Brad J Bushman

Brad J Bushman
The Ohio State University | OSU · School of Communication

Ph.D.

About

324
Publications
728,455
Reads
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33,701
Citations
Introduction
Brad J Bushman currently works at the School of Communication, The Ohio State University. He does research on aggression and violence. His current project is 'Media violence and gun violence.'
Additional affiliations
June 2005 - August 2018
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2005 - present
University of Luxembourg
Position
  • Visiting Professor
Education
August 1985 - May 1989
University of Missouri
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (324)
Article
Full-text available
Over the last half-century, many professional and scientific organizations have issued statements about the harmful effects of violent media on children. Most pediatricians, media researchers, and parents also believe that violent media can be harmful. Although most studies report significant violent media effects, some report null effects. In this...
Article
Full-text available
Early research on body positions suggested that engaging in certain nonverbal displays can lead to changes in self-report, behavioral, and physiological dependent variables. Still, there has been intense criticism regarding the replicability of these effects. To determine what effects are valid, we conducted a meta-analytic review on body position...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-site (multi-lab/many-lab) replications have emerged as a popular way of verifying prior research findings, but their record in social psychology has prompted distrust of the field and a sense of crisis. We review all 36 multi-site social psychology replications (plus three articles reporting multiple mini-studies). We start by assuming both t...
Preprint
The Tangram Help Hurt Task (THHT) allows participants to help another participant win a prize (by assigning them easy tangrams), to hurt another participant by preventing them from winning the prize (by assigning them difficult tangrams), or to do neither (by assigning them medium tangrams) in offline or online studies. Consistent with calls for co...
Article
Past research finds that a majority of gun and non-gun owners support key gun safety policies, yet gun owners tend to underestimate other gun owners' support for these policies. We predicted that these misperceptions of support might lead gun owners to view non-gun owners as being less similar to themselves, which might undermine intergroup coopera...
Article
Exposure to violent video games can cause a wide array of harmful consequences to adolescents. This study shows preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a brief intervention to decrease aggression and increase self-control following exposure to a violent video game. Participants (157 high-school students; age range: 13–19) were randomly assigne...
Chapter
Of course, using a weapon can make aggressive acts more lethal. But can simply seeing a weapon increase aggression? The available research evidence indicates that the answer is “yes.” The weapons effect is a behavioral phenomenon in which the mere presence of a weapon can increase aggression. This chapter reviews the history of the weapons effect a...
Article
Women are often depicted as sex objects rather than as human beings in the media (e.g., magazines, television programs, films, and video games). Theoretically, media de-pictions of females as sex objects could lead to negative attitudes and even aggressive behavior toward them in the real world. Using the General Aggression Model (Anderson & Bushma...
Article
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In this reply to Hilgard’s 2021 criticisms of the Hasan et al. (2013) study, we show that his use of the Maximal Positive Controls methodology was inappropriately implemented for four main reasons: (1) he had participants watch a film of video gameplay (we had participants actively play video games), (2) his videos were about 2 minutes and 15 secon...
Article
Religious fundamentalism is a globally relevant and growing phenomenon. This study examined the interaction between religious fundamentalism and intrinsic religiosity, as it relates to spiritual well-being and social connectedness. These phenomena were explored among Muslims living in Iran, where a fundamentalist orientation is prevalent. Religious...
Article
In this study, we examine whether youth who are exposed to more weapons violence are subsequently more likely to behave violently with weapons. We use data collected with a 3‐cohort, 4‐wave, 10‐year longitudinal study of 426 high‐risk youth from Flint, Michigan, who were second, fourth, or ninth‐graders in 2006–2007. The data were obtained from ind...
Article
This meta-analytic review examines the link between narcissism and aggression, and whether the link is stronger under provocation conditions. A total of 437 independent studies were located, which included 123,043 participants. Narcissism was related to both aggression (r = .26, [.24, .28]) and violence (r = .23, [.18, .27]). As expected, the narci...
