Bradley W. Young

Bradley W. Young
University of Ottawa · School of Human Kinetics

Ph.D.

About

166
Publications
68,491
Reads
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1,673
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2021 - present
Canadian Sport Institute - Pacific
Position
  • Professor
May 2019 - present
University of Ottawa
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 2018 - April 2019
University of Ottawa
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 2000 - November 2005
McMaster University
Field of study
  • Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity
September 1996 - August 1998
University of Ottawa
Field of study
  • Sport Psychology
September 1992 - April 1996
McGill University
Field of study
  • Education

Publications

Publications (166)
Presentation
Full-text available
The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2020) provides researchers with a self-report tool to measure the frequency of use of adult-oriented coaching practices. Studies involving the AOSCS have reported several types of validity and reliability (Motz et al., in press; Rathwell et al., 2020), yet the psychometric invariance...
Article
https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/WHDS92ERJ2FW7CW6FWK7/full?target=10.1080/1612197X.2022.2043927 ---- The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2020) reliably assesses coaching practices tailored to Masters athletes (MAs). It recognizes the uniqueness of coaching adults (Callary et al., 2021) and has good face validity and...
Article
The rise of technology in sport has provided coaches with another tool to aid athlete development, but there is little research on its relationship to coaching practices. Research in non-sport domains has demonstrated a relationship between user trust in and use of technology. The user's confidence can also affect this relationship, where higher co...
Presentation
Self-regulated learning (SRL) – how an athlete self-controls thoughts, motivations, and goal-oriented behaviours – helps optimize practice quality (McCardle et al., 2017). Emerging conceptualizations of coaching for skill acquisition within the Co-regulatory Coaching Interface Model (CCIM; Bain & Young, 2019) demonstrate that an athlete’s SRL compe...
Article
Full-text available
In the absence of sport psychology resources for Masters Athletes, mental performance consultants could benefit from information to assist consultancy with older adult athletes. We conducted semistructured interviews to explore 10 Canadian professional mental performance consultants’ (two men and eight women) perspectives of targeted content and th...
Poster
Full-text available
Co-regulation relates to joint work between a coach and a learning athlete that results in increased self-regulatory abilities (Bain & Young, 2019). Scaffolding is an important developmental process of co-regulation for establishing athlete self-regulation, comprising of contingency control, fading, and transfer of responsibility (van de Pol & Elbe...
Presentation
Full-text available
https://www.scapps.org/jems/index.php/1/article/view/2610 -- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_FdhDYwyn0 --- Adult-oriented coaching practices have been described qualitatively by Masters athletes (MAs) as a preferred method to receive coaching (Callary et al., 2017) and to foster hallmarks of Quality Masters Sport Experiences (QMSE; Young et al.,...
Poster
Full-text available
https://www.scapps.org/jems/index.php/1/article/view/2611 -- Recent qualitative evidence (Callary et al., 2017) suggests that adult-oriented coaching practices may enhance Masters athletes' (MAs) sport experiences. Most cognitively mediated coaching models posit that when athletes' preferences for coaching practices align with the coaching practice...
Article
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Coach-athlete relationships are an important factor influencing sport experiences. Research has focused on understanding relational approaches to coaching Masters athletes primarily as they are applied to individual-sport athletes. This study explored relational coaching strategies within a Masters all-women team context, the nature of dyadic relat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Where does exceptionality begin? How do we define and measure it? What is the role of the environment in promoting or inhibiting the development of expertise? Despite being critical elements of philosophy for at least two millennia, empirical examinations of the origins and development of human exceptionality are relatively recent. It was not until...
Article
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This qualitative investigation explored the lived meaningful experiences of adult women in a coached Masters synchronized ice-skating team and the role of the coach in these experiences. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 11 team members (mean age = 39) and their 32 year-old female coach, over multiple time points in their seas...
Article
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This study explored the views of Canadian Masters athletes (MAs; M age = 51, range 38–62; three men and five women) from 12 sports (10 individual and two team sports) on sport psychology for performance, experiential, and lifestyle enhancement. Using Braun and Clarke’s procedures for thematic analysis, the authors interpreted data from semistructur...
Article
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In this review paper, we reflect on the work of K. Anders Ericsson and how his Deliberate Practice Framework (DPF: Ericsson et al., 1993) has particularly impacted the field of sport expertise and athlete development. We review the major tenets of the framework, including areas where there is indisputable evidence for the value of deliberate practi...
