Boon Leong Lan

Boon Leong Lan
Monash University (Malaysia) · School of Engineering

PhD Physics, Georgia Instiute of Technology
Looking for a PhD student to work on a project using low-intensity ultrasound to kill cancer cells.

About

112
Publications
5,638
Reads
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602
Citations
Introduction
My current research interests include disease detection and control in Biomedical Engineering, and relativistic quantum dynamics and quantum foundation
Additional affiliations
July 1998 - present
Monash University Malaysia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 1986 - September 1990
Georgia Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Full-text available
To study quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic regime, the standard practice is to use non-relativistic quantum mechanics, instead of the relativistic theory, because it is thought the approximate non-relativistic result is always close to the relativistic one. Here we present a theoretical argument that this expectation is not true in general....
Article
Full-text available
Giancardo et al. recently introduced the neuroQWERTY index (nQi), which is a novel motor index derived from computer-key-hold-time data using an ensemble regression algorithm, to detect early-stage Parkinson's disease. Here, we derive a much simpler motor index from their hold-time data, which is the standard deviation (SD) of the hold-time fluctua...
Article
Full-text available
Complex dynamical systems can shift abruptly from a stable state to an alternative stable state at a tipping point. Before the critical transition, the system either slows down in its recovery rate or flickers between the basins of attraction of the alternative stable states. Whether the heart critically slows down or flickers before it transitions...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global health crisis caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard test for diagnosing COVID-19. Although it is highly accurate, this lab test requires highly-trained personnel and the turn-around...
Article
Full-text available
Although the application of sub-sensory mechanical noise to the soles of the feet has been shown to enhance balance, there has been no study on how the bandwidth of the noise affects balance. Here, we report a single-blind randomized controlled study on the effects of a narrow and wide bandwidth mechanical noise on healthy young subjects’ sway duri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epilepsy affects 50 million people worldwide and is one of the most common serious neurological disorders. Seizure detection and classification is a valuable tool for diagnosing and maintaining the condition. An automated classification algorithm will allow for accurate diagnosis. Utilising the Temple University Hospital (TUH) Seizure Corpus, six s...
Conference Paper
Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system that can affect people of any age group. With roughly 50 million people worldwide diagnosed with the disorder, it is one of the most common neurological disorders. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an indispensable tool for diagnosis of epileptic seizures in an ideal case, as brain waves from an epilepti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Peer Instruction (PI) was introduced by Mazur [1] to help students learn physics concepts during lectures. Besides physics [2,3], PI has also been adopted in other STEM fields [4]. In this approach (Figure 1(a)), students answer a related question individually after a concept has been presented. Before they revote on the same question individually,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system that can affect people of any age group. With roughly 50 million people worldwide diagnosed with the disorder, it is one of the most common neurological disorders. The EEG is an indispensable tool for diagnosis of epileptic seizures in an ideal case, as brain waves from an epileptic person will present d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been used quite successfully for semantic segmentation of brain tumors. However, current CNNs and attention mechanisms are stochastic in nature and neglect the morphological indicators used by radiologists to manually annotate regions of interest. In this paper, we introduce a channel and spatial wise asymm...
Article
Full-text available
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been used quite successfully for semantic segmentation of brain tumors. However, current CNNs and attention mechanisms are stochastic in nature and neglect the morphological indicators used by radiologists to manually annotate regions of interest. In this paper, we introduce a channel and spatial wise asymm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Early detection of lung cancer is crucial as it has high mortality rate with patients commonly present with the disease at stage 3 and above. There are only relatively few methods that simultaneously detect and classify nodules from computed tomography (CT) scans. Furthermore, very few studies have used semi-supervised lea...
Article
It has been recently demonstrated that one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators known for their high Q value and relatively small device footprint could be utilized for in-liquid mass loading sensing applications where only the reflectors of the device are coated with the sensing film while the IDT is isolated from the sensing environment. T...
Article
Full-text available
The biophotovoltaic cell (BPV) is deemed to be a potent green energy device as it demonstrates the generation of renewable energy from microalgae; however, inadequate electron generation from microalgae is a significant impediment for functional employment of these cells. The photosynthetic process is not only affected by the temperature, CO2 conce...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effects of aircraft cabin pressure on intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation of a pneumocephalus patient. We propose an experimental setup that simulates the intracranial hydrodynamics of a pneumocephalus patient during flight. It consists of an acrylic box (skull), air-filled balloon [intracranial air (ICA)], water-fille...
