Brendan Mackey

Brendan Mackey
Griffith University · Griffith Climate Change Response Program

About

206
Publications
82,192
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8,690
Citations
Citations since 2017
47 Research Items
4421 Citations
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Publications

Publications (206)
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation and forest degradation from human land use, including primary forest loss, are of growing concern. The conservation of old-growth and other forests with important environmental values is central to many international initiatives aimed at protecting biodiversity, mitigating climate change impacts, and supporting sustainable livelihoods...
Article
In Small Island Developing States (SIDS), water pollution is not monitored or assessed frequently enough to fully understand the processes, impacts of water quality issues and what solutions are available This study investigated flushing time in Erakor lagoon and Port Vila Bay, Vanuatu using a numerical model developed in Delft3D. Microbial contami...
Article
Fire regimes are shifting under climate change. Decadal‐scale shifts in fire regime can disrupt the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) within forest ecosystems, but the full extent of these disruptions is unknown. It is also unclear whether these disruptions have consequences for the ecological characteristics (e...
Article
Coral reef ecosystems provide a broad spectrum of essential ecological, economic and cultural services for Small Island Developing State (SIDS) communities. However, coral reef communities are increasingly threatened by the adverse impacts of human activities at both global and local scales. This study aims to develop an integrated dynamic assessme...
Article
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Nature-based solutions (NbS) can address climate change, biodiversity loss, human well-being and their interactions in an integrated way. A major barrier to achieving this is the lack of comprehensiveness in current carbon accounting which has focused on flows rather than stocks of carbon and led to perverse outcomes. We propose a new comprehensive...
Article
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Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) was introduced by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a mechanism to reverse the loss of forests and carbon stocks in developing countries. REDD+ operates on the basis of performance-based payments. This article focuses on REDD+ as a market-based...
Article
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Coral reefs encircle most of the islands in Vanuatu and provide natural breakwaters for coastal communities by reducing wave energy arriving at the shoreline acting to control both inundation and erosion. Climate Change is projected to both exacerbate coastal hazards and endanger corals. The aim of this paper is to better understand the parameters...
Article
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The opinion piece “The climate change mitigation effect of bioenergy from sustainably managed forests in Central Europe” by Schulze et al (GCB Bioenergy 2020;12:186–197) argues against putting forests into conservation, concluding that that managed forests can help mitigate climate change more effectively than unmanaged forests mainly due to the po...
Article
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Changes to Australia's climate and land-use patterns could result in expanded spatial and temporal distributions of endemic mosquito vectors including Aedes and Culex species that transmit medically important arboviruses. Climate and land-use changes greatly influence the suitability of habitats for mosquitoes and their behaviors such as mating, fe...
Article
Tourism is strongly interlinked with the natural and social environment, in particular in destinations around the Pacific. These environments are vulnerable to climate change which impacts on the social–ecological system of destinations. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) uses ecosystems to manage the risks of climate change. However, a gap remains i...
Article
Faivre, G.; Vieira da Silva, G.; Aimbie, J.; Ware, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Mackey, B., and Hong, Z., 2020. Coastal processes within a coral reef lagoon system: Erakor lagoon, Efate Island, Vanuatu. In: Malvárez, G. and Navas, F. (eds.), Global Coastal Issues of 2020. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 95, pp. 1427–1432. Coconut Creek (Florid...
Article
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Given the short time-frame to limit global warming, and the current emissions gap, it is critical to prioritise mitigation actions. To date, scant attention has been paid to the mitigation benefits of primary forest protection. We estimated tropical forest ecosystem carbon stocks and flows. The ecosystem carbon stock of primary tropical forests is...
Article
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The observed variation in the body size responses of endotherms to climate change may be explained by two hypotheses: the size increases with climate variability (the starvation resistance hypothesis) and the size shrinks as mean temperatures rise (the heat exchange hypothesis). Across 82 Australian passerine species over 50 years, shrinking was as...
Conference Paper
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are vulnerable to climate change and development pressure due to their small size, isolation, limited resources, susceptibility to natural hazards, excessive dependence on international trade and fragile natural environments. The population and infrastructure of pacific SIDS are concentrated within coastal area...
Article
Small island developing states are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including more intense and frequent extreme weather, warming temperatures, coastal erosion, inundation, and coral bleaching. Locally-specific natural resource threats, associated with population growth and tourism, exacerbate these systemic risks, which are particularly...
Article
An integrated approach combining Bayesian Network with GIS was developed for making a probabilistic prediction of sea level rise induced coastal erosion and assessing the implications of adaptation measures. The Bayesian Network integrates extensive qualitative and quantitative information into a single probabilistic model while GIS explicitly deal...
Article
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New evidence of impacts by feral horses in Australia's alpine parks systems confirms they endanger threatened species and extensively damage critically endangered bog communities that could take millennia to recover. These impacts are not confounded by effects of deer and accumulate over time, even when only a small number of feral horses (~100) ar...
