Brent R Whitaker

Brent R Whitaker
National Aquarium | NATIONALAQUARIUM · Biological Programs

M.S., D.V.M.

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35
Publications
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791
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Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Full-text available
Sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, are commonly maintained in large public aquaria throughout the world, but limited success has been achieved in captive reproduction. Successful captive reproduction in this species has only been documented in four institutions to date. In this investigation, steroid hormone assays in male sand tiger sharks were...
Article
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Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia was diagnosed antemortem in a 23-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Clinical signs included lethargy, hyporexia, coughing, and bloody respiratory discharge. Diagnostic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and repeated forceful exhal...
Article
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The transfusion of whole blood in elasmobranchs could provide cardiovascular support following hemorrhage. Since donor and recipient compatibility is not known, a technique was established to allow cross matching of red blood cells and serum in sharks. Cross matching was carried out among 19 individuals from seven species: the nurse shark (Ginglymo...
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Full-text available
Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testostero...
Article
Renal myxozoanosis was diagnosed histologically in 11 captive, wild caught, adult weedy (common) sea dragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, from three separate public aquaria in the United States. Myxozoan spores were visible in wet mounts of kidney tissue and were associated with renal tubular dilatation and tubular epithelial cell hypertrophy. Light...
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Full-text available
A yearling male harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded alive on the shores of Avon, North Carolina, and was rehabilitated for nearly 10 mo at the National Aquarium in Baltimore and the University of New England. The porpoise was released over 1,204 km north of its original stranding location and was tracked for 63 d with a satellite tag. The...
Article
Most fish emergencies are the result of inappropriate environmental conditions and primary or secondary infectious disease or trauma. The immediate response should be to increase aeration, provide suitable water, and decrease stressors. A thorough history, evaluation of the fish and their environment, and some rapid diagnostic tests (particularly d...
Article
Properties of attachment of Mycobacterium marinum to hydrophobic surfaces and subsequent␣biofilm formation were investigated. Binding of M.marinum to polypropylene occured under aerobic and anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. However, aerobic conditions were necessary for biofilms to persist. Highly non-polar organic solvents were found to effici...
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We report on three separate instances of protrusion of the valvular intestine in the smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata, compare pristid gastrointestinal anatomy and intestinal valve structure with those of other elasmobranchs, and discuss the relevance of anatomy and valve structure to the husbandry of captive specimens. Protrusion of the valvul...
Article
Amphibians are being kept in increasing numbers as pets and in zoological and research collections. As we learn more about the diseases that affect these animals, our knowledge of emergency medicine has grown. When faced with an amphibian emergency, the rapid collection of a history, appropriate selection and execution of diagnostics, and immediate...
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The ichthyocidal activity of Pfiesteria piscicida dinospores was examined in an aquarium bioassay format by exposing fish to either Pfiesteria-containing environmental sediments or clonal P. piscicida. The presence of Pfiesteria spp. and the complexity of the microbial assemblage in the bioassay were assessed by molecular approaches. Cell-free wate...
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Iodine in the form of iodide is required for synthesis of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine in fish. Iodine chemical speciation in aliquots of raw artificial seawater mix was measured before, during, and after exposure for fixed time periods to air only and to concentrations of ozone required to achieve oxidation-reduction potentials typical of a pro...
Article
Functional hemostatic pathways are critical for the survival of all vertebrates and have been evolving for more than 400 million years. The overwhelming majority of studies of hemostasis in vertebrates have focused on mammals with very sparse attention paid to reptiles. There have been virtually no studies of the coagulation pathway in sea turtles...
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Full-text available
A stranded Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) was rescued and treated at the National Aquarium in Baltimore (Maryland, USA) for inappetence and epidermal appendicular and plastral lesions. After 4 mo of care, the turtle developed a swollen left elbow joint. Within 1 mo of initial swelling, osteolytic lesions developed in the proximal ra...
Article
Although computed tomography (CT) is used primarily for diagnosis in humans, it can also be used to diagnose disease in veterinary patients. CT and associated three-dimensional reconstruction have a role in diagnosis of a range of illnesses in a variety of animals. In a sea turtle with failure to thrive, CT showed a nodal mass in the chest, granulo...
Article
The successful 6 mo rehabilitation of a stranded juvenile pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps afforded the opportunity to study the poorly known protozoan fauna of the upper respiratory tract of cetaceans. Mucus samples were collected by holding either a petri dish or glass slides over the blowhole for 3 to 5 exhalations; preparations were examined a...
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Full-text available
Three separate epidemics occurred in caiman lizards (Dracaena guianensis) that were imported into the USA from Peru in late 1998 and early 1999. Histologic evaluation of tissues from necropsied lizards demonstrated a proliferative pneumonia. Electron microscopic examination of lung tissue revealed a virus that was consistent with members of the fam...
Article
Full-text available
A stranded, rehabilitated 220cm female pygmy sperm whale was radiotracked from 31 May-4 June 1994 after its release in the Gulf Stream off Cape Canaveral, Florida. The whale moved directly off the continental shelf and headed northward within a corridor bounded by the shelf break and the eastern edge of the Gulf Stream. It moved offshore up to 32 n...
Article
The treatment of diseases in amphibians presents unique challenges for the clinician. This article describes the basic principles in selecting and administering therapeutics, and provides drug dose rates used successfully in amphibians. The importance of proper husbandary and hygiene, as it relates to amphibian health and medical management of dise...
Article
The veterinarian presented with an amphibian patient must be prepared to assess both the animal's medical condition and its husbandry record; good health is inextricably linked to proper care and diet. This article provides the clinician with guidelines for maintaining amphibians in captivity, including information on climate control and lighting,...
Article
Fish ophthalmology is a budding clinical field. A review of teleost ocular anatomy and pathology is covered with emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of the more commonly seen diseases at a large public aquarium.
Article
An automated measurement system for complex shear compliance, J *=J ′−iJ ″, shear modulus,G *=G ′+iG ″, and shear wave velocity and attenuation from 2 to 10 000 Hz at temperatures from −25 to 150 °C [E. R. Fitzgerald, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 60, 573–578 (1989); U. S. Patent 5,081,870 (1992)] has been used to determine these viscoelastic parameters for...
Article
A new species of coccidian is reported from the Peruvian red-breasted meadowlark, Sturnella bellicosa (Passeriformes: Icteridae) housed at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland. Oocysts of Isospora bellicosa Spa n. are ellipsoidal, ovoid, or oblong, 29.4×23.5 (26.4-31.6×21.0-26.4) µn with a shape index (length/width) of 1.25 (1.09-1.41). A m...
Article
Copper is an old but effective treatment for fish diseases. It is now primarily used to treat acute infestations of parasites such as Amyloodinium and Cryptocaryon. Many fish are sensitive to copper and may become intoxicated at concentrations required to control pathogens. Copper concentrations in treatment tanks must be measured frequently to ens...
Article
A modified glucose oxidase immunoenzyme technique was shown to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila in 4% formaldehyde solution-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. There was complete concordance between infection with L pneumophila and detection of the organisms in tissue sections by glucose oxi...
Article
Typescript. Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 1985. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 173-184).

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