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulated learning (SRL) is associated with enhanced athletic practice and sport expertise development. Self-report measures show promising associations with criteria for expertise development, yet there remains a need to further evidence of validity. We assessed whether modifications to the Self-Regulated Learning for Sport Practice (SRL-SP)...
Chapter
Full-text available
Applied sport psychology heralds the use of skills and strategies to train one’s mind, for example, to improve focus, enhance motivation, cope with stress, and to perform in the moment. Athletes see sport psychology as an asset that helps them “get an edge” by supplementing their physical preparation. Vast literature relates to what can be trained...
Article
National athlete development models often give little consideration to the multiple ways in which adults might participate in sport (i.e., recreationally or competitively, through sampling or specialization), or their trajectories into specific patterns of adult sport participation. Using adult swimmers' current and retrospective (youth swimming) d...
Poster
Full-text available
Athletes build on practice time with their coach through work on their own using self-regulated learning (SRL) processes (Bain & Young, 2019). It is unclear how much time athletes spend in self-organized practice, and whether contextual factors influence these durations. Understanding self-organized practice time helps to contextualize practical ef...
Article
Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the vali...
Article
Research into the Masters (or adult) sport context has revealed important socially mediated participatory motives for Masters athletes, including a strong connection between their learning in sport and the relationships they have with their coaches. The purpose of this insights article was to identify and describe links between relevant relational...
Presentation
Full-text available
Showed how Masters athletes applied psychological skills and strategies to enhance sport performance/competitive readiness and adherence to sport lifestyle.
Article
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There are hypothesized associations between high training volume in youth sport and negative psychological and behavioral outcomes such as decreased enjoyment, and increased burnout and drop-out. Autonomy support, however, is associated with positive motivational and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this study was to concurrently explore the rel...
Presentation
In coaching psychology, models address leadership, coach-athlete (C-A) relationships, coaching roles, and coaching efficacy (Bloom, 2016) but less focus is on dyadic communication/co-regulation. A case study (Bain & Young, 2019) interpreted how essential C-A interactions occurred during intensive practice settings, resulting in a Co-regulatory Coac...
Article
Full-text available
Conscientiousness, grit, and self-control are personality characteristics that have been shown to differentially predict several criteria of expertise development, including athletes’ deliberate practice and higher skill levels. However, little is known about coaches’ views on (a) how these conscientiousness-related traits translate into behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
Conscientiousness, grit, and self-control are personality characteristics that have been shown to differentially predict several criteria of expertise development, including athletes' deliberate practice and higher skill levels. However, little is known about coaches' views on (a) how these conscientiousness-related traits translate into behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
Exploratory research suggests Masters athletes (MAs; adult athletes >35 years) derive benefits from the coached context. This study sought to compare groups of MAs with varying degrees of coaching for reports of psychological need satisfaction and frustration. A total of 561 individual sport MAs completed surveys assessing psychological need satisf...
Chapter
While all athletes are aging, in this chapter we refer to Masters Athletes (MAs) as adults typically over 35 years of age, who are formally registered for sport, and who engage in training to prepare for competitions. While this cohort of athletes is the one of the fastest growing cohorts in sport, research is only beginning to uncover the nuances...
Article
Full-text available
Grit is a personality characteristic conceptually related to hard work and dedication to one’s athletic development. Research has yet to investigate the impact of athletes’ grit levels on their practice engagement longitudinally. Furthermore, most sport studies have assessed grit as a composite score of the two subscales that constitute the Grit Sc...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The effective tailoring of instructional approaches to adult learners is beneficial in educational domains. No tool exists to assess coaches' use of adult-tailored methods in Masters (>35+ years-old) sport. This study tested the content (face) and factorial (convergent, discriminant) validity of a self-report survey, derived from instru...
Poster
Full-text available
Psychological enhancement strategies are useful and effective practices with younger, high-performance athletes (Weinberg & Gould, 2015). However, applied sport researchers have yet to consider how Masters athletes (MAs) use psychological skills and strategies with respect to multiple facets of their adult sport experience (Makepeace & Young, 2019)...
Poster
Full-text available
Self-regulated learning (SRL) processes are used frequently by elite athletes and are important for optimizing practice efforts during talent development (McCardle et al., 2017). Before someone becomes self regulated, they are co-regulated by a more experienced other, e.g., a coach (Glaser, 1996). Scaffolding, a form of co-regulation, has three con...
