Boris Forthmann

Boris Forthmann
University of Münster | WWU · Institute of Psychology in Education

Doctor of Psychology

About

65
Publications
79,633
Reads
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765
Citations
Introduction
My current research interests are the assessment of creative thinking (and related issues) and psychometric issues related to large-scale formative assessment (classical issues such as validity and reliabilty, scoring, creating norms, for example). My work is based on theoretical delibarations, empirical data, and simulation studies.
Additional affiliations
June 2011 - December 2015
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (65)
Preprint
Full-text available
Creativity research often relies on human raters to judge the novelty of participants’ responses on open-ended tasks, such as the Alternate Uses Task (AUT). Albeit useful, manual ratings are subjective and labor intensive. To address these limitations, researchers increasingly use automatic scoring methods based on a natural language processing tec...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic distance scoring provides an attractive alternative to other scoring approaches for responses in creative thinking tasks. In addition, evidence in support of semantic distance scoring has increased over the last years. In one recent approach, it has been proposed to combine multiple semantic spaces to better balance the idiosyncratic influ...
Article
Full-text available
The idea of data-based decision-making (DBDM) at the classroom level is that teachers use assessment data to adapt their instruction to students’ individual needs and thus improve students’ learning progress. In this study, we first investigate this theoretically assumed DBDM process, and second, we evaluate the effectiveness of teacher support on...
Article
Full-text available
Aesthetics is essential to the design of products. Nevertheless, aesthetic quality is often assessed with inaccurate, ad-hoc scales. Therefore, we have developed the Product Aesthetics Inventory (PAI) and its short version the PAI-S. A pre-study using face-to-face interviews (N = 6 design experts, N = 4 product users) served as basis for the develo...
Article
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Star inventors generate superior innovation outcomes. Their capacity to invent high-quality patents might be decisive beyond mere productivity. However, the relationship between quantitative and qualitative dimensions has not been exhaustively investigated. The equal odds baseline (EOB) framework can explicitly model this relationship. This work co...
Article
Full-text available
Although the behaviors displayed by assessees are the currency of assessment centers (ACs), they have remained largely unexplored. This is surprising because a better understanding of assessees’ behaviors may provide the missing link between research on the determinants of assessee performance and research on the validity of performance ratings. Th...
Preprint
Although the behaviors displayed by assessees are considered to be the currency of assessment centers (ACs), they have remained largely unexplored. This is surprising because a better understanding of assessees’ behaviors may provide the missing link between research on the determinants of assessee performance and research on the validity of perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring the progress of student learning is an important part of teachers’ data-based decision making. One such tool that can equip teachers with information about students’ learning progress throughout the school year and thus facilitate monitoring and instructional decision making is learning progress assessments. In practical contexts and res...
Article
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The goal of the current study was to gain insight into what elements encompass business-as-usual (BAU) reading instruction and to what extent BAU reading instruction includes elements that have been found to positively impact reading competence. In addition, we examined whether and how these evidence-based elements are incorporated and how they clu...
Article
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Background We examine the role of learning-family conflicts for the relation between commuting strain and health in a sample of medical university students. The first goal of the study was to investigate the mediating role of learning-family conflicts. The second goal was to extend the temporal view on relations between study variables. Therefore,...
Article
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Learning progress assessments (LPA) are increasingly used by teachers to inform instructional decisions. This study presents evidence for the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of a newly developed LPA for reading in Grade 2 (quop-L2 – quop Lesetest für zweite Klassen) that assesses the development of reading comprehension in German...
Article
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Background. When students generate ideas, important inter-individual variance exists both in the quantity and the quality of ideas they are able to produce (e.g., perfectionists who have few highly creative ideas or mass producers who produce a lot of uncreative ideas). In educational psychology research on creativity, the relation between the quan...
Article
Correlations are ubiquitous in scientometric research. The present work illustrates a formula to quantify the predicted correlation between a composite indicator and a primary indicator (i.e., the composite indicator can be expressed as a weighted sum of the primary indicator), for example. Total citations received and number of self-citations or t...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic distance is increasingly used for automated scoring of originality on divergent thinking tasks, such as the Alternate Uses Task (AUT). Despite some psychometric support for semantic distance—including positive correlations with human creativity ratings—additional work is needed to optimize its reliability and validity, including identifyin...