Article
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Climate change adaptation planning requires the integration of disciplines, stakeholders, different modelling approaches, treatment options, and scales of analysis. An integrated stepwise planning approach is a critical requirement for effective climate change adaptation in the context of small island developing states and coastal communities. To a...
Article
The Paris Agreement commits state parties to a global adaptation goal and the inclusion of adaptation into their National Communications. This requires national level planning, monitoring and reporting and methods for effective global-scale adaptation tracking. However, unlike mitigation, where clear targets and goals have been agreed, adaptation i...
Article
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This paper reviews the practice and research trends in disaster resilience and disaster risk reduction literature since 2012. It applies the rapid appraisal methodology to explore developments in the field and to identify key themes in research and practice. In particular, the paper examines how the emerging themes of disaster risk reduction from t...
Chapter
The Paris Climate Change Agreement is a mixed blessing. Although it has been heralded as a great success, there is a low probability that it will reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions at the pace required to ensure a safe climate, based on current progress and processes. This chapter provides an overview of the scale of the problem of achievin...
Article
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Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is increasingly being advocated as a climate adaptation approach that can deliver multiple benefits to communities. EbA scholarship argues that community-based projects can strengthen those ecosystems that deliver critical services to communities and in doing so enhance community resilience. In particular, the inclu...
Article
Urban food systems are connected with several pressing issues, including urban population growth, resource scarcity, and climate change. To cope within these issues, urban food systems need to become more sustainable in their practices, as well as resilient in the face of extreme weather events. While scholars have started to investigate this topic...
Article
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Here we sought a biologically meaningful, climate variable that captures water-energy availability and is suitable for high resolution (250 m × 250 m) modelling of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the sunlit canopy (F V ) derived from a 10-year (July 2000 - June 2010) time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spec...
Conference Paper
Approximately 3.3 billion, or half of the world's population, are at risk from malaria and this number is projected to rise under climate change scenarios. While climate change does influence the global distribution of malaria, the spatial extent within regions will be determined by local land use factors and by other non-climatic factors. The latt...
Article
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Climate change and climate-sensitive disasters significantly impact health. Linking Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) is essential for addressing these ever present, complex and increasing risks. Recent calls have been made to build these links in health. However, there is a need to clearly articulate why linking DRR...
Article
We live in a rapidly advancing digital information age where the ability to discover, access and utilize high-quality information in a reliable and timely manner is often assumed to be the norm. However, this is not always the experience of researchers, practitioners and decision makers responding to the challenges of a rapidly changing climate, de...
Article
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Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Ho...
Article
The biogeochemical and stoichiometric signature of vegetation fire may influence post-fire ecosystem characteristics and the evolution of plant ‘fire traits’. Phosphorus (P), a potentially limiting nutrient in many fire-prone environments, might be particularly important in this context; however, the effects of fire on P cycling often vary widely....
Chapter
From seawalls to levees and desalination plants to dams, capital works projects have become a widely accepted climate adaptation strategy in the coastal zone. With the reality of anthropogenic climate change and associated rising sea levels and an increase in the intensity of extreme weather events, there is a growing need for a range of adaptation...
Article
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Formal protected areas are a critical conservation measure so long as their tenure is defined and secure and they are well managed. Protected areas in developed countries are assumed to meet these criteria and therefore have not attracted the level of attention given to the adequacy of protected areas in developing countries. We investigate this as...
Article
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Throughout the world, feral horses (Equus caballus) are causing environmental degradation and a decline in ecological integrity. Evidence from scientific monitoring is needed to inform the public debate and help land managers make informed decisions. We used field observations of vegetation condition at a network of sites in the Australian Alps whe...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents an ongoing research towards a systems modelling framework to support ecosystem-based climate change adaptation (CCA) planning and decision making for small island developing states (SIDS), employing a structured process, coupling two approaches; Bayesian Networks (BNs) and System Dynamics (SD). The development of successful CCA...
Chapter
Primary forests are forests that are: (1) largely undisturbed by industrial-scale land uses and infrastructure such as logging, mining, and dams and roads; (2) the result of ecological and evolutionary processes including the full range of successional stages over time and with natural disturbance processes operating within historic bounds; (3) mor...
Chapter
The recent Paris climate change agreement has resulted in a consensus between 196 countries on the need for action, including a stated aim to try to limit warming to 1.5 °C. Despite its weaknesses, it will provide the policy basis for climate change action and research within signature countries. Scientific research is highlighted in the agreement...
Article
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Wilderness areas are ecologically intact landscapes predominantly free of human uses, especially industrial scale activities, which result in significant biophysical disturbance. This definition does not exclude indigenous peoples and local communities who live in wilderness areas, depending on them for subsistence, and who have developed deep bio-...
Article
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Tourism is inherently dependent on weather and climate, and its sustainability and resilience to adverse weather and climate impacts is greatly enhanced by providing tailored climate services to tourism sector stakeholders. Climate services need to integrate standard weather forecasts, with early warning systems, seasonal forecasts and long term pr...
