Brad Hawkes

Brad Hawkes
Natural Resources Canada | NRCan · Canadian Forest Service

PhD

About

71
Publications
10,444
Reads
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1,875
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
629 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Introduction
Brad Hawkes is retired from the Canadian Forest Service , Natural Resources Canada. Brad did research in Fire Ecology, Fire Risk Management, Fire Effects, Prescribed Burning, Thermodynamics and Forest Management.
Additional affiliations
April 1996 - May 2015
University of Northern British Columbia
Position
  • Adjunct Prof
February 1980 - February 2015
Natural Resources Canada
Position
  • Fire Research Officer
Education
September 1989 - June 1992
University of Montana
Field of study
  • Fire Science

Publications

Publications (71)
Chapter
Major forest types include those where aspen, eastern white and red pine stands, and jack pine stands are found either as fire-maintained seral types or exceptionally as climax stands (see table 3-1 for FRES, Kuchler, and SAF cover type designations). This includes extensive areas from Newfoundland across to Alaska and the Great Lakes region. Fire...
Article
The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a native bark beetle and a major disturbance agent in western North American forests. In the 1970s and 1980s, a MPB outbreak occurred in Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP) in southwestern Alberta. The MPB outbreak resulted in variable levels of mortality of mature lodgepole pine (P...
Article
Holocene climate, vegetation, and fire history were reconstructed using pollen, molluscs, and charcoal from two lake sediment records (Scum and Norma lakes) collected from the Chilcotin Plateau, British Columbia, Canada. In the late-glacial period, cold steppe prevailed and fire was limited. Artemisia steppe expanded in the earliest Holocene as cli...
Article
Like many fire-adapted ecosystems, decades of fire exclusion policy in the Rocky Mountains and Foothills natural regions of southern Alberta, Canada are raising concern over the loss of ecological integrity. Departure from historical conditions is evaluated using median fire return intervals (MdFRI) based on fire history data from the Subalpine (SU...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfires and mountain pine beetle (MPB) attacks are important contributors to the development of stand structure in lodgepole pine, and major drivers of its evolution. The historical pattern of these events have been correlated with variation in cone serotiny (possessing cones that remain closed and retain seeds until opened by fire) across the Ro...
Article
Full-text available
The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a native insect of North America, periodically reaches population sizes that cause serious economic impact to the forest industry in western North America. The most recent outbreak in British Columbia (BC), Canada, which began in the late 1990s, is only now (2015...
Data
Full-text available
This report describes the history of disturbances in permanent sample plots located in the Lower and Upper Foothills ecosystems of the Northern Alberta Rocky Mountains and provides an insight on how this information can be used in modelling and decision support to forecast the future structure of forests under mountain pine beetle.
Article
Full-text available
In 2000 and 2002, 27 Forest Assessment plots were established within the area infested by spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in southwest Yukon. The study objective was to document long-term changes in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) mortality, stand structure, regeneration, surface vegetation, and...
Data
Full-text available
As the mountain pine beetle infestation threat in Alberta increases, there is a need to understand future ecosystem responses to this outbreak. We report a study of the dynamics of forests impacted by the 1980’s outbreak in Waterton National Park, Alberta. Using historical ecology approaches (dendrochronology) and stand mensuration data, we compare...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the mountain pine beetle infestation threat in Alberta increases, there is a need to understand future ecosystem responses to this outbreak. We report a study of the dynamics of forests impacted by the 1980’s outbreak in Waterton National Park, Alberta. Using historical ecology approaches (dendrochronology) and stand mensuration data, we compare...
Poster
Full-text available
This paper documents long-term changes in spruce mortality, stand dynamics, tree regeneration, surface vegetation response, and surface woody fuel load in response to a spruce beetle outbreak in southwest Yukon. We determined the degree of change in tree stand attributes (e.g., density and volume by tree status) and measured if this change was enou...
Data
Full-text available
Poster presented at the Montreal process Meeting in Victoria, BC, Canada
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This presentation reviews the interaction between beetle, fire in lodgepole pine forests of the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rockies. Watch the presentation on Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R2Ksz9ZdABI
Article
The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper...
Data
Full-text available
In Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP) MPB was first detected in 1977. In 1980 the parks staff and FIDS rangers from the CFS, under the leadership of Dr. Ben Moody of Northern Forestry Centre, established 25 permanent monitoring plots in the park. In 2002, under the leadership of Dr. Brad Hawkes of the Pacific Forestry Centre, funding was secured t...
Data
Report on the effects of MPB outbreaks on mortality and regeneration dynamics, forest structure and composition, overstorey and understorey fuel.
Data
Report on the effects of MPB outbreaks on mortality and regeneration dynamics, forest structure and composition, overstorey and understorey fuel.
Article
Full-text available