Article
Both researchers and practitioners agree that having highly engaged employees results in individuals and organizations reaping various positive consequences related to performance and absenteeism. However, available research syntheses date from the early years of this line of research, thus cover only a small fraction (under 10%) of the available s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a meta-analysis of the links between intelligence test scores and creative achievement. A three-level meta-analysis of 117 correlation coefficients from 30 studies found a correlation of r = .16 (95% CI: .12, .19), closely mirroring previous meta-analytic findings. The estimated effects were stronger for overall creative achieve...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity—as any other object of scientific endeavor—requires a sound measurement that adheres to quality criteria. For decades, creativity science has been criticized as falling short in developing valid and reliable measures of creative potential, activity, and achievement. Recent years have witnessed growth of theoretical and empirical works th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Even though a relationship between psychopathology and creativity has been postulated since the time of ancient Greece, systematic meta-analyses on this topic are still scarce. Thus, the meta-analysis described here can be considered the first to date that specifically focuses on the relationship between creative potential, as measured by divergent...
Article
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In most general education classrooms in Germany, students with and without special educational needs are taught together. To support teachers in adapting instruction to these heterogeneous classrooms, we have developed learning progress assessment (LPA) and reading instructional materials, the Reading Sportsman (RS) in line with the theoretical fra...
Presentation
Full-text available
Theoretischer Hintergrund Zu den von Politiker*innen, Lehrkräften und Forschenden am meisten befürchteten Folgen der COVID-19 Pandemie im Bildungsbereich gehört, dass die Lernleistungen stagnieren oder sinken und dass bestehende Ungleichheiten zunehmen (Forsa, 2020; Leopoldina, 2020). Diese Sorgen sind aus mehreren Gründen berechtigt, denn a) Sch...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a meta-analysis of the links between intelligence test scores and creative achievement. A three-level meta-analysis of 117 correlation coefficients from 30 studies has found a correlation of r = .16 (95% CI: .12, .19), closely mirroring previous meta-analytic findings. The estimated effects were stronger for overall creative ach...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 875 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 33,897. The overal...
Preprint
Social skills (e.g., persuading others, showing compassion, staying calm) are of key importance in work and education settings. Accordingly, the goal of many selection processes is to identify candidates who excel in desired skills. For this, high-fidelity simulations such as assessment centers (ACs) are regarded as ideal procedures because they ca...
Article
Full-text available
Social skills (e.g., persuading others, showing compassion, staying calm) are of key importance in work and education settings. Accordingly, the goal of many selection processes is to identify candidates who excel in desired skills. For this, high-fidelity simulations such as assessment centers (ACs) are regarded as ideal procedures because they ca...
Article
Full-text available
Item-response models from the psychometric literature have been proposed for the estimation of researcher capacity. Canonical items that can be incorporated in such models to reflect researcher performance are count data (e.g., number of publications, number of citations). Count data can be modeled by Rasch's Poisson counts model that assumes equid...
Article
Full-text available
Up to now, support for the idea that a controlled component exists in creative thought has mainly been supported by correlational studies; to further shed light on this issue, we employed an experimental approach. We used four alternate uses tasks that differed in instruction type (“be fluent” vs. “be creative”) and concurrent secondary workload (l...
Preprint
Creativity—as any other object of scientific endeavor—requires a sound measurement that adheres to quality criteria. For decades, creativity science has been criticized as falling short in developing valid and reliable measures of creative potential, activity, and achievement. Recent years have witnessed growth of theoretical and empirical works th...
Article
A thorough understanding of the relationship between quality and quantity of creative productions is critically important for creativity researchers and practitioners. The current study examines the equal odds baseline as a simple model to describe the quality-quantity relationship. Among other predictions, the equal odds baseline posits the presen...
