Brent Race

Brent Race
Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health · LPVD

D.V.M.

About

120
Publications
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3,159
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
2012 Citations
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Publications

Publications (120)
Article
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Introduction The use of prosthetic mesh in hernia repair provides a powerful tool to increase repair longevity, decrease recurrence rates, and facilitate complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Overall infection rates with mesh are low, but for those affected there is high morbidity and economic cost. The availability of a practicable small animal m...
Article
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Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease of cervids including deer, elk, reindeer, and moose. Human consumption of cervids is common, therefore assessing the risk potential of CWD transmission to humans is critical. In a previous study, we tested CWD transmission via intracerebral inoculation into transgenic mice (tg66 and tgRM) that over-e...
Article
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Prion strains in a given type of mammalian host are distinguished by differences in clinical presentation, neuropathological lesions, survival time, and characteristics of the infecting prion protein (PrP) assemblies. Near-atomic structures of prions from two host species with different PrP sequences have been determined but comparisons of distinct...
Article
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Microglia (MG) are critical to host defense during prion infection, but the mechanism(s) of this neuroprotection are poorly understood. To better examine the influence of MG during prion infection, we reduced MG in the brains of C57BL/10 mice using PLX5622 and assessed prion clearance and replication using multiple approaches that included bioassay...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prion strains in a given type of mammalian host are distinguished by differences in clinical presentation, neuropathological lesions, survival time, and characteristics of the infecting prion protein (PrP) assemblies. Near-atomic structures of prions from two host species with different PrP sequences have been determined but comparisons of distinct...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the structural basis of prion strains. Here we provide a high (3.0 Å) resolution cryo-electron microscopy-based structure of infectious brain-derived fibrils of the mouse anchorless RML scrapie strain which, like the recently determined hamster 263K strain, has a parallel in-register β-sheet-based core. Several structural moti...
Article
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CWD prions appear to spread naturally among susceptible cervid species in captivity and in the wild. A better understanding of all the ways these prions move, persist, and subsequently infect target species through the environment is critical to developing comprehensive disease control strategies.
Article
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Prion diseases are progressive, neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. Also known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, for the hallmark spongiform change seen in the brain, these diseases manifest increased oxidative damage early in disease and changes in antioxidant enzymes in terminal brain tissue. Superoxide dismut...
Article
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Background Past experiments studying innate immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) utilized microglia obtained from neonatal mouse brain, which differ developmentally from adult microglia. These differences might impact our current understanding of the role of microglia in CNS development, function, and disease. Methods Cytokine protein secr...
Article
Within the extensive range of self-propagating pathologic protein aggregates of mammals, prions are the most clearly infectious (e.g., ∼10⁹ lethal doses per milligram). The structures of such lethal assemblies of PrP molecules have been poorly understood. Here we report a near-atomic core structure of a brain-derived, fully infectious prion (263K s...
Article
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In prion diseases, the spread of infectious prions (PrPSc) is thought to occur within nerves and across synapses of the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanisms by which PrPSc moves within axons and across nerve synapses remain undetermined. Molecular motors, including kinesins and dyneins, transport many types of intracellular cargo....
Article
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Efforts to contain the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal, contagious prion disease of cervids, would be aided by the availability of additional diagnostic tools. RT-QuIC assays allow ultrasensitive detection of prion seeds in a wide variety of cervid tissues, fluids and excreta. The best documented antemortem diagnostic test involvin...
Article
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Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD) is a fatal, currently incurable, neurodegenerative disease. The search for candidate treatments would be greatly facilitated by the availability of human cell-based models of prion disease. Recently, an induced pluripotent stem cell derived human cerebral organoid model was shown to take up and propagate human CJD pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Classical mammalian prions are assemblies of prion protein molecules that are extraordinarily transmissible, with a microgram of protein containing up to 10^8 lethal doses of infectivity1,2. Unlike most other pathogenic and amyloidogenic proteins, prions typically contain glycolipid anchors 3 and abundant asparagine-linked glycans4-6. The infectiou...
Article
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Accumulation of misfolded host proteins is central to neuropathogenesis of numerous human brain diseases including prion and prion-like diseases. Neurons of retina are also affected by these diseases. Previously, our group and others found that prion-induced retinal damage to photoreceptor cells in mice and humans resembled pathology of human retin...
