Brandon Foreman

Brandon Foreman
University of Cincinnati | UC · Department of Neurology

Doctor of Medicine

About

98
Publications
17,698
Reads
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3,002
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - June 2014
Columbia University
Position
  • Neurocritical Care Fellow
Education
July 2012 - June 2014
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Neurocritical Care
July 2011 - June 2012
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Clinical Neurophysiology
July 2008 - June 2011
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Neurology

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Background: Extracranial multisystem organ failure is a common sequela of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Risk factors for developing circulatory shock and long-term functional outcomes of this patient subset are poorly understood. Objective: To identify emergency department predictors of circulatory shock after moderate-severe TBI and exam...
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Full-text available
This proceedings article presents actionable research targets on the basis of the presentations and discussions at the 2nd Curing Coma National Institutes of Health (NIH) symposium held from May 3 to May 5, 2021. Here, we summarize the background, research priorities, panel discussions, and deliverables discussed during the symposium across six maj...
Article
Background After severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI), physicians use long-term prognostication to guide acute clinical care yet struggle to predict outcomes in comatose patients. Purpose To develop and evaluate a prognostic model combining deep learning of head CT scans and clinical information to predict long-term outcomes after sTBI. Materials a...
Article
Background: Hypoglycemic coma (HC) is an uncommon but severe clinical condition associated with poor neurological outcome. There is a dearth of robust neurological prognostic factors after HC. On the other hand, there is an increasing body of literature on reliable prognostic markers in the postanoxic coma, a similar-albeit not identical-situation...
Article
OBJECTIVE The Surviving Penetrating Injury to the Brain (SPIN) score utilizes clinical variables to estimate in-hospital and 6-month mortality for patients with civilian cranial gunshot wounds (cGSWs) and demonstrated good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.880) in an initial validation study. The goal of...
Article
Background: Both seizures and spreading depolarizations (SDs) are commonly detected using electrocorticography (ECoG) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A close relationship between seizures and SDs has been described, but the implications of detecting either or both remain unclear. We sought to characterize the relationship between these...
Article
Introduction: Early circulatory shock following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multifactorial process; however, the impact of brain injury biomarkers on the risk of shock has not been evaluated. We examined the association between neuronal injury biomarker levels and the development of circulatory shock following moderate-severe TBI. Methods:...
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Importance Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recognized sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the long-term outcomes associated with PTE independent of injury severity are not precisely known. Objective To determine the incidence, risk factors, and association with functional outcomes and self-reported somatic, cognitive, and psychological...
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In nearly all clinical and research contexts, the initial severity of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) total score. However, the GCS total score may not accurately reflect level of consciousness, a critical indicator of injury severity. We investigated the relationship between GCS total scores and level...
Article
Background: Early hypotension following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with increased mortality and poor long-term outcomes. Current guidelines suggest the use of intravenous vasopressors to support blood pressure following TBI; however, guidelines do not specify vasopressor type, resulting in variation in clinical p...
Article
Background Traumatic brainstem injury has yet to be incorporated into widely used imaging classification systems for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and questions remain regarding prognostic implications for this TBI subgroup. To address this, retrospective data on patients from the multicenter prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge...
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Background Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur in some 60% of patients receiving intensive care following severe traumatic brain injury and often occur at a higher incidence following serious subarachnoid hemorrhage and malignant hemisphere stroke (MHS); they are independently associated with worse clinical outcome. Detection of SDs to guide clin...
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Importance: A head computed tomography (CT) with positive results for acute intracranial hemorrhage is the gold-standard diagnostic biomarker for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). In moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] scores 3-12), some CT features have been shown to be associated with outcomes. In mild TBI (mTBI; GCS scores 13-15)...
Article
IntroductionSeizures and abnormal periodic or rhythmic patterns are observed on continuous electroencephalography monitoring (cEEG) in up to half of patients hospitalized with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to determine the impact of seizures and abnormal periodic or rhythmic patterns on cognitive outcome 3 months followi...