The vertical distribution of fine-root biomass, its chemical content, and the vertical distribution of overstory root tips were measured in a mature white spruce – subalpine fir stand (Piceaglauca (Moench) Voss – Abieslasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) growing on an infertile sandy soil near Prince George, British Columbia, during July and August, 1975. The...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster reports the condition in 2010 of forests impacted a spruce beetle outbreak from 1993 to 2009 in southern Yukon and describes the dynamics of these forests following this disturbance.
Poster
Full-text available
This poster reports the condition in 2010 of forests impacted a spruce beetle outbreak from 1993 to 2009 in southern Yukon and describes the dynamics of these forests following this disturbance.
Poster
Full-text available
This poster reports the condition in 2010 of forests impacted a spruce beetle outbreak from 1993 to 2009 in southern Yukon and describes the dynamics of these forests following this disturbance.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the development of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in uneven-aged stands in the Interior Douglasfir (IDF) biogeoclimatic zone of central of British Columbia (B.C.), which are currently undergoing a massive outbreak of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB). Using historical ecological approaches, dendroch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a natural agent of disturbance the mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreaks play an important role in forest ecosystems. However, having infested over 14.5 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests the current beetle outbreak is unprecedented in scale. As the outbreak continues forest managers will need to develop strategies to manage the large are...
Data
Full-text available
This report describes the history of disturbances in permanent sample plots located in the Lower and Upper Foothills ecosystems of the Northern Alberta Rocky Mountains and provides an insight on how this information can be used in modelling and decision support to forecast the future structure of forests under mountain pine beetle.
Data
The proposal titled “Decision Support for Forest Management in a Mountain Pine Beetle Environment”, included a dendroecology sub-component that aimed to establish the disturbance history of a sub-set of the of Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) in the Alberta Foothills, which were re-measured in the summer of 2008. The objectives of this research, as ou...
Article
Wildfire is an important disturbance agent in Canada's boreal forest. Optical remotely sensed imagery (e.g., Landsat TM/ETM+), is well suited for capturing horizontally distributed forest conditions, structure, and change, while Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data are more appropriate for capturing vertically distributed elements of forest str...
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB), currently affecting over 10.1 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest in recorded history. We examined the dynamics of even-aged lodgepole pine forests in southern British Columbia, which were underg...
Article
Full-text available
This project used dendrochronology to reconstruct the history of mountain pine beetle outbreaks over the last two centuries and to describe the relationship of outbreaks to varying climate conditions and fire history. The history of mountain pine beetle outbreaks was reconstructed from increment cores and basal disks collected from 85 stands across...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This report presents our findings on the history of disturbances in Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) located in the Lower and Upper Foothills ecosystems of the Northern Alberta Rockies, and provides insights on how this information can be used in modelling and decision support, to forecast the future structure of forests of this region. In depth stand...
Article
Full-text available
Outbreaks of mountain pine beetle are evaluated as a generic disturbance agent, and comparisons are made with other forest disturbances such as wildfire, windthrow, and logging. A useful basis for comparison is the degree of disruption to the overstorey, understorey, and forest floor layers. Clear differences are observed in the impacts of bark bee...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Thinning mature forest stands to wide spacing is prescribed to reduce crown bulk density and likelihood of severe crown fi re behaviour. However, it may adversely affect surface fuel load, moisture content and within-stand wind, which infl uence sur- face fi re behaviour and crowning potential. Comparison of a mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...
Article
Full-text available
As a natural agent of disturbance, beetle outbreaks play an important functional role in directing ecological processes and maintaining biological diversity of forest ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; mpb) is the major natural disturbance agent affecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) forests in British...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We examined the dynamics of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in even-aged stands in the southern interior and in uneven aged stands in the central interior of British Columbia, which have sustained outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). Using a historical ecology approach, dendrochronology, and stand in...
Article
Principal components analysis, followed by K-means cluster analysis, was used to detect variations in the timing and magnitude of Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. growth releases attributed to mountain pine beetle outbreaks in 31 stands of central British Columbia. Four major growth release patterns were identified from 1970 to 2000. Variations in th...
Article
