Brent Mittelstadt

Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford | OX · Oxford Internet Institute

BA, MA, PhD

About

60
Publications
106,134
Reads
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6,133
Citations
Citations since 2016
43 Research Items
6089 Citations
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Introduction
Brent Mittelstadt is a Research Fellow and British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow in data ethics at the Oxford Internet Institute, a Turing Fellow at the Alan Turing Institute, and a member of the UK National Statistician’s Data Ethics Advisory Committee. He is an ethicist focusing on auditing, interpretability, and ethical governance of complex algorithmic systems.
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2014 - September 2014
De Montfort University
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, a...
Article
Full-text available
Since approval of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in 2016, it has been widely and repeatedly claimed that a 'right to explanation' of decisions made by automated or artificially intelligent algorithmic systems will be legally mandated by the GDPR. This right to explanation is viewed as an ideal mechanism to enhance the accountabili...
Article
Full-text available
This paper poses the question of whether people have a duty to participate in digital epidemiology. While an implied duty to participate has been argued for in relation to biomedical research in general, digital epidemiology involves processing of non-medical, granular and proprietary data types that pose different risks to participants. We first d...
Article
Full-text available
There has been much discussion of the right to explanation in the EU General Data Protection Regulation, and its existence, merits, and disadvantages. Implementing a right to explanation that opens the black box of algorithmic decision-making faces major legal and technical barriers. Explaining the functionality of complex algorithmic decision-maki...
Article
Full-text available
Columbia Business Law Review, 2019(2). Big Data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) draw non-intuitive and unverifiable inferences and predictions about the behaviors, preferences, and private lives of individuals. These inferences draw on highly diverse and feature-rich data of unpredictable value, and create new opportunities for discrimi...
Preprint
Full-text available
To achieve the promoted benefits of an AI symptom checker, laypeople must trust and subsequently follow its instructions. In AI, explanations are seen as a tool to communicate the rationale behind black-box decisions to encourage trust and adoption. However, the effectiveness of the types of explanations used in AI-driven symptom checkers has not y...
Article
Full-text available
Background Artificial intelligence (AI)–driven symptom checkers are available to millions of users globally and are advocated as a tool to deliver health care more efficiently. To achieve the promoted benefits of a symptom checker, laypeople must trust and subsequently follow its instructions. In AI, explanations are seen as a tool to communicate t...
Article
Full-text available
In its attempt to better regulate the platform economy, the European Commission recently proposed a Digital Markets Act (DMA) and a Digital Services Act (DSA). While the DMA addresses worries about digital markets not functioning properly, the DSA is concerned with societal harms stemming from the dissemination of (illegal) content on platforms. Bo...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years a substantial literature has emerged concerning bias, discrimination, and fairness in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. Connecting this work to existing legal non-discrimination frameworks is essential to create tools and methods that are practically useful across divergent legal regimes. While much work has been un...
Article
Online targeting isolates individual consumers, causing what we call epistemic fragmentation. This phenomenon amplifies the harms of advertising and inflicts structural damage to the public forum. The two natural strategies to tackle the problem of regulating online targeted advertising, increasing consumer awareness and extending proactive monitor...
Article
Online behavioural advertising (OBA) relies on inferential analytics to target consumers based on data about their online behaviour. While the technology can improve the matching of adverts with consumers’ preferences, it also poses risks to consumer welfare as consumers face offer discrimination and the exploitation of their cognitive errors. The...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Artificial intelligence (AI)–driven symptom checkers are available to millions of users globally and are advocated as a tool to deliver health care more efficiently. To achieve the promoted benefits of a symptom checker, laypeople must trust and subsequently follow its instructions. In AI, explanations are seen as a tool to communicate t...
Article
We invited authors of selected Comments and Perspectives published in Nature Machine Intelligence in the latter half of 2019 and first half of 2020 to describe how their topic has developed, what their thoughts are about the challenges of 2020, and what they look forward to in 2021.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dementia has been described as the greatest global health challenge in the 21st century on account of longevity gains increasing its incidence, escalating health and social care pressures. These pressures highlight ethical, social, and political challenges about healthcare resource allocation, what health improvements matter to patient...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Dementia has been described as the greatest global health challenge in the 21st century on account of longevity gains increasing its incidence, escalating health and social care pressures. These pressures highlight ethical, social, political challenges about healthcare resource allocation, what health improvements matter to patients, and...