Article
Importance: Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the US and worldwide. Few studies have enabled prospective, longitudinal outcome data collection from the acute to chronic phases of recovery after msTBI. Objective: To prospectively assess outcomes in major areas of life function at 2 weeks...
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Background/Objective For patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) and their families, the search for new therapies has been a source of hope and frustration. Almost all clinical trials in patients with DoC have been limited by small sample sizes, lack of placebo groups, and use of heterogeneous outcome measures. As a result, few therapies hav...
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Full-text available
Coma and disorders of consciousness (DoC) are highly prevalent and constitute a burden for patients, families, and society worldwide. As part of the Curing Coma Campaign, the Neurocritical Care Society partnered with the National Institutes of Health to organize a symposium bringing together experts from all over the world to develop research targe...
Article
Subdural hematomas (SDHs) are increasingly common and can cause ischemic brain injury. Prior work has suggested that this is driven largely by vascular compression from herniation, although this work was done prior to the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We thus sought to study SDH-related ischemic brain injury by looking at patterns of cyt...
Article
Background There is interest in methods of measuring noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP), including pupillometry, ultrasonographic transcranial Doppler (TCD), and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), for diagnosing traumatic brain injury (TBI) in limited resource environments. Whether these technologies have diagnostic agreement is unknown. We h...
Article
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. While the impact of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome has been studied in many critical care paradigms, the clinical impact of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in traumatic brain injury is poorly understood. We examined the incidenc...
Article
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major global health problem. Little research has addressed extracranial organ dysfunction following TBI, particularly myocardial injury. Using a sensitive marker of myocardial injury-high sensitivity troponin (hsTn)-we examined the incidence of early myocardial injury following TBI and explored its ass...
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Importance Knowledge of differences in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recovery by sex and age may inform individualized treatment of these patients. Objective To identify sex-related differences in symptom recovery from mTBI; secondarily, to explore age differences within women, who demonstrate poorer outcomes after TBI. Design, Setting, and...
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Importance Heterogeneity across patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents challenges for clinical care and intervention design. Identifying distinct clinical phenotypes of TBI soon after injury may inform patient selection for precision medicine clinical trials. Objective To investigate whether distinct neurobehavioral phenotypes can be...
Article
Background Antithrombotic-associated subdural hematomas (SDHs) are increasingly common, and the possibility of clinical deterioration in otherwise stable antithrombotic-associated SDH patients may prompt unnecessary admissions to intensive care units. It is unknown whether all antithrombotic regimens are equally associated with the need for critica...
Article
BACKGROUND Despite the widespread adoption of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in civilian cranial gunshot wounds (cGSWs), there remains a lack of consensus on microbial coverage and duration of therapy. OBJECTIVE To analyze a 6-yr experience with prophylactic antibiotics in civilian cGSWs with a focus on infectious complications. METHODS Records...
Article
Acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) are highly morbid and increasingly common. Hematoma expansion is a potentially fatal complication, and few studies have examined whether factors associated with hematoma expansion vary over time. To answer this, we performed a case-control study in a cohort of initially conservatively managed ASDH patients. Two time...
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Continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a cornerstone of neurocritical care after severe brain injuries such as traumatic brain injury and acts as a biomarker of secondary brain injury. With the rapid development of artificial intelligent (AI) approaches to data analysis, the acquisition, storage, real-time analysis, and interpretation...
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Coma and disordered consciousness are common manifestations of acute neurological conditions and are among the most pervasive and challenging aspects of treatment in neurocritical care. Gaps exist in patient assessment, outcome prognostication, and treatment directed specifically at improving consciousness and cognitive recovery. In 2019, the Neuro...
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Background The outcome focus for survivors of critical care has shifted from mortality to patient-centered outcomes. Multidimensional outcome assessments performed in critically ill patients typically exclude those with primary neurological injuries. Objective To determine the feasibility of measurements of physical function, cognition, and qualit...