Article
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Background Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies provide evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures, adversely impacting on vulnerable communities in the East African highlands. While there exist multiple lines of...
Article
Assessing future changes in the suitability of the climate niche for interacting species across different trophic levels can identify direct and indirect effects of climate change that may be missed using single-species approaches. We use ensembles of species distribution models based on a dynamically down-scaled regional climate model to project t...
Article
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Humans have altered terrestrial ecosystems for millennia [1], yet wilderness areas still remain as vital refugia where natural ecological and evolutionary processes operate with minimal human disturbance [2-4], underpinning key regional- and planetary-scale functions [5, 6]. Despite the myriad values of wilderness areas-as critical strongholds for...
Book
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“Geografía de la Esperanza: Salvando los Últimos Bosques Primarios” destaca el valor ambiental, cultural y espiritual de los bosques primarios de nuestro planeta, que sufren una acelerada desaparición a consecuencia de la actividad humana.
Book
Full-text available
"Geography of Hope: Saving the Last Primary Forests” underscores the spectacular environmental, cultural, and spiritual value of our planet’s primary forests—that are fast disappearing as a result of human activity.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies providing evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures resulting in adverse impacts on vulnerable communities. This risk is significant in East Africa whereby current research sh...
Article
Park management in complex landscapes spanning jurisdictions is often limited by the lack of shared management priorities and a common spatial information system. Furthermore, current approaches may lead to a reductionist approach by focusing on a narrow range of park features in isolation from their landscape context. The natural icons and threats...
Article
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Economic growth is often in conflict with environmental goals. Biodiversity offsetting attempts to resolve this conflict by requiring industries to compensate for the biodiversity loss they cause, by generating an equivalent biodiversity gain elsewhere. Offsets for environmental impacts are increasingly being seen as a way to help meet preexisting...
Article
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Advances in computing power and infrastructure, increases in the number and size of ecological and environmental datasets, and the number and type of data collection methods, are revolutionizing the field of Ecology. To integrate these advances, virtual laboratories offer a unique tool to facilitate, expedite, and accelerate research into the impac...
Article
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Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We...
Article
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The World Heritage Convention could make a bigger and more systematic contribution to global wilderness conservation by: (1) ensuring the World Heritage List includes full coverage of Earth's wilderness areas with outstanding universal value; and (2) more effectively protecting the ecological integrity of existing World Heritage sites. Here we asse...
Article
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Governments should not meet existing conservation targets using the compensation that developers pay for damaging biodiversity, say Martine Maron and colleagues.
Book
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This publication brings together the key concepts, case studies and recommendations presented at a symposium entitled Valuing Nature: Protected Areas and Ecosystem Services held in Brisbane, Australia on 21-22 July 2014. The symposium brought together over one hundred protected area, conservation, and ecological economic experts from government age...
Chapter
Full-text available
These key directions summarise significant insights and recommendations from the presentations and discussions at the Symposium Valuing Nature: Protected Areas and Ecosystems. The following steps are vital in seeking a more comprehensive and science-based approach to recognising the values and benefits of natural systems and, in particular, the imp...
Chapter
Full-text available
This publication brings together the key concepts, case studies and recommendations presented at a symposium entitled Valuing Nature: Protected Areas and Ecosystem Services held in Brisbane, Australia on 21-22 July 2014. The symposium brought together over one hundred protected area, conservation, and ecological economic experts from government age...
Article
The effectiveness of revegetation in providing habitat for fauna is expected to be determined both by within-site factors and attributes of the landscape in which a revegetation site occurs. Most studies of fauna in revegetation have been conducted in landscapes that have been extensively cleared, modified or fragmented, and in Australia, predomina...
Article
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Given climate change projections, the ability to identify locations that provide refuge under drought conditions is an urgent conservation priority. Previously, it has been proposed that the ecosystem greenspot index could be used to identify locations that currently function as habitat refuges from drought and fire. If this is true, these location...
Technical Report
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There is a growing appreciation in the Pacific of the important role played by climate change data and information management in effective adaptation and resilience planning, with a number of regional bodies and PICTs moving towards addressing this issue through policy. In support of this process, the Australian Government Department of Foreign Aff...
Data
Data S2. Code for SDM Uncertainty Simulation.
Data
Appendix S1. Detailed description and discussion of the uncertainty simulation process (NB: Appendix includes “Figure 1 Matrix of uncertainty in six global climate models”).
Data
Data S1. SDM Uncertainty Simulation Tutorial.
Article
Full-text available
1 Tools for exploring and communicating the impact of uncertainty on spatial prediction are urgently needed, particularly when projecting species distributions to future conditions. 2 We provide a tool for simulating uncertainty, focusing on uncertainty due to data quality. We illustrate the use of the tool using a Tasmanian endemic species as a ca...
Article
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Choice of variables, climate models and emissions scenarios all influence the results of species distribution models under future climatic conditions. However, an overview of applied studies suggests that the uncertainty associated with these factors is not always appropriately incorporated or even considered. We examine the effects of choice of va...