Article
Background: The therapeutic paradigm in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is shifting from symptoms management toward prevention goals. Secondary prevention requires the identification of individuals without clinical symptoms, yet "at-risk" of developing AD dementia in the future, and thus, the use of predictive modeling. Objective: The objective of this...
Preprint
This article identifies a critical incompatibility between European notions of discrimination and existing statistical measures of fairness. First, we review the evidential requirements to bring a claim under EU non-discrimination law. Due to the disparate nature of algorithmic and human discrimination, the EU's current requirements are too context...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) ethics is now a global topic of discussion in academic and policy circles. At least 84 public–private initiatives have produced statements describing high-level principles, values and other tenets to guide the ethical development, deployment and governance of AI. According to recent meta-analyses, AI ethics has seemingl...
Preprint
Full-text available
AI Ethics is now a global topic of discussion in academic and policy circles. At least 63 public-private initiatives have produced statements describing high-level principles, values, and other tenets to guide the ethical development, deployment, and governance of AI. According to recent meta-analyses, AI Ethics has seemingly converged on a set of...
Article
Full-text available
ROADMAP is a public-private advisory partnership to evaluate the usability of multiple data sources, including real-world evidence, in the decision-making process for new treatments in Alzheimer’s disease, and to advance key concepts in disease and pharmacoeconomic modeling. ROADMAP identified key disease and patient outcomes for stakeholders to m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent work on interpretability in machine learning and AI has focused on the building of simplified models that approximate the true criteria used to make decisions. These models are a useful pedagogical device for teaching trained professionals how to predict what decisions will be made by the complex system, and most importantly how the system m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Big Data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) draw non-intuitive and unverifiable inferences and predictions about the behaviors, preferences, and private lives of individuals. These inferences draw on highly diverse and feature-rich data of unpredictable value, and create new opportunities for discriminatory, biased, and invasive decision-ma...
Article
Full-text available
In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence (AI). In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years have seen an influx of medical technologies capable of remotely monitoring the health and behaviours of individuals to detect, manage and prevent health problems. Known collectively as ‘Personal Health Monitoring’ (PHM), these systems are intended to supplement medical care with health monitoring outside traditional care environments s...
Article
Full-text available
Mature information societies are characterised by mass production of data that provide insight into human behaviour. Analytics (as in big data analytics) has arisen as a practice to make sense of the data trails generated through interactions with networked devices, platforms and organisations. Persistent knowledge describing the behaviours and cha...
Article
Full-text available
The internet of things is increasingly spreading into the domain of medical and social care. Internet-enabled devices for monitoring and managing the health and well-being of users outside of traditional medical institutions have rapidly become common tools to support healthcare. Health-related internet of things (H-IoT) technologies increasingly p...
Article
Full-text available
The conjunction of wireless computing, ubiquitous Internet access, and the miniaturisation of sensors have opened the door for technological applications that can monitor health and well-being outside of formal healthcare systems. The health-related Internet of Things (H-IoT) increasingly plays a key role in health management by providing real-time...
Article
Full-text available
Full text openly available via direct link at: http://digitalethicslab.oii.ox.ac.uk/sandra-wachter/#tab-7456a56b194183e7f18 To create fair and accountable AI and robotics, we need precise regulation and better methods to certify, explain, and audit inscrutable systems.
Article
Full-text available
Do we have a right to transparency when we use content personalization systems? Building on prior work in discrimination detection in data mining, I propose algorithm auditing as a compatible ethical duty for providers of content personalization systems to maintain the transparency of political discourse. I explore barriers to auditing that reveal...
Chapter
Full-text available
The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as ‘Big Data’, this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometime...
Article
Full-text available