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Introduction: A qualitative assessment of discharge resource needs is important for developing evidence-based care improvements in neurocritically ill patients. Methods: We conducted a quality improvement initiative at an academic hospital and included all patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (ICU) during an 18-month period....
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This study aimed to elucidate the structure of the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) and evaluate its longitudinal and group variance. Factor structures were developed and compared in 1,011 patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) from the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge...
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Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly prevalent among the injuries sustained in the military. Many wounded warriors require emergency medical evacuation via helicopter and subsequently fixed wing transport. During aeromedical evacuation, both pilots and patients experience whole body vibration due to engine, rotor, and p...
Article
Background Benzodiazepine-refractory, or established, status epilepticus is thought to be of similar pathophysiology in children and adults, but differences in underlying aetiology and pharmacodynamics might differentially affect response to therapy. In the Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial (ESETT) we compared the efficacy and safety o...
Article
Importance Advances in treatment of traumatic brain injury are hindered by the inability to monitor pathological mechanisms in individual patients for targeted neuroprotective treatment. Spreading depolarizations, a mechanism of lesion development in animal models, are a novel candidate for clinical monitoring in patients with brain trauma who need...
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Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are profound disruptions of cellular homeostasis that slowly propagate through gray matter and present an extraordinary metabolic challenge to brain tissue. Recent work has shown that SDs occur commonly in human patients in the neurointensive care setting and have established a compelling case for their importance in...
Article
Background: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), plasma concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) correlates with intracranial injury visible on CT scan. Some patients with suspected TBI with normal CT findings show pathology on MRI. We assessed the discriminative ability of GFAP to identify MRI abnormalities in patients with normal C...
Article
Objectives: Survivors of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) require substantial care, much of which is ultimately provided by friends and family. We sought to describe the unmet needs of informal caregivers. Design: Qualitative, semistructured interviews with informal caregivers of moderate and severe TBI survivors were conducted 7...
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The International Conference on Spreading Depolarizations (iCSD) held in Boca Raton, Florida, in the September of 2018 devoted a section to address the question, “What should a clinician do when spreading depolarizations are observed in a patient?” Discussants represented a wide range of expertise, including neurologists, neurointensivists, neurora...
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Generalized periodic discharges (GPDs) with triphasic morphology are an electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern traditionally associated with encephalopathy and coma, although they have been observed in a wide array of neurological disorders. The clinical significance of these waveforms and their relationship to seizures and prognosis has been debate...
Article
Importance Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are classified as mild (mTBI) based on admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 13 to 15. The prevalence of persistent functional limitations for these patients is unclear. Objectives To characterize the natural history of recovery of daily function following mTBI vs peripheral orthopedic traumat...
Article
Objectives: After traumatic brain injury, continuous electroencephalography is widely used to detect electrographic seizures. With the development of standardized continuous electroencephalography terminology, we aimed to describe the prevalence and burden of ictal-interictal patterns, including electrographic seizures after moderate-to-severe tra...
Article
Importance Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but little is known about factors that modify risk for these psychiatric sequelae, particularly in the civilian sector. Objective To ascertain prevalence of and risk fact...
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Objective: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), depressive symptoms are common and may influence recovery. We performed a meta-analysis to estimate the benefit of antidepressants following TBI and compare the estimated effects between antidepressants and placebo. Participants: Multiple databases were searched to find prospective pharmacologic...
Article
The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Anti-epileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) is a longitudinal prospective observational study funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) to discover and validate observational biomarkers of epileptogenesis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A multidisciplinary approach has been incorporated to investigate ac...
Article
Background: We aimed to provide a systematic description of our 2-year experience using a standardized bedside, single burr hole approach to intracranial multimodality monitoring (MMM) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI), focusing on safety and probe reliability. Methods: We performed this observational cohort study at a univer...
Article
Objective: Injury severity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for the development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). However, whether lesion location influences the susceptibility of seizures and development of PTE longitudinally has yet to be defined. We hypothesized that lesion location, specifically in the tempor...