Poster
Full-text available
Qualitative studies highlight the use of adult-oriented coaching as an alternative to traditional pedagogical practices when coaching Masters athletes (MAs; Callary et al., 2017). Studies have yet to quantitatively assess associations between various adult-oriented coaching practices and MAs' psychosocial outcomes. Four-hundred-and two MAs (Mage =...
Chapter
University sport is a unique context for examining positive development (PD) because it falls somewhere on a continuum between high school sport, and professional sport. University sport is different than high school sport because the talent level is much greater, with many university athletes representing their country at the Olympics (e.g., women...
Article
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A participation-related constituent year effect, has been found to exist in masters sports in that relatively younger masters athletes (i.e., those in the first or second year of a 5-year age category) participate in competitions significantly more often than relatively older masters athletes (i.e., those in the fourth or fifth year of a 5-year age...
Article
A participation-related constituent year effect, has been found to exist in masters sports in that relatively younger masters athletes (i.e., those in the first or second year of a 5-year age category) participate in competitions significantly more often than relatively older masters athletes (i.e., those in the fourth or fifth year of a 5-year age...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical evidence directly associating early sport specialization with burnout and dropout is lacking, although a relationship is theorized. Research in this area relies on time-intensive retrospective interviews or questionnaires that generate large amounts of data. The optimal use of these data for assessing early specialization (ES) and its rel...
Article
Full-text available
Sport is a potential venue for more middle-aged adults to engage in sufficient physical activity for health benefits. Little is known about whether messaging interventions can motivate sport activity. This experiment tested the impact of gain-framed messaging (i.e., information about the benefits of doing adult sport) based on the inclusion (or lac...
Article
Full-text available
The art of teaching students has parallels with coaching athletes (Jones, 2007). Research has indicated that adult athletes, termed masters athletes (MAs), feel that coaches should orient their approaches differently when working with them as opposed to younger athletes (Callary, Rathwell, & Young, 2015; Ferrari, Bloom, Gilbert, & Caron, 2016)....
Article
Full-text available
Given the potential role of self-regulated learning (SRL) for enhancing practice and expertise development, we aimed to advance a valid and reliable athlete self-report measure of SRL for sport practice. We built on Toering et al. (2012a) initial SRL instrument along with Bartulovic et al.'s (2017) sport-specific modifications, and created new item...
Article
The constituent year effect, a source of relative age disparities, in masters sport has been demonstrated mainly amongst North American samples. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a participation-related constituent year effect exists among athletes (n = 6492) competing in Australian Masters Athletics competitions between 2000 a...
Chapter
This chapter addresses psycho-social and pedagogical research pertaining to adult sportspersons, or Masters athletes. Young and Callary specifically review three areas that may inform strategies on how to attract more interested adults to sport: promotional messaging, accommodating participatory motives in programming and tailoring curriculum to th...
Article
Objectives: Some swimmers, “continuers,” transition directly from youth swimming into masters swimming. Others, “rekindlers,” take time off before returning to swimming as masters athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore how youth swimming experiences shape subsequent participation in masters swimming. Design: This research was guided by...
Article
Full-text available
Two hallmark criteria are commonly used to determine whether a variable of interest has an impact on sport expertise development: (a) discrimination of performance or skill levels and (b) association with time spent in deliberate practice activities. Our opinion is that there has been warranted criticism of the deliberate practice framework and gre...
Poster
Full-text available
To develop expertise, athletes need to amass a high volume of deliberate practice activities over a long duration. Two personality traits that relate to long-term goal pursuits and to achievement within sport are self-control (Tedesqui & Young, 2017a) and grit (Tedesqui & Young, 2017b). We compared the contribution of grit and self-control facets t...
Poster
Full-text available
Future time perspective refers to the extent to which individuals consider the future when making decisions about the present (Husman & Shell, 2008). Because development of expertise requires engaging in large amounts of effortful practice (Ericsson et al., 1993) designed to reach goals at a future point in time (Côté, Baker & Abernethy, 2003), we...
Article
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The sport commitment model was developed in relation to youth sport, but recently proposed commitment sources (desire to excel, team tradition) arose from studies with highly elite adult athletes (Scanlan, Russell, Scanlan, Klunchoo & Chow, 2013). We explored sources of swimmers’ commitment to a high school team, including these newer sources, and...