Computing technologies and artifacts are increasingly integrated into most aspects of our professional, social, and private lives. One consequence of this growing ubiquity of computing is that it can have significant ethical implications that computing professionals need to be aware of. The relationship between ethics and computing has long been di...
Book
Full-text available
This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical research into the ethics of emerging technologies, often involving foresight studies, technology assessment or application of the precautionary principle, raises significant epistemological challenges by failing to explain the relative epistemic status of contentious normative claims about future states. This weakness means that it is unc...
Working Paper
Internet engineering and networked systems research improves our understanding of the underlying technical processes of the Internet. Internet engineers therefore analyse data transfers on the Internet, typically by collecting data from devices of large groups of individuals as well as organisations. The designs of Internet engineering and research...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as 'Big Data', this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometime...
Chapter
Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) uses electronic devices which monitor and record health-related data outside a hospital, usually within the home. This paper examines the ethical issues raised by PHM. Eight themes describing the ethical implications of PHM are identified through a review of 68 academic articles concerning PHM. The identified themes...
Article
Full-text available
Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) uses electronic devices which monitor and record health-related data outside a hospital, usually within the home. This paper examines the ethical issues raised by PHM. Eight themes describing the ethical implications of PHM are identified through a review of 68 academic articles concerning PHM. The identified themes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Value-Sensitive Design (VSD) offers a methodology to make social and moral values central to the design and development of new technologies. Although VSD incorporates views from philosophy and stakeholders involved in the process, it notably lacks reflexivity on the position of those involved in conducting the methodology itself e.g. ethicists, res...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Value-Sensitive Design (VSD) offers a methodology to make social and moral values central to the design and development of new technologies. Although VSD incorporates views from philosophy and stakeholders involved in the process, it notably lacks reflexivity on the position of those involved in conducting the methodology itself e.g. ethicists, res...
Article
Full-text available
The chapter undertakes a comparison of different approaches to the ethical assessment of novel technologies by looking at two recent research projects. ETICA was a FP7 sister project to PHM-Ethics, responsible for identification and ethical evaluation of information and communication technologies emerging in the next 10-15 years. The aims, methods,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Personal health monitoring (PHM) systems capable of gathering pervasive physiological and behavioural data are currently in development to supplement existing medical resources. As a technology designed to operate in the private sphere, PHM can digitise, record and analyse the lives of patients, creating opportunities for data sharing, mining and s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Personal health monitoring (PHM) systems capable of gathering pervasive physiological and behavioural data are currently emerging to supplement existing medical resources. As a technology designed to operate in the private sphere PHM can digitise, record and analyse the behaviours and health of users. Current PHM ethics discourse reflects an overly...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A unified perspective on data protection is set to be adopted in the EU through the General Data Protection Legislation, which intended to unite and simplify disparate legislation currently enacted at a national level. Such legislation contributes to the definition of responsible research and innovation by defining norms of legal and ethically acce...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Personal Health Monitoring describes a broad group of emerging health ICT developed in response to changing demographics and health needs in the EU. Based upon a review of academic literature, this contribution to the FRRIICT repository defines PHM and identifies ethical implications requiring further consideration by the ICT community. Examples an...

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Projects (3)
Project
ROADMAP’s goal was to lay the foundation of an EU-wide data sharing space for real-world evidence (RWE) outcomes for better care in Alzheimer's disease (AD). By the end of 2018, the ROADMAP public private consortium with its 26 partners from Europe, coordinated by the University of Oxford and Novartis, delivered guiding principles and recommendations on integrating available RWE to support healthcare decision making within AD. Through the involvement of different stakeholders, ROADMAP identified and prioritised AD outcomes of individual and disease relevance and health- economic importance. To accomplish this, data from 6 EU Member States involving 75 national databases and clinical registries was used. For further details visit roadmap-alzheimer.org