Article
Die zunehmende Heterogenität der SchülerInnen geht mit der Herausforderung für Lehrkräfte einher, die unterschiedlichen Lernausgangslagen zu diagnostizieren und die schulische Förderung entsprechend differenziert zu gestalten. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt mit der Lernverlaufsdiagnostik quop sowie dem Förderprogramm 'Der Lese-Sportler' ein Konzept...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying the creative quality of scholarly work is a difficult challenge, and, unsurprisingly, empirical research in this area is scarce. This investigation builds on the theoretical distinction between impact (e.g., citation counts) and creative quality (e.g., originality) and extends recent work on using objective measures to assess the origin...
Article
Full-text available
Among scientists who study scientific production, the relationship between the quantity of a scientist’s production and the quality of their work has long been a topic of empirical research and theoretical debate. One principal theoretical perspective on the quantity-quality relationship has been the equal odds baseline, which posits that a scienti...
Article
Full-text available
The equal odds baseline is a parsimonious model that describes the relationship between quantity and quality of output in scientific creativity. Specifically, it is posited that quality is a linear function of quantity, and therefore strong positive correlations between these two variables are expected. Strong positive correlations also play a cruc...
Article
Full-text available
Distractors might display discriminatory power with respect to the construct of interest (e.g., intelligence), which was shown in recent applications of nested logit models to the short-form of Raven's progressive matrices and other reasoning tests. In this vein, a simulation study was carried out to examine two effect size measures (i.e., a varian...
Article
Full-text available
As measures of general language proficiency, C-tests are ubiquitous in language testing. Speeded C-tests are quite recent developments in the field and are deemed to be more discriminatory and provide more accurate diagnostic information than power C-tests especially with highability participants. Item response theory modeling of speeded C-tests ha...
Article
The present study contributes to the further development of mandatory employment counseling practice by creating a new measure to describe differences in counselors’ use of discretionary power. The measure categorizes counselors’ acting and thinking into concrete counseling behavior as well as prioritizations of goals and topics for the counseling...
Article
Full-text available
Simonton’s equal odds baseline assumes that the number of creative hits is a positive linear function of the number of attempts (i.e., products). It has importance for productivity of innovators and scientists, small-group brainstorming, and divergent thinking research. It has been proposed within a stochastic model for productions in the field of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: One popular procedure in the medical student selection process are multiple mini-interviews (MMIs), which are designed to assess social skills (e.g., empathy) by means of brief interview and role-play stations. However, it remains unclear whether MMIs reliably measure desired social skills or rather general performance differences that...
Article
Prior research has reported less favorable attitudes toward and more violent crimes against ethnic out-group members in East (vs. West) Germany. We conducted two pre-registered lost letter studies in West versus East German cities (Study 1, N = 400) and in West versus East German rural areas (Study 2, N = 400). To investigate supportive behavior re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prior research has reported less favorable attitudes toward and more violent crimes against ethnic out-group members in East (vs. West) Germany. We conducted two pre-registered lost letter studies in West versus East German cities (Study 1, N = 400) and in West versus East German rural areas (Study 2, N = 400). To investigate supportive behavior re...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The originality of divergent thinking production is one of the most critical indicators of creative potential. It is commonly scored using the statistical infrequency of responses relative to all responses provided in a given sample. Aims. Response frequency estimates vary in terms of measurement precision. This issue has been widely ov...
Preprint
Full-text available
One popular procedure in the medical student selection process are multiple mini-interviews (MMIs), which are designed to assess social skills (e.g., empathy) by means of brief interview and role-play stations. However, it remains unclear whether MMIs reliably measure desired social skills or rather general performance differences that do not depen...
Chapter
Um kreatives Denken optimal zu fördern, müssen Produkte kreativer Denkprozesse bewertbar sein, damit man möglichst konkrete Hilfestellung geben kann. Dass eine solche Bewertung nicht möglich sei, ist ein bekanntes Klischee, welches durch mystifizierende Vorstellungen zu Kreativität im Allgemeinen genährt wird. Wo Kreativität entsteht bzw. gedacht w...
Article
Count data naturally arise in several areas of cognitive ability testing, e.g., processing speed, memory, verbal fluency, and divergent thinking. Contemporary count data item response theory models, however, are not flexible enough, especially to account for overand underdispersion at the same time. For example, the Rasch Poisson counts model assum...
Article
Divergent thinking (DT) ability (i.e., the ability to come up with creative ideas) is a complex cognitive construct that has been associated with several specific components of the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model. In this study, we employed a nested latent variable approach to examine the specific role of mental speed (Gs) and general retrieval abi...
