Brenden S Holland

Brenden S Holland
Hawaii Pacific University · Department of Natural Sciences

40.73
 · 
PhD Oceanography

About

66
Publications
26,038
Reads
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2,316
Citations
Introduction
I'm a broadly trained ecologist with interests in terrestrial and marine processes that impact lineage diversity. My work entails teaching, training and mentoring undergraduate and graduate students, and doing conservation relevant biological research.
Research Experience
January 2001 - December 2008
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
January 2000 - present
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Honolulu University
January 1999 - August 2003
University of Hawai'i System
Position
  • postdoctoral researcher
Education
January 1992 - August 1997
Texas A&M University
Field of study
  • Biological Oceanography
August 1988 - December 1991
Texas A&M University
Field of study
  • Biological Oceanography
September 1981 - June 1986
University of California, San Diego
Field of study
  • General Biology, marine Biology

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
Full-text available
Population-level genetic diversity of the brown mussel Perna perna was investigated using nuclear microsatellite markers in 6 natural and 6 invasive populations. A total of 448 individuals from 12 populations spanning the natural and introduced ranges of the brown mussel were scored for 2 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Wright's hierarchical F sta...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic biological introductions have captured the attention of marine scientists and resource managers in recent years. Human-mediated marine bioinvasions are presently acknowledged as often ecologically and financially devastating events. Despite recent increases in scientific interest and financial resources devoted to nonindigenous nuisan...
Article
Full-text available
The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea is a globally distributed, semi-sessile, planktonically dispersed scyphomedusa. Cassiopea occurs in shallow, tropical inshore marine waters on sandy mudflats and is generally associated with mangrove-dominated habitats. Controversy over the taxonomy of upside-down jellyfishes precedes their introduction to the Ha...
Article
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The smooth shelled blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk (Bivalvia: Mollusca) arrived in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawai'i on 22 June 1998 as a member of the fouling community of the USS Missouri, and mussel spawning activity was observed within 2 h of the vessel's arrival. Small mussels (<10 mm shell length, approximately 6 weeks post-metamorphosis...
Article
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Mass spawning of three coral species that broadcast eggs and sperm into the water column (Diploria strigosa, Montastrea annularis, M. cavernosa) was observed on 1 September 1991. Peak activity occurred after 2115, eight evenings following the August full moon. Minor spawning activity was noted on two occasions just prior to sunset, and on the day f...
Article
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The Mariana eight-spot butterfly (Hypolimnas octocula marianensis) and the Mariana wandering butterfly (Vagrans egistina) are endemic to the Mariana Islands and both have recently been listed as federally protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We conducted both targeted surveys and grid transect searches on Guam and targeted surveys acros...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of pheromones in insect and mammal social systems is well documented , but few studies have addressed the role of pheromones in land snail behavior. In this investigation, we used a series of behavioral trials and direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (MS) to test the hypothesis that land snails use mucous trails in orientat...
Article
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Various aspects of social structure can be important drivers of basic behavioral patterns, including dispersal, intraspecific niche partitioning, and resource utilization. Juvenile–adult interactions such as agonistic displays and paedophagic cannibalism can result in avoidance of adults by juveniles, and can influence community structure via shift...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although Hawai‘i notably lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, both intentional and unintentional anthropogenic releases of herpetofauna have resulted in establishment of more than two dozen species of frogs, toads, turtles, lizards, and a snake. Despite well-known presence of nonnative predatory species in Hawai‘i, ecological impacts r...
Article
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Invasive reptiles cause global ecosystem damage and are difficult to control once established. Visual detection and manual capture are time consuming and largely ineffective at eradication, particularly for cryptic species. The Jackson's chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus), native to eastern Africa, is popular in the global pet trade and h...
Article
Full-text available
Although grazers have long been recognized as top–down architects of plant communities, animal roles in determining microbial community composition have seldom been examined, particularly in aboveground systems. To determine the extent to which an animal can shape microbial communities, we conducted a controlled mesocosm study in situ to see if int...
Article
Full-text available
Hawaii’s diverse achatinellid tree snails occur almost exclusively in host trees and shrubs that are native to the Hawaiian Archipelago. A few exceptions to this pattern are known, where an arboreal gastropod population has persisted in introduced plants. On Oahu, Hawaii, the last known population of the single island endemic snail Auriculella diap...
Article
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One strategy to safeguard endangered species against extinction is raising subpopulations in ex situ facilities. Feeding animals ex situ is difficult when their diet is cryptic. We present a combined molecular and behavioral approach to assess the diet of Achatinella, a critically endangered genus of tree snail, to determine how diet of captive sna...
Research
Full-text available
We are just beginning to understand the systematic background of the cryptic microbial components of endangered Hawaiian Tree Snail diet. We conducted feeding preference trials with the endemic Oahu tree snail Auriculella diaphana, a confamilial species with genus Achatinella, of which all remaining species are Federally listed as endangered. One r...
Article
Achatinella mustelina is a critically endangered tree snail that subsists entirely by grazing microbes from leaf surfaces of native trees. Little is known about fundamental aspects of these microbe assemblages: not taxonomic composition, how this varies with host-plant or location, nor whether snails selectively consume microbes. To address these q...
Research
Full-text available