Preprint
Full-text available
This White Paper summarizes the authors' discussion regarding objectionable content for the University of Houston (UH) Research Team to outline a strategy for building an extensive repository of online videos to support research into automated multimodal approaches to detect objectionable content. The workshop focused on defining what harmful conte...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Despite broad public support for gun safety policies, minimal policy implementation has occurred. Objective To investigate factors that encourage greater private support for and public action on gun safety policy. Design, Setting, and Participants Three studies were conducted: a public opinion survey (Study 1) was conducted from Januar...
Article
Full-text available
The general aggression model, or GAM for short, is a metatheory for understanding the roots of aggression. The GAM is especially useful for understanding how exposure to violent media can increase aggression. In the GAM, personal and situational variables independently and interactively influence a person's internal states (cognition, affect, arous...
Article
The study of aggressive driving is an important step in the reduction of (often fatal) crashes due to this behavior. However, even though various measures of aggressive driver behavior have been proposed, a more thorough examination of what the driving public perceives as aggressive driving behavior can be performed. A nationally representative sam...
Article
Background: The prefrontal cortex is crucial for top-down regulation of aggression, but the neural underpinnings of aggression are still poorly understood. Past research showed the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) modulates aggression following exposure to risk factors for aggression (...
Article
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Importance Among resource-rich countries, the United States has the highest rate of child mortality by unintentional firearm use. Objective To test whether children’s exposure to violent video games increases dangerous behavior around firearms. Design, Setting, and Participants This randomized clinical trial was set in a university laboratory and...
Article
Laboratory measures play an important role in the study of aggression because they allow researchers to make causal inferences. However, these measures have also been criticized. In particular, the competitive reaction time task (CRTT) has been criticized for allowing aggression to be operationalized in multiple ways, leaving it susceptible to “p‐h...
Article
Negative consequences of video games have been a concern since their inception. However, one under‐researched area is the potential negative effects of sexualized video game content on players. This study analyzed the consequences of sexualized video game content on online sexual harassment against male and female targets. We controlled for a numbe...
Article
There is emerging evidence that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements can decrease aggression. However, experimental studies with adults from non-specific populations are scarce. We hypothesized that Omega-3 supplements would decrease self-reported aggression among non-clinical participants. In a double-blind randomized trial, two...
Article
Although adolescents around the world play video games, little is known about their longitudinal effects on adolescents from Eastern countries. This large longitudinal violent video game study has 4 strengths. First, it is the first longitudinal study conducted with Chinese adolescents. Second, it examines moral disengagement as a possible mediatin...
Article
Full-text available
Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression—called the “weapons effect.” This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoreti...
Article
When shooting a gun at a human target, firearms training instructors teach individuals to shoot for the upper torso because it is the largest lethal target on the human body. In contrast, violent first‐person shooter (FPS) video games reward players for headshots. The head is the smallest lethal target, and requires careful aim to hit. In this expe...
Article
In June 2015, the U.S. Department of the Treasury announced that a woman would replace Hamilton on the $10 bill. In April 2016, it announced that Harriet Tubman would replace Andrew Jackson on the $20 bill, instead. After each announcement, we surveyed nationally representative samples of American adults and asked them what they thought of these pr...
Article
The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a meta‐theory that considers the role of personal and situational variables on aggressive behavior, ranging from the biological to the cultural. Possible mediating variables include internal states (e.g., aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, increased physiological arousal) and the results of appraisal and deci...
Article
Although violent entertainment has existed for centuries, the media have made it more accessible than ever before. In modern societies, people are immersed in media, like fish in water. Using hand-held devices, people can consume media just about anywhere they want, anytime they want. Moreover, violence is a common theme in the media, and research...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, is a self-relevant and social emotion. Nostalgia proneness is associated with alleviation of distress or instability (e.g., neuroticism). Although nostalgia proneness is heritable, the specific molecular contributors to this heritability are unknown. We focused on a polymorphism in the promoter of the...