Article
Full-text available
We show, both analytically and numerically, that the non-relativistic and relativistic quantum predictions for the dynamics of a prototypical driven electron – the periodically kicked rotor – do not always agree in the non-relativistic regime. The surprisingly different quantum predictions could be tested experimentally using ultra-cold fermionic a...
Article
Purpose Lung nodules have very diverse shapes and sizes, which makes classifying them as benign/malignant a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method to predict the malignancy of nodules that have the capability to analyze the shape and size of a nodule using a global feature extractor, as well as the density and structure of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: Lung nodules have very diverse shapes and sizes, which makes classifying them as benign/malignant a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method to predict the malignancy of nodules that have the capability to analyze the shape and size of a nodule using a global feature extractor, as well as the density and structure of t...
Preprint
Full-text available
As an extension of our recent work (Results in Physics 12, 147-152 (2019)), we show, both theoretically and numerically, that the breakdown of agreement between the non-relativistic and relativistic quantum dynamical predictions in the non-relativistic regime also occurs for an electron subjected to a time-dependent force.
Preprint
To study quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic regime, the standard practice is to use non-relativistic quantum mechanics, instead of the relativistic theory, because it is thought the approximate non-relativistic result is always close to the relativistic one. Here we present a theoretical argument that this expectation is not true in general....
Article
Full-text available
We show that the difference between the Newtonian and special-relativistic predictions for the angular position increases linearly with time for a charged particle moving at low speed in a circular path in a constant uniform magnetic field. Numerical results suggest that it is possible to test the two different predictions experimentally.
Article
Full-text available
Determining statistical patterns irrespective of interacting agents (i.e. macroecology) is useful to explore the mechanisms driving population fluctuations and extinctions in natural food webs. Here, we tested four predictions of a neutral model on the distribution of community fluctuations (CF) and the distributions of persistence times (APT). Nov...
Article
Full-text available
The accuracy of the non-relativistic approximation, which is calculated using the same parameter and the same initial ensemble of trajectories, to relativistic momentum diffusion at low speed is studied numerically for a prototypical nonlinear Hamiltonian system -the periodically delta-kicked particle. We find that if the initial ensemble is a non-...
Article
Full-text available
Although heavy-tailed fluctuations are ubiquitous in complex systems, a good understanding of the mechanisms that generate them is still lacking. Optical complex systems are ideal candidates for investigating heavy-tailed fluctuations, as they allow recording large datasets under controllable experimental conditions. A dynamical regime that has att...
Data
Fitted β and δ parameters for experimental IDI fluctuations. (PDF)
Data
Simulated IDI fluctuations (Threshold -1.5). Filename is the simulation pump parameter. (ZIP)
Data
Fitted β and δ parameters for simulated IDI fluctuations. (PDF)
Data
Experimental IDI fluctuations (Threshold -2.0). Filename is the experimental pump parameter. (ZIP)
Data
Simulated IDI fluctuations (Threshold -1.0). Filename is the simulation pump parameter. (ZIP)
Data
Experimental IDI fluctuations (Threshold -1.5). Filename is the experimental pump parameter. (ZIP)
Article
Full-text available
The Newtonian and general-relativistic position and velocity probability densities, which are calculated from the same initial Gaussian ensemble of trajectories using the same system parameters, are compared for a low-speed weak-gravity bouncing ball system. The Newtonian approximation to the general-relativistic probability densities does not alwa...
Article
A frequent observation in plant-animal mutualistic networks is that abundant species tend to be more generalised, interacting with a broader range of interaction partners than rare species. Uncovering the causal relationship between abundance and generalisation has been hindered by a chicken-and-egg dilemma: is generalisation a by-product of being...
Article
A frequent observation in plant-animal mutualistic networks is that abundant species tend to be more generalized, interacting with a broader range of interaction partners than rare species. Uncovering the causal relationship between abundance and generalization has been hindered by a chicken-and-egg dilemma: is generalization a by-product of being...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent article [Results in Physics 1, 36-39 (2011)], we showed that the trajectories predicted by general-relativistic and Newtonian mechanics from the same parameters and initial conditions for a low-speed weak-gravity bouncing ball system will rapidly disagree completely if the trajectories are chaotic. Here, we determine how accurate the pa...
Article
The fluctuations of natural populations have deep impact on important ecological issues, such as pest outbreaks, fisheries or the formation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, consensus on the appropriate descriptor of such fluctuations is still lacking. Here, using 16 to 20 years of weekly data on marine microbial population abundance compris...
Conference Paper
We show for a prototypical low-dimensional Hamiltonian (non-dissipative) system, that the growth of the mean square momentum displacement of an initially well-localized Gaussian ensemble of trajectories is transiently exponential, instead of either the power-law growth (anomalous diffusion) or linear growth from the outset typical for an initially...