Article
Importance Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects millions of Americans each year. Lack of consistent clinical practice raises concern that many patients with mTBI may not receive adequate follow-up care. Objective To characterize the provision of follow-up care to patients with mTBI during the first 3 months after injury. Design, Setting, an...
Article
Introduction Traumatic brain injury is common and the leading source of disability in the US. International guidelines for the use of EEG in those requiring ICU admission include indications to detect nonconvulsive seizures in those with altered mental status or in those at high-risk, although evidence is lacking for which patients might be at risk...
Article
Introduction Status epilepticus (SE) often requires intensive care and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Mortality in the general critical care population may be predicted by the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score; in patients with SE, the Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) has been developed...
Article
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) following brain injury contributes to poor outcomes for patients, primarily by reducing the caliber of cerebral vasculature, and thereby reducing cerebral blood flow. Careful monitoring of ICP is critical in these patients in order to determine prognosis, implement treatment when ICP becomes elevated, and to jud...
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Objective: Restoring the circulation is the primary goal in emergency treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, better understanding of how the brain responds to energy depletion could inform the time available for resuscitation until irreversible damage and advance development of interventions that prolong this span. Experimentally, injury to cent...
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Benign meningiomas uncommonly lead to significant cerebral edema, with only a few cases previously reported in the medical literature. The present study describes the case of a 49-year-old female who had a meningioma resection. She subsequently developed malignant cerebral edema and had episodes that were initially concerning for seizure activity....
Article
Background: Coagulopathy and platelet dysfunction commonly develop after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thromboelastography (TEG) and platelet function assays (PFAs) are often performed at the time of admission; however, their roles in assessing post-TBI coagulopathy have not been investigated. We hypothesized that compared to blunt TBI, penetratin...
Chapter
Periodic and rhythmic patterns are encountered with increasing frequency as continuous electroenchephalography (EEG) monitoring is adopted more widely across hospitals and intensive care units for seizure detection and brain monitoring. A standardized nomenclature has provided a common way to describe these abnormal patterns. Periodic and rhythmic...
Chapter
Patients with critical illness experience failure of one or more organ systems. The liver and kidneys function to metabolize and filter medications, endogenous metabolites, and waste products. The endocrine axes maintain homeostasis necessary for the brain’s biochemical and osmolar gradients. Abnormalities in these organ systems create brain dysfun...
Article
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Approximately one in four patients develop progressive neurological deterioration and silent infarction referred to as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). DCI is a complex, multifactorial secondary brain injury pattern and its pathogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to study the rel...
Article
Purpose: Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs) are often seen during continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring in coma. Given their uncertain clinical significance, our prospective study evaluated incidence of SIRPIDs in comatose patients in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) who underwent a standa...
Article
Purpose: We conducted a survey of providers to assess for practice patterns in diagnosing and treating new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). NORSE is the occurrence of prolonged seizures that are not responsive to initial therapies in otherwise healthy individuals without obvious cause on initial presentation. This entity is thought to...
Article
Objective: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a common, disabling complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Preventing DCI is a key focus of neurocritical care, but interventions carry risk and cannot be applied indiscriminately. While retrospective studies have identified continuous EEG (cEEG) measures associated with DCI, no study has charac...
Chapter
The neurophysiology of the central nervous system can be evaluated by electroencephalography (EEG) and evoked potentials (EP). Both provide an extension of the neurological examination by assessing electrical function through critical pathways to the cortex. In the critically ill, these pathways may be disrupted reversibly or irreversibly as a resu...
Article
A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão’s historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum of spreading mass depolarizations, a concept that is...
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Full-text available
Spreading depolarizations (SD) are waves of abrupt, near-complete breakdown of neuronal transmembrane ion gradients, are the largest possible pathophysiologic disruption of viable cerebral gray matter, and are a crucial mechanism of lesion development. Spreading depolarizations are increasingly recorded during multimodal neuromonitoring in neurocri...