Article
Aggressive drivers can make driving dangerous. Over 50% of traffic fatalities are caused by aggressive driving. This research tests whether narcissists are more aggressive drivers than other individuals. Narcissists think they are special people who deserve special treatment. When they don’t get the special treatment they think they deserve, narcis...
Article
Full-text available
Aggression and violence levels generally increase as one moves closer to the equator, but why? We developed a new theoretical model, CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH; van Lange, Rinderu, & Bushman, 2017b, 2017c), to understand differences within and between countries in aggression and violence in terms of differences in climat...
Article
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For many years, the conventional wisdom was that most acts of aggression and violence stem from insecurities and low self-esteem. The possibility that some mass shooters have low self-esteem, low self-worth, or painful personal insecurities should not lead us to overlook another more likely possibility: that a significant number of mass shooters ma...
Article
In discussions about guns, one factor rarely considered is the fact that merely seeing a gun can increase aggression. This effect—called the “weapons effect”—was first demonstrated in a 1967 study, and has been replicated many times since then. The present experiment used a driving simulator to provide a novel test of the weapons effect. One of the...
Article
Full-text available
Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 ye...
Article
Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide varie...
Article
Full-text available
Importance More US children die by accidental gun use than children in other developed countries. One factor that can influence children’s interest in guns is exposure to media containing guns. Objective To test whether children who see a movie containing guns will handle a real gun longer and will pull the trigger more times than children who see...
Article
Full-text available
The present research developed a measure for exposure to both antisocial and prosocial media content by revising and extending a previous Content-based Media Exposure Scale (C-ME). The validity and reliability of the C-ME2 was tested in two independent samples (N = 678), among young adults (Study 1) and adolescents (Study 2). Results of Confirmator...
Chapter
The number of children and adolescents affected by firearm violence are staggering. To help you better understand the public health impact, order this print compendium of AAP editor-curated articles with quick access to the latest most salient studies. https://shop.aap.org/pediatric-collections-firearm-related-injuries-and-preventions-paperback/
Article
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In this issue, (Ferguson, C. J., & Donnellan, B. D., Journal of Youth and and Adolescence, published online 21 June 2017) criticize one of our studies (Gabbiadini, A., Riva, P., Andrighetto, L., Volpato, C., & Bushman, B. J., PLoS ONE, 11: 1–14, 2016) that found violent sexist video games can reduce empathy for female violence victims in male playe...
Article
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There is little research on how family violence affects children who live the Arab world. This study had three aims. First, to examine the prevalence of family violence in Yemen. Second, to examine the associations between family violence and internalizing and externalizing problems in Yemeni children. Third, to examine participant gender as a poss...
Article
The mere presence of weapons can increase aggression—called the “weapons effect.” Weapons are theorized to increase aggression by priming aggressive thoughts. This research tested the robustness of the weapons effect using two large representative samples of American adults (total N = 1,097). Participants saw photos of criminals, soldiers, police i...
Article
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A large meta-analysis by Anderson et al. (2010) found that violent video games increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior and decreased empathic feelings and helping behavior. Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017) reanalyzed the data of Anderson et al. (2010) using newer publication bias methods (...
Article
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Hot temperatures lead to heightened arousal. According to excitation transfer theory, arousal can increase both antisocial and prosocial behavior, depending on the context. Although many studies have shown that hot temperatures can increase antisocial behavior, very few studies have investigated the relationship between temperature and prosocial be...
Article
Full-text available
Hot temperatures lead to heightened arousal. According to excitation transfer theory, arousal can increase both antisocial and prosocial behavior, depending on the context. Although many studies have shown that hot temperatures can increase antisocial behavior, very few studies have investigated the relationship between temperature and prosocial be...
Article
Full-text available
The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect...