Article
Full-text available
In the presented work, a shift of perspective with respect to the dimensionality of divergent thinking (DT) tasks is introduced moving from the question of multidimensionality across DT scores (i.e., fluency, flexibility, or originality) to the question of multidimensionality within one holistic score of DT performance (i.e., snapshot ratings of cr...
Article
Divergent thinking tests are often used in creativity research as measures of creative potential. However, measurement approaches across studies vary to a great extent. One facet of divergent thinking measurement that contributes strongly to differences across studies is the scoring of participants’ responses. Most commonly, responses are scored fo...
Preprint
In the presented work, a shift of perspective with respect to the dimensionality of divergent thinking tasks is introduced moving from the question of multidimensionality across divergent thinking scores to the question of multidimensionality across the scale of divergent thinking scores. We apply IRTree models to test if the same latent trait can...
Article
The Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962; Mednick & Mednick, 1967) is a commonly employed test of creative convergent thinking. The RAT is scored with a dichotomous scoring, scoring correct answers as 1 and all other answers as 0. Based on recent research into the information processing underlying RAT performance, we argued that the dichotomo...
Article
Item-response theory (IRT) models are test-theoretical models with many practical implications for educational measurement. For example, test-linking procedures and large-scale educational studies often build on IRT frameworks. However, IRT models have been rarely applied to divergent thinking which is one of the most important indicators of creati...
Article
Divergent thinking tasks are the cornerstone of creative thinking assessment. Besides fluency, the number of generated ideas, several other scores have been used to measure different aspects of idea generation in divergent thinking tasks. However, between all such scores high correlations are quite common. These correlations, in particular high cor...
Article
Scoring divergent thinking response sets has always been challenging because such responses are not only open-ended in terms of number of ideas, but each idea may also be expressed by a varying number of concepts and, thus, by a varying number of words (elaboration). While many current studies have attempted to score the semantic distance in diverg...
Article
In this study; we focus on mental speed and divergent thinking, examining their relationship and the influence of task speededness. Participants (N = 109) completed a set of processing speed tasks and a test battery measuring divergent thinking. We used two speeded divergent thinking tasks of two minutes and two unspeeded tasks of eight minutes to...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study we experimentally manipulated language switching among bilinguals who indicated to be more or less habitual language switchers in daily life. Our aim was to investigate the impact of forced language switching on originality of produced ideas during divergent thinking, conditional on the level of habitual language switching. A s...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, a systematic student evaluation of teaching (SET) is common at many universities. However, not all students evaluate all relevant courses and, as a consequence, feedback from a substantial number of students is missing. The current study examines response behavior with respect to demographic, motivational, and situational variables. Based...
Article
The moderating role of openness to experience for the relationship between multicultural experiences and divergent-thinking performance was examined. A linear-mixed modeling approach to account for variability due to subjects and alternate-uses objects was used. In a final sample of N = 199 participants a three-way interaction of instruction type (...
Article
The need to control for writing or typing speed when assessing divergent-thinking performance has been recognized since the early ‘90s. An even longer tradition in divergent-thinking research has the issue of scoring the responses for quality. This research addressed both issues within structural equation modeling. Three dimensions of originality—u...
Article
Instructional effects in creative-thinking tasks are important to understand in order to promote creative performance of individuals. In divergent-thinking tasks, for example, instructional and strategic enhancement effects have been extensively studied for verbal tasks. However, while studies on instructional enhancement effects on creative drawin...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this psychometric study is to explain performance on cognitive tasks pertaining Analogical Reasoning that were taken into consideration during the construction of a Test of Figural Analogies. For this purpose, a general Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM) was mainly used for data analysis. A 30-itemed Test of Figural Analogies was admi...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Understanding how recognized experts in creativity think differently from novices. Also working to uncover a trajectory for the development of creative expertise, within and across domains of learning.
Project
Speededness in tests poses a challenge to IRT scaling. The Rasch Poisson Counts Model (RPCM) is one way to face this challenge. In this project we are trying to apply the RPCM to scale speeded tests and examine the utility of the model in real applications.