Bradley J Kerr

Bradley J Kerr
University of Alberta | UAlberta · Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Doctor of Philosophy

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73
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4,421
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Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by multiple focal lesions, ongoing demyelination and, for most people, a lack of remyelination. MS lesions are enriched with monocyte-derived macrophages and brain-resident microglia that, together, are likely responsible for much of the immune-mediated neurotoxicity. However, mic...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropathic pain is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) and current treatment options are ineffective. In this study, we investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contributes to pain hypersensitivity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Inflammatory cells and inc...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, it is estimated that one in five people suffer from chronic pain, with prevalence increasing with age. The pathophysiology of chronic pain encompasses complex sensory, immune, and inflammatory interactions within both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), are c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuropathic pain is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) and current treatment options are ineffective. In this study, we investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contributes to the pain hypersensitivity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and by extension in MS. First...
Article
Full-text available
Microglia and infiltrating macrophages are thought to orchestrate the central nervous system (CNS) response to injury; however, the similarities between these cells make it challenging to distinguish their relative contributions. We genetically labeled microglia and CNS-associated macrophages to distinguish them from infiltrating macrophages. Using...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that affects roughly a third to a half of the world’s population. Despite its substantial effect on society, treatment for chronic pain is modest, at best, notwithstanding its side effects. Hence, novel therapeutics are direly needed. Emerging evidence suggests that calcium plays an integral role in mediatin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease with a distinct female bias, as well as a high prevalence of neuropathic pain in both sexes. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contain the primary sensory neurons that give rise to pain, and damage to these neurons may lead to neuropathic pain. Here, we investigate the sex differences of the DRG...
Article
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disease with many known structural and functional changes in the central nervous system. A well-recognized, but poorly understood, complication of MS is chronic pain. Little is known regarding the influence of sex on the development and maintenance of MS-related pain. This is import...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Patients with MS typically present with visual, motor, and sensory deficits. However, an additional complication of MS in large subset of patients is neuropathic pain. To study the underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology of pain in MS we employed the m...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative autoimmune disease associated with sensory and motor dysfunction. Although estimates vary, ∼50% of patients with MS experience pain during their disease. The mechanisms underlying the development of pain are not fully understood, and no effective treatment for MS-related pain is availabl...
Article
Increasing evidence from both clinical and animal research has implicated changes in neuroactive steroids (rapid acting steroids that act as allosteric modulators at NMDA and/or GABA-A receptors) in multiple sclerosis. These changes have been linked to clinical differences in disease severity, prevention of disease development, as well as the disea...
Article
The putative strong anti-nociceptive properties of the antidepressant phenelzine (PLZ) have not been widely explored as a treatment for pain. Antinociceptive effects of PLZ were identified in the formalin model of tonic pain (Mifflin et al. 2016) and in allodynia associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, (EAE) a mouse model of mult...
Article
Full-text available
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached pandemic proportions worldwide. Almost half of T2D patients suffer from polyneuropathy that can present as paresthesia, hyperalgesia, allodynia, or hypoesthesia. Therapeutic treatment options are largely incomplete, suggesting new avenues of research are needed. Herein, we introduce the African Nile Grass rat (NGR)...
Article
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Defined medium organotypic cultures (DMOTC) containing spinal dorsal horn neurons are especially useful in studying the etiology and pharmacology of chronic pain. We made whole-cell recordings from neurons in acutely-isolated mouse spinal cord slices or from those maintained in DMOTC for up to 6 weeks. In acute slices, neurons in the substantia gel...
Article
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Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric problems. Previous studies indicated that levels of brain gangliosides are lower than normal in HD models and that administration of exogenous ganglioside GM1 corrects motor dysfunction in the YAC128 mouse model of HD In this stud...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The primary symptoms of MS include the loss of sensory and motor function. Exercise has been shown to modulate disease parameters in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by reducing immune cell infiltration and oxidat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, this physiological mechanism has multiple manifestations that range from impaired clearance of unfolded proteins to altered mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. While connections between the triggering of the unfolded...
Article
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often complain of neuropathic pain. According to the Gate Control Theory of Pain, spinal networks of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are important in modulating nociceptive inputs from the periphery. Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) generally dictate the tone of GABA/gly...
Article
Most autoimmune diseases are associated with pathological pain development. Autoimmune diseases with pathological pain include complex regional pain syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and Guillian-Barré syndrome to name a few. The present Review explores research linking the immune system to the development of pathological pain in autoimmune diseases....
Article
Full-text available
Background Chronic neuropathic pain is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). MOG35–55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been used as an animal model to investigate the mechanisms of pain in MS. Previous studies have implicated sensitization of spinal nociceptive networks in the pathogenesis of pain in EAE. However,...
Article
Neuropathic pain arises from an injury or disease of the somatosensory nervous system rather than stimulation of pain receptors. As a result, the fine balance between excitation and inhibition is perturbed leading to hyperalgesia and allodynia. Various neuropathic pain models provide considerable evidence that changes in the glutamatergic, GABAergi...
Article
Perspective: The present study found that nociception in male and female mice may be regulated by different neurotransmitter systems. These results indicate that different pharmacological approaches may be needed to treat pain in both sexes.
