Brendan E Depue

Brendan E Depue
University of Louisville | UL · Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences

Ph.D. Neuroscience and Cogniti

About

48
Publications
12,606
Reads
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2,502
Citations
Introduction
I am a cognitive neuroscientist that uses multiple imaging methodologies to investigate the functional neuroanatomical substrates underlying inhibitory and cognitive control and how this is organized in the PFC.
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
University of Louisville
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)/ Endowed Chair of Behavioral Brain Imaging
May 2009 - June 2014
University of Colorado Boulder
Position
  • Fellow
August 2002 - May 2009
University of Colorado at Boulder
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
August 2002 - May 2009
University of Colorado Boulder
Field of study
  • Neuroscience/Cognitive Psychology

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Gender differences in emotion regulation (ER) have been postulated, yet their neural basis remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate this issue from a functional connectivity (FC) perspective. Utilizing a region of interest (ROI) analysis, we investigated whether men and women (N=48) differed in their FC pattern while vie...
Article
Full-text available
Awareness of internal bodily sensations (interoceptive awareness; IA) and its connection to complex socioemotional abilities like empathy has been postulated, yet the functional neural circuitry they share remains poorly understood. The present fMRI study employs independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate which empathy facet (Cognitive or...
Preprint
Full-text available
Awareness of internal bodily sensations (interoception, IA) and its connection to complex socio-emotional phenomena like empathy have been postulated, yet its neural basis remains poorly understood. The goal of the present fMRI study employs a data-driven approach to investigate whether Cognitive or Affective empathy and IA share spatial and/or tem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gender differences in emotion regulation (ER) have been postulated, yet their neural basis remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate this issue from a functional connectivity (FC) perspective. Utilizing a region of interest (ROI) analysis, we investigated whether men and women (N=48) differed in their FC pattern while vie...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Emotional and behavioral control is necessary self-regulatory processes to maintain stable goal-driven behavior. Studies indicate that variance in these executive function (EF) processes is related to morphological features of the brain and white matter (WM) differences. Furthermore, sex hormone level may modulate circuits in the bra...
Article
Full-text available
After decades of being overshadowed by the amygdala, new perspectives suggest a tiny basal forebrain region known as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may hold key insights into understanding and treating anxiety disorders. Converging research indicates that the amygdala and BNST play complementary but distinct functional roles during...
Poster
Full-text available
Goal-directed behavior benefits from self-regulation of cognitive and affective processes, such as emotional reactivity, memory retrieval, and prepotent motor response. Dysfunction in self-regulation is commonly found in psychiatric disorders involving these systems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and ADHD. Because of the entwined nature...
Article
Full-text available
Fear is an emotion that serves as a driving factor in how organisms move through the world. In this review, we discuss the current understandings of the subjective experience of fear and the related biological processes involved in fear learning and memory. We first provide an overview of fear learning and memory in humans and animal models, encomp...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy is characterized by the ability to understand and share an emotional experience with another person and is closely tied to compassion and concern for others. Consequently, this increased emotional awareness and sensitivity may also be related to increased anxiety. Taken from another perspective, higher general anxiety may translate into inc...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has shown that healthy individuals can actively suppress emotional memories through recruitment of the lateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently experience unwanted memories of their traumatic experiences, even when making explicit efforts to avoid them. However, little is...
Article
The structure and function of the human brain is closely related to cognitive processes of the mind and physiological processes of the body, suggesting that an intricate relationship exists between cognitive health, body health, and underlying neural architecture. In the current study, morphometric differences in cortical and subcortical gray matte...
Article
Full-text available
Highly influential models have proposed that responses to different types of threat are mediated by partially segregated neural systems, with the amygdala underlying phasic responses to explicit threat (fear) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediating sustained responses to ambiguous threat (anxiety). However, newer models have su...
Poster
Full-text available
Goal-directed behavior benefits from self-regulation of cognitive and affective processes such as emotional reactivity and memory retrieval. Dysfunction in self-regulation is commonly found in psychiatric disorders involving both emotion and memory systems (e.g., PTSD). Because of the entwined nature of emotion and memory, it is highly probable t...
Poster
Full-text available
Participants were presented with negatively valenced pictures and were instructed to either view or suppress their emotions related to the pictures based on the color of the border. They were later asked to rate the pictures on a 1-4 Likert scale for how negative the pictures made them feel. Social Fear Task-SF (Processing) Participants were presen...
Article
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects a large portion of combat deployed Veterans. Moreover, many individuals also suffer from comorbid late life depression (geriatric depression; GD). While a great deal of research has begun to characterize the morphometric features of PTSD and depression individually, few studies have investigated the inte...
Article
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are two of the most common consequences of combat deployment. Estimates of comorbidity of PTSD and mTBI are as high as 42% in combat exposed Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) Veterans. Combat deployed Veterans with PTS...
Poster
Full-text available
The relationship between the neural mechanisms underlying regulation of negative emotion and social fear perception and has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, gender differences are known to contribute to emotional processing (Cahill, 2010). Therefore, the current fMRI study aimed to examine gender differences in the common neural mechanisms u...
Poster
Full-text available
Sample: A total of 50 healthy, right-handed individuals (22 females) were included in this study (mean age = 22, SD = 4 years). Tasks: Emotion Regulation Task Participants were presented with negatively valenced pictures and were instructed to either view or suppress their emotions related to the pictures based on the color of the border. They were...
Poster
Full-text available
To examine the possibility of altered morphology associated with the BRIEF we performed several regression analyses comparing the score on the BRIEF with cortical volume, thickness and surface area (SA) in both the right and left hemispheres, as well as interactions between BRIEF scores and cortisol slope. Multiple regression results indicate that...