Article
The CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH) proposes that aggression and violence increase as climates become hotter and seasonal variation becomes smaller by influencing time-orientation and self-control. Emerging empirical evidence supporting the model is reviewed. Wealth, income inequality, and pathogen stress as powerful influen...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. To test the hypothesis that violence among US adolescents spreads like a contagious disease through social networks. Methods. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 90 118 US students aged 12 to 18 years who were involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Violence was assessed by having participan...
Article
It is somewhat ironic that although youth today are saturated in media, no standardized instrument exists to measure individual’s exposure to specific media content. Therefore, we developed and validated a scale to measure both the frequency and content of adolescents’ media exposure which measures media exposure regardless of media channel: the Co...
Chapter
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Article
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A total of 80 authors working in a variety of scientific disciplines commented on the theoretical model of CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH). The commentaries cover a wide range of issues, including the logic and assumptions of CLASH, the evidence in support of CLASH, and other possible causes of aggression and violence (e.g.,...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation...
Article
Full-text available
In many societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons priming effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons priming effect occurs. Thi...
Article
Many people today are immersed in media similar to fish in water. Electronic devices provide virtually unlimited access to media. Although people consume media during their waking hours, the media they consume might also affect their dreams during sleeping hours. The media often contain violence and sex. On the basis of cognitive neoassociation the...
Article
Full-text available
Many people today are immersed in media similar to fish in water. Electronic devices provide virtually unlimited access to media. Although people consume media during their waking hours, the media they consume might also affect their dreams during sleeping hours. The media often contain violence and sex. On the basis of cognitive neoassociation the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research documents an increase in narcissism in the United States. Little research, however, has explored mechanisms that could cause higher narcissism. In 2 studies, we test the hypothesis that exposure to narcissistic reality TV characters is related to greater narcissism for those engaging in experience taking (Kaufman & Libby, 2012). Stu...
Article
At the request of the Journal Editor(s) and the Publisher and/or the author(s), the following article has been retracted. Çetin, Y., Wai, J., Altay, C., & Bushman B. J. (2016). Effects of violent media on verbal task performance in gifted and general cohort children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 60(4), 279-287. doi: 10.1177/0016986216660382 Joseph Hilga...
Article
In responding to the published comments on our SPSSI Research Summary on Media Violence, we note that several key themes emerge. In assessing the media violence research evidence, it is more informative and less biased to draw conclusions based on the full range of findings than to emphasize findings from individual studies. Using the full range of...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide there are substantial differences within and between countries in aggression and violence. Although there are various exceptions, a general rule is that aggression and violence increase as one moves closer to the equator, which suggests the important role of climate differences. While this pattern is robust, theoretical explanations for t...
Article
Objective: This study aims to establish a cut score for the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, a well-validated measure of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth for which there is currently no cutoff score. Method: We analyzed data on 634 adolescents from high schools (n = 343) and juvenile detention centers (n = 291). Participants, the...
Article
Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have...
Data
Pictures used to measure empathy toward a female victim of violence (for illustrative purposes only). Participants indicated how much pain they thought the girl was feeling, and how much they thought she was suffering (1 = not at all to 7 = very much; Cronbach α = .79). (DOCX)
Article
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Empathy-putting oneself in another's shoes-has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among partici...
Article
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Evolutionary theory predicts that people attend to emotionally arousing cues at the expense of less arousing cues. Violence is one emotionally arousing cue that attracts attention away from less arousing cues located in the same visual environment. Previous research has shown that violent media content attracts attention at the expense of brands ad...
Article
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In contemporary Western society, many adults use praise to boost children's self-esteem. Accordingly, they might praise those who seem to need it the most: children with low self-esteem. In this article, we review research showing that certain types of praise can backfire, especially in children with low self-esteem. Adults are inclined to give chi...
Article
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Most people automatically withdraw from socially threatening situations. However, people high in trait anger could be an exception to this rule, and may even display an eagerness to approach hostile situations. To test this hypothesis, we asked 118 participants to complete an approach-avoidance task, in which participants made approach or avoidance...