Invertebrates constitute the most diverse animal lineages on Pacific Islands, and have likewise experienced the most significant extinction rates. Recent losses of biodiversity, particularly in the form of arthropod and gastropod extinctions in the Hawaiian Islands have been driven largely by ecosystem changes brought about by loss of habitat and d...
Article
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Biological invasions are recognized as a primary driver of large-scale changes in global ecosystems. This study addresses ecomorphological variation in head size within and among populations of an ecologically destructive invasive predator, and evaluates the potential roles of environmental components in phenotypic differentiation. We used four siz...
Article
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Box jellyfish represent an ecologically important component of tropical marine planktonic communities, and certain species are notorious for their potent sting. we describe and review the occurrence of three box jellyfish species previously recorded from the hawaiian Islands, Carybdea arborifera (Maas, 1897), Alatina moseri (Mayer, 1906), and Copul...
Article
Full-text available
Hawaii’s diverse achatinellid tree snails occur almost exclusively in host trees and shrubs that are native to the Hawaiian Archipelago. A few exceptions to this pattern are known, where an arboreal gastropod population has persisted in introduced plants. On Oahu, Hawaii, the last known population of the single island endemic snail Auriculella diap...
Article
Full-text available
The Jackson’s Chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus) is a predatory, arboreal east African lizard that has become established in the forests of several Hawaiian Islands where they have been shown to prey upon rare endemic invertebrate taxa. In this study, we used radiotelemetry to assess movement behavior of T. j. xantholophus in three differ...
Article
Full-text available
Box jellyfish represent an ecologically important component of tropical marine planktonic communities, and certain species are notorious for their potent sting. We describe and review the occurrence of three box jellyfish species previously recorded from the Hawaiian Islands, Carybdea arborifera (Maas 1897), Alatina moseri (Mayer 1906), and Copula...
Article
Full-text available
All 41 species of the Hawaiian tree snail genus Achatinella were listed as endangered in the early 1980s, primarily due to predation by invasive species. Today, only 9 species are estimated to remain. The recent discovery of A. mustelina in gut contents of Jackson’s chameleons Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus, a predatory arboreal African lizard in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Hawaiian tree snails of 2 endemic subfamilies (Auriculellinae & Achatinellinae) are distributed in wet montane habitats of the islands. These lineages have cultural value, provide model systems for study of biogeography and evolution (Holland & Hadfield 2004; Holland & Cowie 2008), and indicator species for healthy native forests. Wit...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT.—The Jackson’s Chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus) is a predatory, arboreal east African lizard that has become established in the forests of several Hawaiian Islands where they have been shown to prey upon rare endemic invertebrate taxa. In this study, we used radiotelemetry to assess movement behavior of T. j. xantholophus in th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Of the original 41 species of Oahu tree snails (genus Achatinella) only 9 remain today. The exceedingly high extinction rate in this lineage led to the listing of the remaining species in the genus as endangered in 1981. Tree snails have extremely low growth, fecundity and specific habitat requirements. Thus, population recovery is slo...
Data
Full-text available
Native Hawaiian tree snails of two endemic subfamilies (Auriculellinae and Achatinellinae) form a highly diverse assemblage of arboreal species distributed primarily in forested montane habitats of the islands. In addition to high diversity, tree snails are also highly threatened due mainly to habitat loss and predatory activity of invasive species...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Results • B Four haplotypes were revealed among 52 Hawaii chameleons, two were very common, and two were rare (1 individual each), 2 Kenyan sequences were included for comparison. All Hawaii haplotypes were separated by just 1-2 basepairs, thus extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the introduced chameleon population. • Several dozen Jack...
Article
Full-text available
The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998 – Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and b...
Article
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The predatory snail Euglandina rosea (Férussac, 1821) is native to the southeastern U.S.A. and has been widely introduced as an attempted biological control agent for agricultural pest gastropods, often targeting the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. However, E. rosea may impact native land snails rather than A. fulica, particularl...
Article
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Speciation remains a central enigma in biology, and nowhere is this more apparent than in shallow tropical seas where biodiversity rivals that of tropical rainforests. Obvious barriers to gene flow are few and most marine species have a highly dispersive larval stage, which should greatly decrease opportunities for speciation via geographic isolati...
Data
Voucher identities, sample locations, collectors, and GenBank Accession numbers for LBAM ( Epiphyas postvittana ) specimens analyzed in this study. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia but invaded England, New Zealand, and Hawaii more than 100 years ago. In temperate climates, LBAM can be a major agricultural pest. In 2006 LBAM was discovered in California, instigating eradication efforts and quarantine against Hawaiian agricultu...
Article
Full-text available
Most predatory species tend to be larger than their prey (e.g. Cohen et al., 1993), although many use cooperative strategies to kill and consume prey larger than themselves (e.g. Sugiura, 2010). Because juvenile predators are much smaller than adults, juveniles may use different predation tactics. Predatory behaviour in land snails has been documen...
Article
Full-text available
The erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, has recently and rapidly invaded a broad swath of the tropical and subtropical Pacific Basin, causing severe damage to most species of coral trees (Erythrina spp.). This small (length similar to 1.5 mm) wasp attacks the photosynthetic tissue (leaves, buds, stems, flowers) of ornamental and nati...
Article
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Oceanic islands have long been important in evolutionary biology. Land snails are a major component of oceanic island biotas and have much to offer as systems for addressing major questions in evolution and biogeography. We review patterns of within-archipelago biogeography and diversification in two large Hawaiian land snail groups, the Succineida...
Article
Full-text available