Article
We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be...
Article
Full-text available
The statistical predictions of Newtonian and special-relativistic mechanics, which are calculated from an initially Gaussian ensemble of trajectories, are compared for a low-speed scattering system. The comparisons are focused on the mean dwell time, transmission and reflection coefficients, and the position and momentum means and standard deviatio...
Article
The Newtonian and special-relativistic predictions for the mean trajectory of a model low-speed scattering system are compared. Contrary to expectation, we show that the meantrajectory predictions of the two theories, which are based on the same parameters and initial conditions, can disagree completely. When the agreement between the two mean-traj...
Article
Full-text available
The newtonian and special-relativistic statistical predictions for the mean, standard deviation and probability density function of the position and momentum are compared for the periodically-delta-kicked particle at low speed. Contrary to expectation, we find that the statistical predictions, which are calculated from the same parameters and initi...
Article
Full-text available
We show, contrary to expectation, that the trajectory predicted by general-relativistic mechanics for a low-speed weak-gravity system is not always well-approximated by the trajectories predicted by special-relativistic and newtonian mechanics for the same parameters and initial conditions. If the system is dissipative, the breakdown of agreement o...
Data
Derivation of the special-relativistic and general-relativistic maps. (DOC)
Data
Newtonian and relativistic free-fall motion. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of a bouncing ball undergoing repeated inelastic impact with a sinusoidally-oscillating table is studied numerically. For the ball bouncing at low speed in a weak gravitational field, we show, contrary to expectation, that the trajectories predicted by Newtonian mechanics and general-relativistic mechanics from the same parameters and...
Article
The Physics Teacher 49(9), 581 (2011) DOI: http://doi.org/10.1119/1.3661111
Article
Full-text available
The orthodox interpretation of the "time dilation" equation in special relativity is disproved by showing that the interpretation leads to a contradiction. (C) 2011 Physics Essays Publication. [DOI: 10.4006/1.3656690]
Article
The one-sided power spectrum of the fluctuations of the Riemann staircase is calculated numerically and shown to be Lorentzian, like the one-sided power spectrum of the fluctuations of the spectral staircase for classically chaotic systems. This result provides further evidence in support of Berry's conjecture that the E(n)'s of the enigmatic Riema...
Article
Full-text available
A simple argument is given to prove that a uniformly moving rod does not really contract, contrary to the orthodox view. (C) 2011 Physics Essays Publication. [DOI: 10.4006/1.3578690]
Article
We show that the fluctuations of a variety of animal (insect, mammal and fish) populations are well-modeled by stable (Lévy) distributions, a family of distributions which includes the Gaussian. Our findings together with the finding [A.P. Allen, B.-L. Li, E.L. Charnov, Ecol. Lett. 4 (2001) 1–3] that bird population fluctuations are well-modeled by...
Article
The Newtonian and special‐relativistic predictions for the mean trajectory of a model low‐speed dynamical system are compared, where an ensemble of trajectories is used to calculate the mean trajectory in each theory. Contrary to conventional expectation, we show that the mean trajectory predictions of the two theories, which are based on the same...
Article
Newtonian and special-relativistic predictions, based on the same model parameters and initial conditions for the trajectory of a low-speed scattering system are compared. When the scattering is chaotic, the two predictions for the trajectory can rapidly diverge completely, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively, due to an exponentially gro...
Article
We show that the trajectories predicted by Newtonian mechanics and special relativistic mechanics from the same parameters and initial conditions for a slow-moving dissipative dynamical system will rapidly disagree completely if the trajectories are chaotic or transiently chaotic. There is no breakdown of agreement if the trajectories are non-chaot...
Article
For stock market data, the empirical distribution of the return for stock price and the empirical distribution of the return for stock market index are well known. However, for the detrended data (defined as data divided by trend), which is a different fluctuating quantity compared to the return, only the distribution of detrended daily stock volum...
Article
The dynamics of a bouncing ball is studied using Newtonian and special relativistic mechanics. An exact mapping describes the bouncing ball dynamics in each theory. We show that the trajectories predicted by the two theories from the same parameters and initial conditions for the ball bouncing at low speed can rapidly disagree completely. The bounc...
Article
We study the spatial interference pattern of two-photon correlation function for a coherently phased linear array of N emitters with a double-Raman scheme, each producing nonclassically correlated photon pairs. The N2 dependence in the two-photon correlation serves as a coherent amplification method for producing intense nonclassical light. The spa...