Chapter
Full-text available
Paralleling the graying of the baby boomer generation, there has been remarkable growth in the number of Masters athletes (adult sport participants generally 35+ years old) and Seniors athletes (55+) worldwide. The phenomenon of the aging or older athlete is an opportunity to study the psychological conditions and considerations that distinguish ol...
Article
Sustained persistence in deliberate practice (DP) could be aided by engagement in adaptive motivational and metacognitive types of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes. We examined relationships between SRL and each of DP and physical preparation (PP; e.g., cross-training) in supervised, unsupervised, social and non-social practice contexts. 272...
Article
Sustained persistence in deliberate practice (DP) could be aided by engagement in adaptive motivational and metacognitive types of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes. We examined relationships between SRL and each of DP and physical preparation (PP; e.g., cross-training) in supervised, unsupervised, social and non-social practice contexts. 272...
Article
Masters Athletes (MAs; adult athletes typically over 35 years old who prepare in order to compete at levels ranging from very recreational competition to serious competition) want coaches to cater their approaches to working with adults. Using adult learning principles, we previously found that some coaches cater their approaches in ways to accommo...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests Canadian university sport programs can foster positive development. Further, university coaches have claimed to focus on their athletes' personal and psychosocial development. Despite coaches' claims, little is known about university coaches' strategies for enhancing positive development. The aim of the present study was to explor...
Article
Full-text available
Governing bodies of university sport have adopted more holistic approaches to the development of their athletes (Canadian Interuniversity Sport, 2013; NCAA, 2015). To our knowledge, there has been little empirical effort made to describe and assess positive development in the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) context. In this study, we qualitati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Arguably the uptake and usability of the physical activity (PA) guidelines for older adults has not been effective with only 12% of this population meeting the minimum guidelines to maintain health. Health promoters must consider innovative ways to increase PA adoption and long-term sustainability. Physical literacy (PL) is emerging as...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Arguably the uptake and usability of the physical activity (PA) guidelines for older adults has not been effective with only 12% of this population meeting the minimum guidelines to maintain health. Health promoters must consider innovative ways to increase PA adoption and long-term sustainability. Physical literacy (PL) is emerging as...
Article
In sport, athletes engage in large amounts of practice to reach higher levels of performance. Self-regulated learning (SRL) could be critical for optimizing training conditions and maximizing training amounts. Our purpose was to review literature concerning SRL in sport training contexts. We focused on articles taking a practice-enhancement orienta...
Poster
Full-text available
Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) is the extent that people consider the future outcomes of current behaviours (Joireman et al., 2006). It may differentiate athletes' dispositions to self-regulate and enhance amounts of sport practice (Barone et al., 1997). This study explored whether CFC had a bearing on relationships between self-regulat...
Article
Full-text available
In order to develop expertise, athletes need to amass a high volume of deliberate practice activities over a long period of time. Three personality traits that conceptually relate to long-term goal pursuits and that have been linked to achievement outside sport are conscientiousness, self-control, and grit. This investigation examined how conscient...
Article
Full-text available
While traditional, coach-directed pedagogies have dominated youth sport coaching practice, little is known about how coaches orient their approaches to facilitate adult athletes’ learning. This study explored a group of Masters athletes’ and a group of youth athletes’ perspectives of their common canoe/kayak coach’s approaches, with an aim to under...
Article
Full-text available
Grit, the tendency to work hard toward long-term goals, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure and adversity, has predicted several achievement outcomes. However, minimal work has examined grit within a sport expertise development framework, and specifically its association with deliberate practice (DP) in sport. Participants, 2...
Article
Full-text available
Coaches working with Masters Athletes (MAs) are tasked with facilitating learning and enhancing performance and quality of experience specifically for an adult cohort. In education, the Andragogy in Practice Model (APM) characterizes adult learners and provides teachers with principles for how to best facilitate learning (Knowles, Holton III, & Swa...
Article
Coaches working with Masters Athletes (MAs) are tasked with facilitating learning and enhancing performance and quality of experience specifically for an adult cohort. In education, the Andragogy in Practice Model (APM) characterizes adult learners and provides teachers with principles for how to best facilitate learning (Knowles, Holton III, & Swa...
Article
Full-text available
Gould and Carson (2008) called for research to uncover the underlying mechanisms related to how positive development occurs through sport. The purpose of this study was to identify who is responsible for university student-athletes’ development of life skills, through the lens of student-athletes. Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducte...