Bram Orobio de Castro

Bram Orobio de Castro
University of Amsterdam | UVA · Developmental Psychopathology

About

276
Publications
74,037
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,212
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2000 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (276)
Article
Background Psychological interventions targeting children with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MID-BIF) are suggested to be effective in reducing their externalizing problem behavior, but less is known about the specific treatment processes that may be associated with these effects. Aims The current study inves...
Article
There is a social gradient to the determinants of health; low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to reduced educational attainment and employment prospects, which in turn affect physical and mental wellbeing. One goal of preventive interventions, such as parenting programs, is to reduce these health inequalities by supporting families with...
Article
Full-text available
Children with aggressive behavior problems may aggress for different reasons, requiring tailored assessment and treatment. The aim of this study was to test whether it is possible to detect distinct social information processing (SIP) profiles among boys with aggressive behavior problems. We therefore conducted Latent Profile Analyses on boys’ SIP...
Article
Full-text available
Background Over the past years, it has become clear that adapted cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for adolescents with externalizing problems and mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning (MID–BIF). Most adapted treatment protocols consist, however, of a combined cognitive and behavioral approach, even though...
Article
Caregivers are often encouraged to praise children to reduce externalizing behavior. Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that praise works (e.g., praise reinforces positive behavior), others suggest it may not (e.g., children dismiss praise or experience it as controlling). This longitudinal-observational study examined whether (a) ca...
Article
Behavioral parenting programs are a theory-driven and evidence-based approach for reducing disruptive child behavior. Although these programs are effective on average, they are not equally effective in all families. Decades of moderation research has yielded very few consistent moderators, and we therefore still have little knowledge of who benefit...
Article
This study aimed to shed light on the prevalence of chronic peer victimisation among Dutch elementary school children and factors associated with (non-)disclosure of such experiences by victims. 5,961 students from 73 schools participated (51.5% male; Mage = 9.96; 77.7% native Dutch). Results showed that 12.3% of all children were victimised chroni...
Preprint
Caregivers are often encouraged to praise children to reduce externalizing behavior. Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that praise works (e.g., praise reinforces positive behavior), others suggest it may not (e.g., children dismiss praise or experience it as controlling). This longitudinal-observational study examined whether (1) ca...
Article
Full-text available
Interventions for children's aggression typically target assumed underlying mechanisms, such as anger regulation and hostile intent attribution. The expectation here is that targeting these mechanisms will result in within-person changes in aggression. However, evidence for these mechanisms is mostly based on between-person analyses. We, therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether interactive Virtual Reality (VR) provides a more ecologically valid assessment of children's aggressive social information processing (SIP) and aggressive responses than a standard vignette-based assessment. We developed a virtual classroom where children could meet and play games with virtual peers. Participants were bo...
Article
Full-text available
School bullying is a clear violation of children’s rights to a safe education and is a major concern among school professionals and parents. Many antibullying interventions focus on enhancing peer defending of victims to combat bullying and to promote victims’ psychosocial functioning. However, longitudinal studies on the effects of being defended...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) for children with aggressive behavior problems have only modest effects. Research is needed into new methods to enhance CBT effectiveness. The aims of the present study were to (1) examine whether interactive virtual reality is a feasible treatment method for children with aggressive behavior pro...
Article
Full-text available
Children differ considerably in the social-information-processing (SIP) patterns underlying their aggressive behavior. To clarify these individual differences, we propose a dual-mode SIP model that predicts which processing steps children will take, which children will take them, and under which circumstances, and how this may lead to aggression. T...
Article
Full-text available
Improving interventions for externalizing problems in adolescence may require determining which treatment elements actually produce change. In this micro-trial, we tested a treatment element addressing one widely-hypothesized mechanism underlying externalizing problems: emotion regulation. We tested whether emotion regulation could be improved via...
Article
Full-text available
Children’s aggressive behavior is partly determined by how they process social information (e.g., making hostile interpretations, or aiming to seek revenge). Such aggressive social information processing (SIP) may be most evident if children are emotionally engaged in actual social interactions. Current methods to assess aggressive SIP, however, of...
Article
Full-text available
Many established parenting programs for children's conduct problems are delivered in groups. Various, and at times conflicting, beliefs exist about whether families fare better in groups with parents that are more similar to them, or in groups that are more diverse. We set out to test these beliefs empirically. We integrated data from four trials o...
Article
Many children who are victimized by their peers do not tell their teachers. Subsequently, teacher intervention and support are not likely to take place. To investigate the role teachers can play to promote disclosure by victimized students, we examined (1) the prevalence of disclosure to teachers, and (2) the extent to which teachers’ responses tow...