Article
The current study examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During fMRI, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don't shoot responses to unarmed individ...
Article
Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study exam...
Article
This study used the power of neuroimaging to identify the neural systems that remove information from working memory, a thorny issue to examine because it is difficult to confirm that individuals have actually modified their thoughts. To overcome this problem, brain activation as measured via fMRI was assessed when individuals had to clear their mi...
Article
Inhibitory control/regulation is critical to adapt behavior in accordance with changing environmental circumstances. Dysfunctional inhibitory regulation is ubiquitous in neurological and psychiatric populations. These populations exhibit dysfunction across psychological domains, including memory/thought, emotion/affect, and motor response. Although...
Article
Full-text available
A significant portion of previously deployed combat Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) are affected by comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Despite this fact, neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of cognitive dysfu...
Article
Although the relationship between structural differences within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) has been widely explored in cognitively impaired populations, little is known about this relationship in healthy young adults. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), surface-based morphometry (SBM), and fractional anisotro...
Conference Paper
This mixed-method, qualitative/quantitative study examined (a) how a constructivist-based intervention (CBI) effected adults' learning of unit fractions and performance on whole-number (WN) or unit fraction (FR) comparisons and (b) brain circuitry implicated (fMRI) when processing these comparisons. The CBI used unit-iteration based activities to f...
Article
Although investigations of memory and the dynamics of ERP components and neural oscillations as assessed through EEG have been well utilized, little research into the volitional nature of suppression over memory retrieval have used these methods. Oscillation analyses conducted on the Think/No-Think (TNT) task and volitional suppression of retrieval...
Article
Putative control of encoding and retrieval processes have been linked to communication between the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the hippocampus. Moreover, correlations between the LPFC (e.g., MFG) and hippocampus have predicted individuals' ability to inhibit memory retrieval. Anatomically, differences in volume of the hippocampus have been...
Article
Memory of past experience is essential for guiding goal-related behavior. Being able to control accessibility of memory through modulation of retrieval enables humans to flexibly adapt to their environment. Understanding the specific neural pathways of how this control is achieved has largely eluded cognitive neuroscience. Accordingly, in the curre...
Article
Being able to dynamically control accessibility to memories enables humans to flexibly adapt to their environment. When this control fails we become acutely aware of emotionally painful reminders of past events. Individuals suffering from some psychiatric conditions are plagued by intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts and ruminations of such memories....
Article
Inhibiting unwanted thoughts, actions and emotions figures centrally in daily life, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is widely viewed as a source of this inhibitory control. We argue that the function of the PFC is best understood in terms of representing and actively maintaining abstract information, such as goals, which produces two types of inhib...
Article
Studies of inhibitory control have focused on inhibition of motor responses. Individuals with ADHD consistently show reductions in inhibitory control and exhibit reduced activity of rLPFC activity compared to controls when performing such tasks. Recently these same brain regions have been implicated in the inhibition of memory retrieval. The degree...
Article
Optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used in the present study to investigate morphometric differences between young adults with combined type Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a well-matched control group. Investigations examined differences on a between-group whole brain level, as well as how individual differences in beh...
Article
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the associat...
Article
Attentional control difficulties in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might reflect poor working memory (WM) ability, especially because WM ability and attentional control rely on similar brain regions. The current study examined whether WM ability might explain group differences in brain activation between adults wit...
Article
Differences in neural activation during performance on an attentionally demanding Stroop task were examined between 23 young adults with ADHD carefully selected to not be co-morbid for other psychiatric disorders and 23 matched controls. A hybrid blocked/single-trial design allowed for examination of more sustained vs. more transient aspects of att...
Article
In this paper we provide a focused review of the literature examining neural mechanisms involved in cognitive control over memory processes that can influence, and in turn are influenced by, emotional processes. The review is divided into two parts, the first focusing on working memory and the second on long-term memory. With regard to working memo...
Article
Whether memories can be suppressed has been a controversial issue in psychology and cognitive neuroscience for decades. We found evidence that emotional memories are suppressed via two time-differentiated neural mechanisms: (i) an initial suppression by the right inferior frontal gyrus over regions supporting sensory components of the memory repres...
Article
Two experiments utilized a think/no-think paradigm to examine whether cognitive control of memories differs depending on whether they contain information with negative or neutral emotional content. During a training phase, participants learned face-word pairs (Experiment 1) or face-picture pairs (Experiment 2). In a subsequent experimental phase, p...

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
The project aims to produce a series of overarching reviews that can summarize much of what is currently known about affective neuroscience while simultaneously exploring the language that we use to convey feelings and emotions. The goal of this project was to address two related issues: (1) to develop a comprehensive and robust functional model for emotions and feelings that can serve as a common focal point for research in the field and (2) to avoid inconsistent constructs (Izard, 2007) while supporting the neurophysiological and anatomical substrates in the brain that correspond to various aspects of affect (Panksepp, 2007).
Archived project
Does increased emotional awareness and sensitivity found in highly empathetic people also make them more anxious? Does higher general anxiety, including concern for others, or concern for how one's actions might affect others, lead to higher empathy? We aimed to empirically study this connection between empathy and anxiety using neuroimaging tools aimed at investigating of the underlying neural correlates that may support these convergent responses. Results are now published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (full-text article included below).
Project
Can emotion regulation (ER) be trained? Like other forms of executive function/cognitive control, we surmise that ER may improve with practice. We are employing pre/post fMRI sessions with intervening practice at ER.