Article
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Background: Prion diseases and prion-like disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, are characterized by gliosis and accumulation of misfolded aggregated host proteins. Ablating microglia in prion-infected brain by treatment with the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor, PLX5622, increased accumulation of...
Article
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Tau aggregates consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Tau may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases, collectively referred to as tauopathies. In human genetic prion diseas...
Article
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Objective The detection of prion seeding activity in CSF and olfactory mucosal brushings using real‐time quaking‐induced conversion assays allows highly accurate clinical diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. To gauge transmission risks associated with these biospecimens and their testing, we have bioassayed prion infectivity levels in p...
Article
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Microglia act as the protective immune cell of the brain. By surveying the tissue to identify and rectify problems, they function to maintain the health of brain cells. The prion protein N-terminal cleavage fragment, N1, has demonstrated neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to elucidate whether N1 could modulate microgl...
Article
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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prevents HIV-1 replication but does not eliminate the latent reservoir and cure the infection. Type I interferons (IFN) mediate antiviral effects through different mechanisms than cART. We previously showed that IFNα14 is the most potent IFNα subtype against HIV-1 and that it can significantly reduce the HI...
Article
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Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease which infects deer, elk and moose. CWD was first described as a wasting syndrome in captive deer in Colorado and Wyoming wildlife facilities from 1967 to 1979. Currently, CWD has been reported in 26 states of the USA, three Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway and Finland. Since human consum...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that can infect deer, elk and moose. CWD has now been detected in 26 states of the USA, 3 Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway, Sweden and Finland. CWD continues to spread from endemic areas, and new foci of infections are frequently detected. As increasing numbers of cervids become infected...
Article
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Prion disease is a fatal, incurable neurodegenerative disease of humans and other mammals caused by conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP; PrPC) into a self-propagating neurotoxic conformer (prions; PrPSc). Strong genetic proofs of concept support lowering PrP expression as a therapeutic strategy. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) can provide a...
Article
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Prion protein (PrPC) is a protease-sensitive and soluble cell surface glycoprotein expressed in almost all mammalian cell types. PrPSc, a protease-resistant and insoluble form of PrPC, is the causative agent of prion diseases, fatal and transmissible neurogenerative diseases of mammals. Prion infection is initiated via either ingestion or inoculati...
Article
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Abstract For the transmissible, neurogenerative family of prion diseases, few human models of infection exist and none represent structured neuronal tissue. Human cerebral organoids are self-organizing, three-dimensional brain tissues that can be grown from induced pluripotent stem cells. Organoids can model aspects of neurodegeneration in Alzheime...
Article
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Degeneration of photoreceptors in the retina is a major cause of blindness in humans. Often retinal degeneration is due to inheritance of mutations in genes important in photoreceptor (PR) function, but can also be induced by other events including retinal trauma, microvascular disease, virus infection or prion infection. The onset of apoptosis and...
Article
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The original version of this Article contained errors in the author affiliations. Affiliation 2 incorrectly read ‘Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 Jilin Province, China.’Affiliation 5 incorrectly read ‘Department of Otolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710...
Article
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A definitive pre-mortem diagnosis of prion disease depends on brain biopsy for prion detection currently and no validated alternative preclinical diagnostic tests have been reported to date. To determine the feasibility of using skin for preclinical diagnosis, here we report ultrasensitive serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) and...
Article
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Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are common during prion infection, but the mechanisms that underlie these pathological features are not well understood. Several components of innate immunity, such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and Complement C1q, have been shown to influence prion disease. To identify additional components of innate immunit...
Article
Prions represent a class of universally fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and other mammals. The prion agent contains a pathologically aggregated form of the host prion protein that can transmit infectivity without any bacterial or viral component and is thus difficult to inactivate using disinfection protocols...
Article
Microglial cells in the central nervous system play important roles in neurodevelopment and resistance to infection, yet microglia can become neurotoxic under some conditions. An early event during prion infection is the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain prior to damage or death of neurons. Previous prion disease studies using two...
