved in the pearl oyster industry. However, the fishe...
Article
The Arabian Gulf is a shallow sea naturally exposed to extreme conditions of temperature and salinity due to its location, semi-enclosed nature, bathymetry and restricted circulation. Compared to open marine systems, the added stress imposed by pollutants is likely to have additional adverse consequences. Maintaining good marine environmental quali...
Article
The impact of marine litter, particularly plastic waste, is widely acknowledged as a growing global concern. Marine litter is an understudied issue in the Regional Organisation for Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) Sea Area where rapid economic growth has already placed considerable stress on infrastructure and coastal ecosystems. This p...
Article
This paper presents an approach for preparing a comprehensive national marine ecosystem assessment and its application to the marine and coastal areas of the State of Kuwait. The approach is based on a set of principles to enable diverse data sources, of differing data quality and salience, to be combined into a single coordinated national assessme...
Chapter
Comet assay is a quick and versatile technique for assessing DNA damage in individual cells. It allows for the detection of DNA single- and double-strand breaks, as well as the presence of alkali labile sites and cross-links. Here we describe protocols for the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) in its alkaline (pH > 13), mild alkaline (p...
Article
Full-text available
This assessment of environmental drivers and phytoplankton community in Kuwait (Arabian Gulf) describes changes in environmental conditions linked to the rapid urbanization over recent decades. To describe these changes, we have analyzed a long-term water quality dataset (1984–2017) and explored potential changes in a sub-set of phytoplankton commu...
Article
Environmental conditions and xenobiotic exposure can be sources of stress to living organisms. Biological markers are measurable indicator of changes which may happen at any biological level and which can be considered an early warning signal of some biological or environmental state or condition. A structured field study was undertaken to investig...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical pollution of the marine environment from anthropogenic sources is a global concern due to the potential for long term effects on the ecosystem. Chemical monitoring schemes can detect harmful substances in water, sediment or biota. However, the presence of specific determinants gives no information on how individual species or the ecosystem...
Article
It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic diversity and abundance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-clinical settings has been underestimated and that the environment plays an integral role in enabling the development of AMR. Due to specific demographic and environmental factors the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region may be parti...
Article
Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transp...
Article
Marine litter presents a global problem, with increasing quantities documented in recent decades. The distribution and abundance of marine litter on the seafloor off the United Kingdom's (UK) coasts were quan- tified during 39 independent scientific surveys conducted between 1992 and 2017. Widespread distribution of litter items, especially plastic...
Book
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Spillages of oil and chemicals at sea can be high profile events and can result in significant environmental damage. Effective response to marine spills is essential if risk to the public and the marine environment is to be minimised and effective clean up and recovery options initiated. In general, requirements for key response activities such as...
Article
The mechanisms of sublethal toxicity of the antifouling biocide, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), have not been well-studied. This investigation demonstrates that 14-d sublethal exposure to ZnPT (0.2 or 2 μM, alongside inorganic Zn and sea water controls) is genotoxic to mussel haemocytes but suggests that this is not caused by oxidative DNA damage as no si...
Article
Here we present the findings of a study where 598 isolates of Escherichia coli (351 derived from seawater; 247 derived from the Venus clam, Circenita callipyga) were obtained from Kuwait's marine environment. Isolates were screened for their potential resistance to an array of 23 commonly deployed frontline antibiotics. Results demonstrate the resi...
Article
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Marine environmental monitoring is undertaken to provide evidence that environmental management targets are being met. Moreover, monitoring also provides context to marine science and over the last century has allowed development of a critical scientific understanding of the marine environment and the impacts that humans are having on it. The seas...
Article
Liver tumours in flatfish have been diagnosed using histopathology for decades to monitor the impacts of marine pollution. Here we describe the application of specific gene (retinoblastoma, Rb) profiling in laser capture micro-dissected samples, and a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach to isolate differentially expressed genes in...
Article
Full-text available
Nine trace elements including As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed from water samples collected from 23 stations since 1984 from Kuwaiti coastal waters. Here it was investigated whether concentrations of these determinants are at levels above Kuwaiti and internationally established assessment criteria...
Chapter
This chapter considers the potential of the Comet assay [or single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] for evaluating the environmental impact of genotoxins in aquatic environments. It focuses on in vivo and in situ studies that have been carried out using various marine and freshwater sentinel species. A large number of the studies reviewed report th...
Article
Temperature is an abiotic factor of particular concern for assessing the potential impacts of radionuclides on marine species. This is particularly true for tritium, which is discharged as tritiated water (HTO) in the process of cooling nuclear institutions. Additionally, with sea surface temperatures forecast to rise 0.5–3.5 °C in the next 30–100...