Here we report the first conclusive evidence of an introduced reptile (Chamaeleo jacksonii) feeding on Hawaiian taxa, including 11 snails in four endemic genera from two families, including four individuals of an endangered species (Achatinella mustelina), and native insects in five genera. Native Hawaiian invertebrates were discovered in the disse...
Chapter
Full-text available
Land snails are surprisingly adept at dispersing across vast stretches of open ocean, a fact supported by their presence on virtually all tropical and subtropical islands globally. Island snail radiations make fascinating subjects for the study of biogeography and diversification, as many archipelagoes have well-developed and diverse endemic snail...
Article
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Oceanic islands have played a central role in biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we review molecular studies of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian archipelago. For some groups, monophyly and presumed single origin of the Hawaiian radiations have been confirmed (achatinelline tree snails, drepanidine honeycreepers, drosophilid f...
Article
Full-text available
Commentary. In recent decades, disagreement regarding the role of biocontrol in causing ecological damage versus its agricultural benefit has increased. Because of the historical importance of biocontrol in its agriculture and the high recent extinction rates of its endemic wildlife, Hawaii has been termed the “crucible of the debate”. A number of...
Article
The marine environment offers few obvious barriers to dispersal for broadcast-spawning species, yet population genetic structure can occur on a scale much smaller than the theoretical limits of larval dispersal. Comparative phylogeographical studies of sympatric sister species can illuminate how differences in life history, behaviour, and habitat a...
Article
Full-text available
The marine environment offers few obvious barriers to dispersal for broadcast-spawning species, yet population genetic structure can occur on a scale much smaller than the theoretical limits of larval dispersal. Comparative phylogeographical studies of sympatric sister species can illuminate how differences in life history, behaviour, and habitat a...
Article
We used 276 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, 645 bp) and a subset of 84 16S large ribosomal subunit (16S, 451 bp) sequences to evaluate geographic patterns of genetic variation in 24 populations of the endemic Hawaiian land snail Succinea caduca spanning its range on six islands. Haplotype networks, gene tree topologies, pairwise molecular dive...
Article
Full-text available
The single-island endemic O'ahu tree snail Achatinella mustelina Mighels, 1845 is an endangered species with dimorphic shell chirality, persisting in small populatioris restricted to upper-elevation native forest in the Wai'anae Mountains. We used an intraspecific molecular phylogeny (n = 21 populations) to evaluate the validity of subspecies, most...
Article
Full-text available
Vicariance biogeography emerged several decades ago from the fusion of cladistics and plate tectonics, and quickly came to dominate historical biogeography. The field has since been largely constrained by the notion that only processes of vicariance and not dispersal offer testable patterns and refutable hypotheses, dispersal being a random process...
Article
Dispersal and vicariance in Hawaii: submarine slumping does not create deep inter-island channels Reply to a comment by G. Nelson on R.H. Cowie & B.S. Holland (2006) Dispersal is fundamental to biogeography and the evo-lution of biodiversity on oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 193–198. The Hawaiian Islands form sequentially as the Paci...
Article
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This paper addresses the controversy surrounding use of mtDNA versus nDNA for phylogeography and systematics.
Article
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Executive Summary The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular population structure and reproductive biology of limpets (Opihi) within and among the National Parks of Hawai'i. The major findings of the study are summarized below. • Cellana talcosa exhibited distinct population life history characteristics from the previously studied C. ex...
Article
Full-text available
Tree snails of the endemic subfamily Achatinellinae comprise a diverse and important component of the Hawaiian fauna. In recent decades anthropogenic impacts have resulted in devastating extinction rates in Hawaiian tree snails. To address long-standing biogeographic, systematic, and evolutionary questions we used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO...
Article
The endemic Hawaiian Succineidae represent an important component of the exceptionally diverse land snail fauna of the Hawaiian Islands, yet they remain largely unstudied. We employed 663-bp fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene to investigate the evolution and biogeography of 13 Hawaiian succineid land snail species, six s...
Chapter
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SUM MARY The O'a h u tree snail is t h e poste r ch i ld for the mass ive decl i nes t ha t have occurred an1ong nearl y all of Hawai'i's approxin1a.tely 800 species of non­ marin e snails. More than 75% of O'ahu tree snails of the genus Achatinella have become extinct in the last 50 to 70 yea rs, ow ng to h abita t d egrada t i on or destruct ion...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were used to evaluate phylogeographic structure within and among populations of three endangered Hawaiian tree snail species (n = 86). The primary focus of this investigation was on setting conservation priorities for Achatinella mustelina. Limited data sets for two additional endangered Hawaiian tree snails, A....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Anthropogenic biological introductions have captured the attention of marine scientists and resource managers in recent years. Human-mediated marine bioinvasions are presently acknowledged as often ecologically and financially devastating events. Despite recent increases in scientific interest and financial resources devoted to nonindigenous nuisan...
Article
Full-text available
In the early 1990's, an unidentified marine mussel was discovered in a single colony of subadults on a man-made South Texas jetty. Graduate students from Corpus Christie State (now Texas A&M Corpus Christie) initially identified the species to the genus Perna based on shell charaters, a member of the mytilid family with only 3 species globally, all...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in genome size within and among populations of the pond slider, Trachemys scripta, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, was investigated. Because genome size has been shown to affect developmental rate in various organisms, as does incubation temperature, it was hypothesized that genome size could influence sex determin...
Article
Full-text available
Coral community recovery has been followed forfive years since the destruction of aportion of Molasses Reef, Kzy Largo National Mm'ne Sanctuary, by a 122 meter freighteq which ran aground in August 1984. Unclewater repetitive and random photographic methods, visual counts, and art@ial substrates were used between 1984 and 1989 to assm coralpopulatw...