Article
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease found in deer, elk, and moose. Since it was first discovered in the late 1960s, CWD has now spread to at least 25 U.S. states, 2 Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway, and Finland. Eradication of CWD from areas of endemicity is very unlikely, and additional spread will occur. As the range and...
Article
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Human familial prion diseases are associated with mutations at 34 different prion protein (PrP) amino acid residues. However, it is unclear whether infectious prions are found in all cases. Mutant PrP itself may be neurotoxic, or alternatively, PrP mutation might predispose to spontaneous formation of infectious PrP isoforms. Previous reports demon...
Article
Objective: Although BLT-humanized mice provide a robust model for HIV-1 infection and enable evaluation of cure strategies dependent on endogenous immune responses, most mice develop graft versus host disease (GVHD), limiting their utility for extended HIV cure studies. This study aimed to: 1) Evaluate the GVHD-resistant C57BL/6 Rag2γcCD47 triple...
Article
Full-text available
Mammalian prion structures and replication mechanisms are poorly understood. Most synthetic recombinant prion protein (rPrP) amyloids prepared without cofactors are non-infectious or much less infectious than bona fide tissue-derived PrPSc. This effect has been associated with differences in folding of the aggregates, manifested in part by reduced...
Data
End-point dilution RT-QuIC analysis of the brains from P1 animals. Representative end-point dilution RT-QuIC analysis of brain homogenates from hamsters (A [A465-1] & B [A458-2]) and Tg7 mice (C [B991-1] & D [B987-3]) inoculated with ScBH(WT)RTQ (A & C) or ScBH(K4N)RTQ (B & D). Hamsters were assayed at 10−3–10−7 brain tissue dilutions and Tg7 mice...
Data
Histopathology of brain samples from a control Tg7 mouse inoculated with ScBH. Brain regions affected in ScBH(PrPSen)P1 as well as areas commonly affected by 263K scrapie are displayed. Slides were stained using a PrP antibody (EP1802Y), anti-GFAP antibody, or hematoxylin and eosin. Scale bar indicates 50 microns. (TIF)
Data
Summary of histopathology results. The table describes the histopathology as it pertains to spongiosis, astrogliosis and PrP deposition for each ScBH animal. (PDF)
Data
Epitope mapping of newly formed PrPRes in brains from ScBH(WT or K4N)P1 Tg7 mice. PrP antibodies R30 (A; epitope: 89–103), 3F4 (B; epitope: 109–112), mAB132 (C; epitope: 119–127), R18 (D; epitope: 143–156), and R20 (E; epitope: 218–231) were used. (F) Diagram outlining the location of antibody epitopes. The locations of the central lysine cluster (...
Data
Histopathology of the hippocampus of Tg7 ScBH(WT or K4N)P2 and control mice. A comparison between ScBH(K4N)P2 Tg7 mice that had acute TSE disease at 143 dpi and ScBH(K4N)P2 Tg7 mice that had a prolonged clinical course out to 433 dpi is shown. Red arrow heads denote PrP aggregates and black arrow heads denote vacuolization (spongiosis). Slides were...
Data
Summary of all results for each animal. The table summarizes the individual animal data for A) Hamsters, B) Tg7 P1 mice, and C) Tg7 P2 mice. (XLSX)
Data
Histopathology of the hippocampus of Tg7 ScBH(WT or K4N)P1 mice and controls. Slides were stained using a PrP antibody (EP1802Y), GFAP antibody, or hematoxylin and eosin. Animal numbers are displayed below images. Red arrow heads denote PrP aggregates and black arrows denote vacuolization (spongiosis). Scale bar indicates 50 microns. (TIF)
Data
End-point dilution RT-QuIC analysis of inocula. Representative RT-QuIC profiles of ScBH(WT)RTQ product (top left), ScBH(K4N)RTQ product (top right), NBH(WT)RTQ product (bottom left), and NBH(K4N)RTQ product (bottom right). Each sample was serially diluted down to 10−9 sample dilutions. Each trace is an average of four replicate wells. The SD50 per...
Data
End-point dilution RT-QuIC analysis of the brains from P2 animals. Representative end-point dilution RT-QuIC analysis of one ScBH(WT)P2 brain homogenate (A [C204-2]) and one ScBH(K4N)P2 brain homogenate (B [C208-2]). Each sample was assayed down to 10−10 brain tissue dilutions. SD50 per mg of brain homogenate is displayed above each panel. The anim...