A Monte-Carlo simulation was constructed to determine the effects of fire frequency and size and of habitat heterogeneity on the equilibrium age distribution of a forest. We used yield tables for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Dougl.) in the interior of British Columbia to characterize the forest. For small fires, resulting distribut...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerator radiocarbon dating of 147 charcoal samples recovered from colluvial and alluvial fan deposits at 29 sites was used to reconstruct the Holocene fire history of an inland temperate rainforest watershed in east-central British Columbia (BC), Canada. Radiocarbon dates ranged from 182 to 9558 cal. yr BP, with prominent peaks in the probabili...
Article
This paper provides an example of the practical application of multi-attribute trade-off analysis (MATA) to wildfire management. The MATA approach supports more informed decision-making because it exposes important trade-offs among competing management objectives (requiring value-based choices), helps guide and structure necessary technical judgeme...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerator radiocarbon dating of 147 charcoal samples recovered from colluvial and alluvial fan deposits at 29 sites was used to reconstruct the Holocene fire history of an inland temperate rainforest watershed in east-central British Columbia (BC), Canada. Radiocarbon dates ranged from 182 to 9558 cal. yr BP, with prominent peaks in the probabili...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews the ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) in relation to interactions with fire and the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk. [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]), with special reference to western Canada. Lodgepole pine has wide ecological amplitude. In western Canada, lodgepole p...
Article
Because mountain pine beetle attack mature pine stands, an understanding of forest age class dynamics is important to managing forests within the distribution of the beetle. The assumed theoretical negative exponential forest age distribution provides an estimate when ecosystem dynamics are in equilibrium. This study investigates the dynamics of fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines the use of PrognosisBC (the BC variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator) and the Northern Idaho variant of the Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to project changes in stand structure, fuel loading, snag density, and potential fire behaviour following a mountain pine beetle outbreak in a mixed severity fire regime on the Chilcotin...
Article
Full-text available
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an aggressive bark beetle that periodically increases to outbreak levels killing thousands of trees. It is considered one of the major natural disturbance agents in North America. In British Columbia, the main host species is lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. lat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to numerous operational, legal and ecological constraints, a large portion of the millions of ha of lodgepole pine affected by the current mountain pine beetle outbreak will not be salvage logged. Understanding how unsalvaged stands and landscapes will develop is critical for assessing the socio-economic and ecological impacts of the outbreak....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A three-year research project was established in 2001 to examine the impact of mountain pine beetle on stand dynamics in British Columbia and southern Alberta. The project had three components: assessments of the effects of mountain pine beetle on stand dynamics; projection of mountain pine beetle impacts on stand and fuel dynamics with PrognosisBC...
Technical Report
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Mountain pine beetle (MPB) and fire are the two ,major natural disturbance agents for lodgepole pine in the IDF, SBS, SBPS, ESSF, and MS zones of BC. MPB-induced tree mortality strongly influences forest dynamics, both as a natural thinning agent, and by changing the fuel loading in stands, thus affecting fire behaviour. To accurately proj...
Article
This paper provides an overview of four national forest fire management information systems currently used in Canada. The Canadian forest fire danger rating system (CFFDRS) is a non-spatial system, which provides the science framework for fire danger rating in Canada. The spatial fire management system (sFMS) is a geographic information system base...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable forest management in many of Canada's forest ecosystems requires simultaneously minimizing the socioeconomic impacts of fire and maximizing its ecological benefits. A pragmatic approach to addressing these seemingly conflicting objectives is fire-smart forest management. This involves planning and conducting forest management and fire m...
Article
Full-text available
This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined past changes and future trends in forest cover, fuels and fire behavior potential due to forest succession in a grassland-forest landscape in southern interior British Columbia. Changes in forest cover over a 40-year period were determined from historical and contemporary air photographs. There was a 50 % reduction in the area o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mean fire return intervals for different ecological subzones, aspects, and elevations in Kananaskis Provincial Park were described. Comparison of the results from this study with others was not practical because of a number of constraints. A discussion of the mean fire return intervals results and park resource management was presented.
Article
Full-text available
In 2002 the Greater Vancouver Water District began a collaborative project to develop a Wildfire Risk Management System for three municipal watersheds (Capilano, Coquitlam and Seymour) that provide drinking water to the Greater Vancouver Region of Southwestern British Columbia. Wildfire is a natural disturbance agent in these heavily forested coast...
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Montana, 1993. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 137-146). Microfilm. s

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