Article
Trigeminal neuropathic pain is a well-recognized complication of the demyelinating disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanisms underlying MS-related trigeminal neuropathic pain are poorly understood. This can be attributed, at least in part, to the lack of an animal model that exhibits trigeminal pathology similar to that described in...
Article
Comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety (generalized anxiety, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder) and pain is a major complicating factor in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Although numerous neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators may be involved, abnormalities in the GABAergic and g...
Article
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Although it is well known that there is a high degree of comorbidity between chronic pain and mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms involved in these co-occurrences are not clear. It appears that numerous neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are involved, and this chapter focuses on the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryp...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is widely accepted that inflammatory cells play major roles in the pathogenesis of MS, possibly through the use of serine protease granzyme B (GrB) secreted from the granules of cytotoxic T cells. We have previously identified...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study t...
Article
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Aims/objectives/background: A significant number of people who experience chronic pain also complain of depression and sleep problems. The comorbidities and bidirectional relationships that exist between these ailments are well recognized clinically. Further, all 3 disorders involve similar alterations in structural and functional neurobiology and...
Article
There is a high prevalence of pain, depression, and cognitive dysfunction in patients with Multiple SclerosisMultiple Sclerosis (MS). These symptoms affect daily tasks resulting in a significant reduction in quality of life. PainPain and cognitive changes have been studied across various animal models of MS. In these models the onset of pain and co...
Article
Full-text available
The neuropathic pain of multiple sclerosis is quite prevalent and severely impacts quality of life. A few randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical trials suggest that cannabis- and anticonvulsant-based treatments provide partial pain relief, but at the expense of adverse events. An even smaller, but emerging, number of translational studies...
Article
Although pain is an adaptive sensory experience necessary to prevent further bodily harm, the transition from acute to chronic pain is not adaptive and results in the development of a chronic clinical condition. How this transition occurs has been the focus of intense study for some time. The focus of the current review is on changes in neuronal pl...
Article
In the spinal cord, PKCγ is an important kinase found in a specific subset of excitatory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn and in axons of the corticospinal tract (CST). The major interest in spinal PKCγ has been its influences on regulating pain sensitivity but its presence in the CST also indicates that it has a significant role in loco...
Article
Multiple Sclerosis is associated with a high incidence of depression, cognitive impairments and neuropathic pain. Previously, we demonstrated that tactile allodynia is present at disease onset in an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have now monitored changes in object recogntion in mice with EAE to determine i...
Article
Injury or disease affecting the spinal cord is often accompanied by abnormal, chronic pain. Recent estimates suggest that approximately 60% of patients with multiple sclerosis are affected by significant changes in pain sensitivity or experience ongoing neuropathic pain of unknown etiology. Chronic pain is also a significant concern after direct sp...
Article
SUMMARY Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal injury. In addition to the well-recognized features of the disease such as weakness, fatigue and paralysis, patients with MS may also experience a number of other comorbid disorders. Chronic pain, anxiety and depression affect a l...
Article
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IL-1β and TNF are potential targets in the management of neuropathic pain after injury. However, the importance of the IL-1 and TNF systems for peripheral nerve regeneration and the mechanisms by which these cytokines mediate effects are to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β and TNF are rapidly upregulat...
Article
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor functions. A significant aspect of the tissue damage and functional loss may be preventable as it occurs, secondary to the trauma. We show that the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) superfamily plays important roles in SCI. PLA(2) enzymes hydrolyze membrane glycerophospholipids to yield a free f...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are both accompanied by motor and non-motor symptoms. Pathological changes in the activities of key neurotransmitters likely underlie many of these symptoms. We have previously described disturbances in the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT/serotonin),...
Article
We have characterized the changes in tissue concentrations of amino acids and biogenic amines in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice with MOG(35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model commonly used to study multiple sclerosis (MS). High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse tissue samples f...
Article
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmunity and degeneration are two intertwined processes that lead to the progressive demyelination and eventual death of CNS neurons [1]. The three most common forms of MS, based on clinical course, are relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secon...
Article
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated neuroinflammatory disease that is often used as a model of multiple sclerosis. EAE can follow either relapsing-remitting (RR) or chronic (CH) courses, yet the factors responsible for differentially inducing these forms of disease remain largely unknown. Proinflammatory cytokines p...
Article
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Painful peripheral neuropathy has become the principal neurological disorder in HIV/AIDS patients. Herein, we investigated the effects of a cytotoxic HIV-1 accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr), on the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Host and viral gene expression was investigated in peripheral nerves from HIV-infected individuals and in HIV-in...
Article
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which neuropathic pain is now recognized as a major symptom. To date, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain in MS. Recently we showed that in a chronic-relapsing animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune enceph...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the primary symptoms of MS are losses of sensory and motor functions, it is now recognized that chronic pain is also a major concern affecting between 50% and 80% of MS patients. To date, however, few studies have examined the underlying mech...
Article
Full-text available
CNS injury-induced hemorrhage and tissue damage leads to excess iron, which can cause secondary degeneration. The mechanisms that handle this excess iron are not fully understood. We report that spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) in mice induces an "iron homeostatic response" that partially limits iron-catalyzed oxidative damage. We show that cerul...