Article
Accumulation of fibrillar protein aggregates is a hallmark of many diseases. While numerous proteins form fibrils by prion-like seeded polymerization in vitro, only some are transmissible and pathogenic in vivo. To probe the structural features that confer transmissibility to prion protein (PrP) fibrils, we have analyzed synthetic PrP amyloids with...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroinflammation is a prominent component of several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, tauopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion diseases. In such conditions, the ability to decrease neuroinflammation by drug therapy may influence disease progression. Statins have been us...
Article
In most human and animal prion diseases the abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) is deposited as non-amyloid aggregates in CNS, spleen and lymphoid organs. In contrast, in humans and transgenic mice with PrP mutations which cause expression of PrP lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor, most PrPSc is in the amyloid form. I...
Chapter
Among the most sensitive, specific and practical of methods for detecting prions are the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays. These assays exploit the fundamental self-propagating activity of prions to amplify the presence of prion seeds by as much as a trillion-fold. The reactions can detect most of the known mammalian prion dise...
Article
Full-text available
Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a mammalian glycoprotein which is usually found anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. PrPC misfolds to a pathogenic isoform PrPSc, the causative agent of neurodegenerative prion diseases. The precise function of PrPC remains elusive but may depend upon its cellular localizatio...
Article
Full-text available
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is produced naturally by neutrophils and other cells to kill conventional microbes in vivo. Synthetic preparations containing HOCl can also be effective as microbial disinfectants. Here we have tested whether HOCl can also inactivate prions and other self-propagating protein amyloid seeds. Prions are deadly pathogens that a...
Data
RT-QuIC seeding activity tolerance for BrioHOCl. RT-QuIC analysis was performed with Hamster (90–231) recombinant prion protein substrate at 42°C using 2μl per well of normal brain homogenate (gray) or hamster scrapie brain homogenate at a tissue dilution of 5x10-8 as reaction seed in the presence of 0 (red) or 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 & 10% BrioHOCl (b...
Data
Tolerance of α-synuclein RT-QuIC assay for BrioHOCl. Direct addition of BrioHOCl to α-synuclein RT-QuIC reactions seeded with a 10-2 dilution of an artificial α-syn seed. While direct addition of the equivalent to a 10-2 dilution (1.8% HOCl, blue line) partially interfered with the reaction (compared to the no HOCl control, orange line), 10-3 (0.18...
Data
Raman spectroscopy of BrioHOCl. (DOCX)
Data
Antimicrobial efficacy of BrioHOCl in ASTM E2315 Time vs. Kill suspension test protocol using lot samples of different ages. (DOCX)
Article
Tauopathies are a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which fibrils of human hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) are believed to cause neuropathology. In Alzheimer's disease, P-tau associates with A-beta amyloid and contributes to disease pathogenesis. In familial human prion diseases and variant CJD, P-tau often co-associates with prion protein am...
Article
Amyloid hexapeptide molecules are effective in the treatment of the murine model of neuroinflammation, known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Efficacy however differs between two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and C57BL/10SnJ (B10). Amyloid hexapeptide treatments improved the clinical outcomes of B6, but not B10 mice, indica...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: The naturally occurring antiviral protein, IFNα2, is used to treat hepatitis viruses but has proven rather ineffective against HIV in comparison to triple therapy with the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Although ARVs suppress the replication of HIV, they fail to completely clear infections. Since IFNα acts by different mechanism than ARVs...
Article
Full-text available
Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host...
Data
Alphabetical list of the eighty-six neuroinflammatory genes assessed by qRT-PCR. (PDF)
Data
Mouse inflammatory gene expression profiles during BE retrovirus versus 22L scrapie infection relative to uninfected mice. (PDF)
Data
Mouse inflammatory gene expression profiles during LaCrosse virus (LACV) versus 22L scrapie infection relative to uninfected mice. (PDF)
Article
Microglial activation is a hallmark of the neuroimmunological response to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion disease. The CX3C chemokine axis consisting of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1), are expressed by neurons and microglia respectively, and are known to modulate microglial activatio...