Article
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Background: Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conserva...
Article
A weight of evidence (WOE) approach, integrating biological effects, mussel histopathology and tissue contaminant levels is proposed to evaluate mussel health and pollution status. Contaminant levels, histopathology and several biological effects (BEs) including Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), acetylcholinesterase (AChe), metallothionein protei...
Article
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Baseline Spatial and temporal analysis of the risks posed by polychlorinated biphenyl and metal contaminants in dab (Limanda limanda) collected from waters around England and Wales The metals cadmium, mercury and lead, and the ICES7 CB levels were analysed in the common dab Limanda limanda to investigate whether concentrations of these determinants...
Article
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) enter estuaries via wastewater treatment effluents, where they can inhibit microorganisms, because of their antimicrobial properties. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are involved in the first step of nitrification and are important to ecosystem function, especially where effluent discharge results in...
Article
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The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires individual member states to develop a robust set of tools for defining eleven qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES), such as demonstrating that "Concentrations of contaminants are at levels not giving rise to pollution effects" (GES descriptor 8). Adopting t...
Article
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Kuwait is a country with low rainfall and highly concentrated industrial and domestic effluents entering its coastal waters. These can be both treated and untreated. In this study we sampled a series of coastal and open-sea sites and used a variety of analyses to identify those sites requiring the most attention. We used a high throughput GC-MS scr...
Article
Full-text available
A geographically extensive baseline survey of sediment contamination was undertaken at twenty nine locations around Kuwait. Samples were assessed in relation to a wide range of industrial pollutants, including metals, PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs. The data generated indicated that levels of pollutants were generally low and below commonly applied se...
Article
The rapid expansion of industry, along with previous pollution events linked to conflicts in the region, have led to a variety of contaminants being inadvertently or deliberately discharged into Kuwait's marine environment. These include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals, from the petrochemical industry, and contaminated brin...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial water quality and concentrations of faecal sterols in sediment have been used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Kuwait's marine environment. A review of microbial (faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli) water quality data identified temporal and spatial sources of pollution around the coastline. Results i...
Article
Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius...
Article
Kuwait's waters are one of only two locations where the smoothtooth blacktip shark Carcharhinus leiodon is known to occur. Concentrations of 11 trace elements were analysed in five juvenile and two adult specimens of this coastal predator. Concentrations of lead in muscle increased with length, whilst manganese concentration decreased. Arsenic conc...
Article
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The environmental risks of 22 contaminants, comprising 6 metals, 10 PAHs and 6 PCB congeners occurring in UK estuaries and coastal waters were assessed as single substances. Sediment samples were taken within 12 nautical miles of the English and Welsh coastlines between 1999 and 2011. The measured environmental concentrations were compared to quali...
Article
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The Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, requires an integrated approach to the monitoring and assessment of the quality of surface water bodies. The chemical status assessment is based on compliance with legally binding Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for selected chemical pollutants (priority substances) of EU-wide concern. In the...
Article
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Press release http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-03/s-nmt031315.php The Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, requires an integrated approach to the monitoring and assessment of the quality of surface water bodies. The chemical status assessment is based on compliance with legally binding Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for...
Article
Full-text available
Little is currently known about the potential impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on estuarine microbial communities. The Colne estuary, UK, is susceptible to oil pollution through boat traffic, and there is the potential for AgNP exposure via effluent discharged from a sewage treatment works located in close proximity. This study examined the e...
Article
Currently, little is known about the impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), on ecologically important microorganisms such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We performed a multi-analytical approach to demonstrate the effects of uncapped nanosilver (uAgNP), capped nanosilver (cAgNP), and Ag2SO4 on the activities of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria...
Article
Full-text available
Fish diseases are an indicator for marine ecosystem health since they provide a biological end-point of historical exposure to stressors. Liver cancer has been used to monitor the effects of exposure to anthropogenic pollution in flatfish for many years. The prevalence of liver cancer can exceed 20%. Despite the high prevalence and the opportunity...
Article
Full-text available
The marine environment in Kuwait is dominated by Kuwait Bay, a shallow, depositional habitat vital for the breeding and propagation of marine organisms. The bay receives effluent inputs from industrial centres, ports, sewage outflows along with discharges from power and desalination plants. The major classes of pollutant discharged into the bay inc...
Article
Full-text available
The use of functionalised metal sulphide nanoparticles (NPs) for nanoremediation and biomedical application is rapidly increasing, which could lead to significant inputs into the marine environment. The potential impact of some NPs on marine organisms is still poorly understood. In the present paper the genotoxic potential of Ag2S and CdS NPs on My...