Article
Secondary tissue damage that occurs within days after spinal cord injury contributes significantly to permanent paralysis, sensory loss, and other functional disabilities. The acute inflammatory response is thought to contribute largely to this secondary damage. We show here that 15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a metabolite of pro...
Article
We have characterized spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors that develop in a model of severe spinal contusion injury using two commonly used strains of mice. Using the Infinite Horizon Tissue Impactor to produce these contusion injuries, we were able to set strict limits on the injury parameters (i.e., force of impact and tissue displacement). Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropoietic cytokines are well known for their role in the control of neuronal, glial and immune responses to injury or disease. Since this discovery, it has emerged that several of these proteins are also involved in nervous system development, in particular in the regulation of neurogenesis and stem cell fate. Recent data indicate that these pro...
Article
Neuropoietic cytokines are well known for their role in the control of neuronal, glial and immune responses to injury or disease. Since this discovery, it has emerged that several of these proteins are also involved in nervous system development, in particular in the regulation of neurogenesis and stem cell fate. Recent data indicate that these pro...
Article
Spinal cord contusion injury in rodents is widely used as a model for spinal cord trauma in humans. Several biomechanical variables can influence injury outcome. In this work, we have assessed the influence of impact force and displacement of the spinal cord at the time of contusion injury on the severity of locomotor deficits and histopathological...
Article
Injury to the mammalian spinal cord is accompanied by a delayed, secondary wave of oligodendrocyte apoptosis that arises several days after the initial injury. A strong candidate to support oligodendrocyte survival after spinal cord injury is the pleiotropic cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). In vitro, LIF potentiates the differentiation a...
Article
Injury in the peripheral or central nervous systems causes a significant rise in the levels of the pleiotropic cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). This increase influences cell survival, reactive gliosis and inflammatory responses. Since prior work has focused primarily on peripheral nerve and brain, little is known about the role of LIF in...
Article
In this study we examined the primary afferent input to rat area X of Rexed, and characterized sensory receptive fields (RFs) of the cells therein. This poorly understood area contains primary afferent fibres, some of which are arranged into a compact bundle beneath the central canal. Anterograde transport of the B fragment of cholera toxin (CTB) f...
Article
The neuropeptide galanin is known to be involved in nociceptive sensory processing in the spinal cord. We have attempted to better characterise the function of endogenous galanin in nociceptive signalling by examining a mouse strain carrying a loss of function mutation in the galanin gene (gal-/-). Galanin expression is significantly up-regulated f...
Article
The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 is expressed only in nociceptive sensory neurons. This channel has been proposed to contribute significantly to the sensitization of primary sensory neurons after injury. We have studied the nociceptive behaviours of mice carrying a null mutation in the Nav 1.8 gene (Nav 1.8 -/-) in mo...
Article
We have undertaken a series of experiments using galanin null mutant mice to better define the role of endogenous galanin in spinal excitability following inflammation and in response to centrally sensitizing stimuli. We have employed a behavioural paradigm, the formalin test, as a model of tonic nociception in both galanin knock-out (gal-/-) and w...
Article
The neuropeptide galanin has been identified as a potential neurotransmitter/neuromodulator within the central nervous system. In the present study, the role of endogenous galanin in nociceptive processing in the nervous system has been analysed by using mice carrying a targeted mutation in the galanin gene. Supporting this, the effect of chronic a...
Article
This chapter discusses the biological role of galanin in normal and neuropathic states. Injuries to peripheral nerves in man are associated with a range of debilitating consequences, the most severe of which is the emergence of chronic neuropathic pain. The etiology of such pain is poorly understood and existing clinical treatment is largely ineffe...
Article
The primary sensory neurons that respond to noxious stimulation and project to the spinal cord are known to fall into two distinct groups: one sensitive to nerve growth factor and the other sensitive to glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. There is currently considerable interest in the ways in which these factors may regulate nociceptor pr...
Article
Full-text available
Many damage-sensing neurons express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels. Here we examined the role of the sensory-neuron-specific (SNS) TTX-resistant sodium channel alpha subunit in nociception and pain by constructing sns-null mutant mice. These mice expressed only TTX-sensitive sodium currents on step depolarizations from n...
Article
Central sensitization, the hyperexcitability of spinal processing that often accompanies peripheral injury, is a major component of many persistent pain states. Here we report that the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is a modulator of excitability within the spinal cord and contributes to the mechanism of central sensitizati...
Article
Exposure of animals to aversive events produces stress-induced analgesia. A common method of producing stress in animals is the cold-water swim (CWS). The present series of experiments examines the effect of CWS on tonic pain, as measured by the formalin test, and explores possible mechanisms of action. Experiment 1 demonstrates that a 3.5-min swim...
Article
Full-text available
Several reports in the 1960s demonstrated that methotrimeprazine (MTMZ), a phenothiazine derivative, is effective for treating acute and chronic pain. Although MTMZ has received little attention in recent decades, the fact that it derives from a class of drugs usually associated with cognitive and emotional processes, rather than the traditional an...

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