Article
Full-text available
Conduct problems can develop into behavior disorders and put children at risk for other mental health problems. Parenting interventions have been shown to successfully reduce conduct problems and are often expected to prevent the development of broader mental health problems. Few studies have evaluated the longer-term and broader effects of these i...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated (1) how social relationships with teachers and peers and self-esteem of students with social–emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD) in inclusive regular education (regular schools) and students with SEBD in exclusive special education (special schools) develop over time in comparison with each other and in compa...
Article
Full-text available
How do children with aggressive behavior problems view themselves? The present research seeks to answer this question by examining the self-views (i.e., self-esteem and narcissism) of boys referred for disruptive behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 85, Mage= 10.8 years), we examined relations between self-views and self-reported and parent-reported...
Article
Full-text available
Most interventions aimed at improving social interactions either target internalising or externalising problem behaviour in children. However, a recent review shows that a transdiagnostic approach might fit better to the diversity of problems within a group and within an individual (comorbidity). We examined the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic i...
Article
Children vary in the extent to which they benefit from parenting programs for conduct problems. How does parental mental health change if children benefit less or more? We assessed whether changes in conduct problems and maternal depressive symptoms co-occur following participation in the Incredible Years parenting program. We integrated individual...
Article
Background: Childhood conduct problems are a costly public health problem and are five times more common in socially disadvantaged groups than they are in advantaged groups. Untreated, conduct problems have a poor prognosis, with increasing gaps between socioeconomic groups, and high rates of subsequent criminality. Incredible Years is a high qual...
Article
Full-text available
To test specific hypotheses about the relation between hostile intent attribution (HIA) and children’s aggressive behavior, a multilevel meta‐analysis was conducted on 111 studies with 219 effect sizes and 29.272 participants. A positive association between HIA and aggression was found, but effect sizes varied widely between studies. Results sugges...
Article
Full-text available
Children with aggression problems tend to interpret other’s intentions as hostile in ambiguous social situations. Among clinically referred children with aggressive behavior problems, this hostile attribution style may be relatively rigid and difficult to change, due to prevalent histories of aversive social experience and/or personal vulnerability...
Article
This study examined which factors were related to placement choices for inclusive regular education or exclusive special education for Dutch students with social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). Students aged 6–11 in three subgroups participated: 45 included and 17 excluded students with SEBD (i.e., educated in regular education clas...
Article
Objective: Families with disruptive child behavior are typically referred to services based on children's behavior alone, rather than on underlying mechanisms of disruptive behavior. Yet, the presence of the precise mechanisms targeted by services might be essential for intervention success. We integrated person- and variable-centered approaches t...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments tested an intervention approach to reduce young children’s hostile attribution bias and aggression: self-persuasion. Children with high levels of hostile attribution bias recorded a video-message advocating to peers why story characters who caused a negative outcome may have had nonhostile intentions (self-persuasion condition), or...
Article
Full-text available
Background Interventions for adolescents with externalizing behavior problems are generally found to be only moderately effective, and treatment responsiveness is variable. Therefore, this study aims to increase intervention effectiveness by examining effective approaches to train emotion regulation, which is considered to be a crucial mechanism in...
Article
In their commentary, Beauchaine and Slep (2018) raise important issues regarding research on behavioral parenting training (BPT). In this reply we highlight key points of agreement and respond to issues that we feel require clarification. BPT has been repeatedly proven effective in decreasing disruptive child behavior (also in the work of our resea...
Article
Deze studie onderzoekt of de preventieve variant van de ouderinterventie Pittige Jaren (in het Engels The Incredible Years; IY) effectief is in het verminderen van externaliserende gedragsproblemen en of veronderstelde moderatoren (d.w.z., ernst van probleemgedrag bij aanvang van de interventie, geslacht kind, sociaaleconomische status, gezinssamen...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated whether parent–child discussion of peer provocations reduces young children's hostile attributional bias. Study 1 (N = 109, age 4–7)—an observational study—showed that parent–child discussion of nonhostile attributions (when reading a picture book) predicted reductions in children's hostile attributional bias from pre‐ to p...
Article
Ouderinterventies gericht op opvoedingsvaardigheden zijn een van de effectiefste strategieën om gedragsproblemen bij jonge kinderen te voorkomen of te verminderen. Het is belangrijk om te weten welke gezinnen baat hebben bij deze interventies. Er zijn namelijk signalen dat gezinnen met een migratieachtergrond of een laag opleidingsniveau deze inter...
Article
The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and...
Article
Full-text available
Parenting interventions are an effective strategy to reduce children’s conduct problems. For some families, that is, not all families benefit equally. Individual trials tend to be underpowered and often lack variability to differentiate between families how benefit less or more. Integrating individual family level data across trials, we aimed to pr...
Chapter
The authors review current knowledge on adolescent community service and present a model explaining community service benefits. Community service combined with reflection predicts positive academic, personal, social, and civic outcomes. To explain this broad range of positive effects, the authors present the IMAR community service model. The model...