Article
On the answer page1 to a recent ``Figuring Physics'' question, the cute mouse asks another question: ``Does the [sea] water level change if the iceberg melts?'' The conventional answer2-4 is ``no.'' However, in this paper I will show through a simple analysis involving Archimedes' principle that the sea level will rise. The analysis shows the wrong...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of a bouncing ball undergoing repeated inelastic impacts with a table oscillating vertically in a sinusoidal fashion is studied using Newtonian mechanics and general relativistic mechanics. An exact mapping describes the bouncing ball dynamics in each theory. We show that, contrary to conventional expectation, the trajectories predicte...
Article
It was shown recently for a chaotic and a nonchaotic slow-moving dynamical system that the Newtonian and special relativistic trajectories eventually disagree completely. Here, it is argued that once the Newtonian trajectory is completely different from the relativistic trajectory, Newtonian mechanics can no longer be used to study the trajectory o...
Article
As another counterexample to prevalent conventional belief, a realistic theory, which is local and reproduces all the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory, is presented for Mermin’s version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment.
Article
It is shown that, contrary to conventional belief, the Newtonian and relativistic predicted trajectories for a low-speed delta-kicked dissipative system can eventually disagree completely. Similar results were found previously for two non-dissipative systems. These results imply that, for a slow-moving dynamical system, once the trajectory predicte...
Article
Full-text available
Contrary to conventional view, it is shown that, for an ensemble of either single-particle systems or multi-particle systems, the realistic interpretation of a mathematical superposition of states that mathematically describes the ensemble does not imply that the ensemble is a mixture. Therefore it cannot be argued, as is conventionally done, that...
Article
The dissipative relativistic standard map, introduced by Ciubotariu et al. [Ciubotariu C, Badelita L, Stancu V. Chaos in dissipative relativistic standard maps. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 2002;13:1253–67.], is further studied numerically for small damping in the resonant case. We find that the attractors are all periodic; their basins of attraction...
Article
It is conventionally believed that Bohm's quanturn theory yields all the predictions of standard quantum theory. However, in this paper, we show that the transmission and reflection coefficients (i.e., probabilities) predicted by Bohm's quanturn theory can be different from those predicted by standard quantum theory for energy eigenstates of the st...
Article
Daily changes in the logarithm of stock market index from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed for countries from three subgroups of economies classified by the International Monetary Fund (IMF): developing Asian countries, newly industrialized Asian economies and major advanced economies. For all markets, the daily changes are well fitted by a non-Gaussian s...
Article
Full-text available
Two criticisms which have prevented the realistic interpretation of entangled state from being widely accepted are addressed and shown to be unfounded. A local realistic theory, which reproduces all the quantum probabilistic predictions, is constructed for Hardy’s experiment based on the realistic interpretation of the entangled two-particle Hardy...
Article
The one-sided power spectrum P(f) of the fluctuation Nfluc(E) and Nfluc(ε) of the spectral staircase function, for respectively the original and unfolded spectrum, from its smooth average part is numerically estimated for Poisson spectrum and spectra of three Gaussian-random matrices: real symmetric, complex Hermitian, and quaternion-real Herm...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of a periodically delta-kicked Hamiltonian system moving at low speed (i.e., at speed much less than the speed of light) is studied numerically. In particular, the trajectory of the system predicted by Newtonian mechanics is compared with the trajectory predicted by special relativistic mechanics for the same parameters and initial con...
Article
We construct a stochastic mechanics by replacing Bohm‧s first-order ordinary differential equation of motion with a stochastic differential equation where the stochastic process is defined by the set of Bohmian momentum time histories from an ensemble of particles. We show that, if the stochastic process is a purely random process with n-th order j...
Article
Previously [2004, AIP Conf. Proc., 750, 361], we considered a stochastic mechanics in the form of a stochastic differential equation mdxdt = mu(t) where mu(t) is a stochastic process defined by the set of Bohmian momentum time histories from an ensemble of particles. In this paper, we consider another stochastic differential equation d2xdt2 = 1m-dV...
Article
As a counterexample to conventional belief, a realistic theory, which is both local and reproduces all the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory, is constructed for the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger three-photon experiment.
Article
The one-sided power spectrum of the fluctuation of Chebyshev's weighted prime counting function is numerically estimated based on samples of the fluctuating function of different sizes. The power spectrum is also estimated analytically for large frequency based on Riemann hypothesis and the exact formula for the fluctuating function in terms of all...
Article
Previously [J. Mod. Optics, 51, 1093, (2004)], we introduced an alternative stochastic mechanics in the form of a stochastic differential equation with a stochastic process defined by the set of Bohmian momentum time histories from an ensemble of particles. We showed that the alternative stochastic mechanics with a purely random process characteriz...