Questions and Answers

Question & Answers (34)
Question
I am comparing phylogenetic data sets in elasmobranchs from GenBank, and am under the assumption that in most species COI will be faster, or have a higher mutation rate, even though both loci are constrained by functional requirements of metabolism, since both are housekeeping genes. But certain authors have suggested that when a COI data set doesn't show differentiation, we should try adding NADH2, but I am not convinced this is a productive direction to take the project.
Question
I pose this question because it recently came up for a colleague who got some pushback after citing another colleague as a "personal communication", regarding field observations of a rare species at a particular locality. The researcher who was cited did not seem to have a problem with the information associated with the citation, but insisted that "permission should have been obtained". My impression based on my own experience is that this is an unorthodox criticism, and one that I had not encountered, but maybe I'd missed something that others were aware of in terms of authorship etiquette. Any thoughts?

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Projects

Projects (9)
Project
Goals: Provide accurate biogeographic species checklists. Discover new species and geographic records of Pacific flora and fauna. Document biodiversity and phylogenetic species relationships within the Pacific Ocean. Prepare consulting documents on Pacific Ocean fauna. Advocate for environmental issues
Project
We have identified evidence of such an extinction event on a relatively small scale, along the western shore of Oahu near Kaena Point State Park, including several land snail shell deposits each containing multiple species of land snails from three families. A preliminary 14C data-set with six land snails shells from four species, and 13C and 18O values for 18 fresh shells from several related extant snails from wet forest habitat in the Waianae Mtns as controls. The age estimates obtained suggest that the loss of land snails here occurred pre-contact, with 14C shell ages ranging from about 3,000 to over 44,000 years before present. The values obtained for 13C and 18O from fresh modern shells will be used as a reference for comparison and statistical testing, to the prehistoric Kaena Point samples. Our objective here is to generate additional data to be included in a larger study, to help us gain a better understanding of the timing of extinction and paleoclimate change, as well as the extent of environmental change that occurred here over each estimated time interval for the three most common species.