Article
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothe...
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide an overview of social-cognitive processes in children with disruptive behavior problems and the development of these processes. Several theoretical models aim to explain how individual differences in the processing of social information lead to disruptive behaviors. The chapter considers an overarching model based on th...
Article
Full-text available
SYNOPSIS Objective. The present study examines cognitive and emotional problems in mothers being released from incarceration. Design. Participants were 98 mothers who were about to be released or had just been released from incarceration, and 63 comparison mothers from disadvantaged areas with low socioeconomic status, both with young children. Mot...
Conference Paper
Achtergrond: Kinderen van gedetineerde moeders lopen het hoogste risico op externaliserend probleemgedrag vergeleken met andere risicogroepen. Opvoedtrainingen voor (ex-)gedetineerde moeders blijken effectief in het voorkomen van probleemgedrag bij hun kinderen. Echter is nog onduidelijk of opvoedtrainingen effectief zijn voor alle groepen (ex-)ged...
Thesis
Parent-training programs are generally effective in improving parenting behaviors and children’s disruptive behavior. Some evidence suggests this may also hold for the high-risk population of incarcerated mothers and their children. However, it is unclear whether parent training is equally effective for mothers with varying levels of psychological...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated whether young children's hostile attributional bias (i.e., the tendency to assume that others have hostile intentions) may be explained by a lack of intent attribution skills (i.e., the ability to correctly infer others' intentions). We also investigated whether these intent attribution skills depend on children's false‐bel...
Article
In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Further...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9–16 year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to 85) (N = 169) were cluster randomly assigned to SST...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether children scoring higher on a polygenic plasticity index based on five dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, MAOA, and COMT) benefited the most from the Incredible Years (IY) parent program. Data were used from a randomized controlled trial including 341 Dutch families with 4- to 8-year-old children (55.7% boys) showi...
Article
There is a need to identify the “effective ingredients” of evidence-based behavior therapies. We tested the effects of one of the most common ingredients in parenting interventions for preventing disruptive child behavior, referred to as labeled praise (e.g., “well done picking up your toys”), which is typically recommended in preference to unlabel...
Article
We tested the effectiveness of the preventive behavioral parent training (BPT) The Incredible Years (IY) and the independent effects of previously suggested sociodemographic and intervention-based moderator variables (i.e., initial severity of externalizing problem behavior, child gender, social economic status, family composition, and number of se...
Article
Full-text available
Problematic substance use and mental health problems often co-occur in adolescents. Effective school-based interventions that are brief and target multiple problems are promising in the field of health promotion. Preventure is a brief, school-based, selective preventive intervention, tailored to four personality profiles. Preventure has already pro...
Article
Full-text available
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in prob...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies suggest impaired executive functions (EFs) in children with externalizing behavior problems and average intelligence (e.g., IQ > 85). Even though children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID) are at higher risk of developing externalizing behavior problems compared to children with average intelligence, it is not...
Article
Background: This study investigated relations between personality pathology and mentalizing capacities reflected in social information processing (SIP) of adolescents. Sampling and methods: 96 adolescent outpatients completed a structured interview regarding SIP. Their clinicians completed a checklist based on DSM-IV, assessing severity of perso...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, several candidate genes (i.e., MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT) have been extensively studied as potential moderators of the detrimental effects of postnatal family adversity on child externalizing behaviors, such as aggression and conduct disorder. Many studies on such candidate gene by environment interactions (i....
Article
Full-text available
Background There is increasing evidence that variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 (i.e., the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) moderates the impact of environmental stressors on child psychopathology. Emotional reactivity −the intensity of an individual’s response to other’s emotions− has been put forward as a possible mec...
Article
Incarcerated mothers and their children may face a multitude of problems. To identify possible targets for intervention, more clarity is needed about characteristics of these children and their mothers. This study examined children’s life events, behaviour problems and social cognitions and mothers’ parenting behaviours as potential targets for int...
Article
Betere Start is een opvoedtraining voor (ex-)gedetineerde moeders om gedragsproblemen bij hun twee- tot tienjarige kinderen te voorkomen, bestaande uit de Incredible Years groepstraining en individuele huisbezoeken. De effectiviteit van Betere Start is onderzocht met een gerandomiseerd effectonderzoek. De onderzoeksgroep bestond uit 113 (ex-)gedeti...
Article
Full-text available
We thank Kealy et al. (1) for noting that our article on the origins of narcissism (2) “is a notable contribution to the empirical literature” and “has important implications for helping parents foster appropriate and realistic self-views in their children.” However, they raise questions regarding the interpretation of our findings.
Article
Full-text available
Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds in...
Article
Full-text available
Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social le...