Article
We use model five-level systems to study resonance leaking of pi-pulse-induced multiphoton (MP) transitions along a strongly coupled anharmonic ladder. We demonstrate that the presence of a weakly bound background state attached to the ladder either in linear or Lambda configuration can have very pronounced effects on resonant MP ladder transitions...
Article
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Article
Gamba et al. [Phys. Lett. A 145 (1990) 106] numerically estimated the power spectrum of the difference between the prime-number counting function π(x) and its approximate given by Riemann's function R(x), but did not determine the functional dependence of the spectrum on the frequency. Our numerical estimates, based on samples of the difference fun...
Article
Full-text available
A realistic theory is constructed for the GHZ experiment. It is shown that the theory is local and it reproduces all the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory. This local realistic theory shows that GHZ had formulated Einstein's locality or no-action-at-a-distance principle incorrectly in their local realistic theory for the experiment.
Article
Full-text available
A local realistic theory is presented for Mermin's special case of the EPRB experiment. The theory, which is readily extended to the general EPRB experiment, reproduces all the predictions of quantum theory. It also reveals that Bell, and also Hess and Philipp, had made an error in the mathematical formulation of Einstein's locality or no action at...
Article
Full-text available
According to Einstein, the trajectory of a particle that is predicted by special relativistic mechanics is well approximated by the trajectory predicted by Newtonian mechanics if the particle speed is low, i.e., much less than the speed of light. However, in this paper, it is shown with a counterexample Hamiltonian dynamical system that Newtonian d...
Article
We report a remarkably robust phenomenon in the HCN/HNC molecule where the population of a target state induced by a resonant multiphoton (MP) π-pulse along a strongly-coupled subset of states can leak to a background state only weakly coupled to this subset. This resonance leaking of population, which may be complete, is due to the overlap of the...
Article
Enrico Fermi was not only a great theoretical and experimental physicist but a great teacher as well. This article highlights Fermi's approaches in both his formal and informal teaching, and as a thesis advisor. The great teacher inspires—William Arthur Ward
Article
Full-text available
A realistic view of the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment with spins based on quantum theory is presented. This view implies that there is no action at a distance. It also implies that the measurement result A(B) for particle 1 (2) depends on both magnet angles, and hence the probability of obtaining the result A(B) also depends on both magne...
Article
The nature of the stochastic process defined by Bohm’s momentum is elucidated for stationary energy eigenstates and nonstationary states in classically nonchaotic and chaotic Hamiltonian systems. In addition, the nature of the stochastic process defined by Bohm’s quantum force is elucidated for stationary energy eigenstates in nonchaotic and chaoti...
Article
This note explains the cancellations that result in a zero net magnetostatic field inside an infinitely long, thin cylindrical shell carrying a uniformly distributed current. The explanation is easily adapted for the zero net electrostatic or gravitational field inside such a shell with a uniform distribution of charge or mass respectively.
Article
New insight into the nature of Bohm’s quantum force is presented. Based on our numerical study, we conclude that, for the kicked pendulum, Bohm’s quantum-force time-series for nonstationary states is typically or generically non-Gaussian stable distributed with a flat power spectrum. For fixed system parameters and initial wave function, the stable...
Article
Full-text available
An alternative interpretation to Bohm’s ‘quantum force’ and ‘active information’ is proposed. Numerical evidence is presented, which suggests that the time series of Bohm’s ‘quantum force’ evaluated at the Bohmian position for non-stationary quantum states are typically non-Gaussian stable distributed with a flat power spectrum in classically chaot...
Article
In this note, we focus on Faraday as a lecturer/teacher. We trace his development as a lecturer/teacher and highlight his approaches in popular-science lecturing and in teaching chemistry to military cadets. We appraise his success and conclude with an account of his poignant last lecture.
Article
We derive and discuss the answer to an interesting and challenging ice-cube puzzle involving Archimedes' Principle. We also identify the source of error of the incorrect answer given by other authors for a special case of the puzzle.
Conference Paper
An alternative interpretation to Bohm's 'quantum force' and 'active information' is proposed. Numerical evidence is presented, which suggests that the time series of Bohm's 'quantum force' evaluated at the Bohmian position for non-stationary quantum states are typically non-Gaussian stable distributed with a flat power spectrum in classically chaot...
Article
The trajectory predicted by Bohm’s quantum equation of motion, using an initially angle-localized minimum-uncertainty Gaussian wave packet, is compared with the trajectory predicted by Newton’s classical equation of motion for a macroscopic periodically kicked pendulum system. We find that, in violation of the strong form of the correspondence prin...