Bonnie J Stevens

Bonnie J Stevens
University of Toronto | U of T · Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing

About

224
Publications
41,490
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15,396
Citations
Citations since 2017
21 Research Items
5055 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (224)
Article
Needle procedures are among the most common causes of pain and distress for individuals seeking healthcare. While needle pain is especially problematic for children needle pain and associated fear also has significant impact on adults and can lead to avoidance of appropriate medical care. Currently there is not a standard definition of needle pain....
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Background Despite the availability of effective, safe, and feasible pain management strategies, infant pain remains undertreated. Parents can play a key role in advocating for or delivering pain management strategies if they are educated. To date, a quantitative synthesis of the effectiveness of parental education about pain management in the neon...
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Background Strong evidence suggests that maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is effective in reducing behavioural responses to pain. Given the multi-sensory benefits of SSC, it is highly likely that SSC provided during pain in early life may reduce pain-induced brain activity. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SSC compared to...
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Background The clinical Pandemic Practice Champion (PPC) role was created in a large tertiary pediatric hospital as a knowledge translation (KT) strategy for implementing COVID-19 evidence-based knowledge. We aimed to describe the core components of the PPC role, the process of implementing the role, and the factors that hindered or facilitated rol...
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Background: Electronic health (e-health) learning is a potential avenue to educate health professionals about accurately using infant pain assessment tools, although little is known about the impact of e-health interventions on clinical competence. Purpose: To evaluate whether an e-health learning module for teaching the accurate use of the Prem...
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Objectives: The Premature Infant Pain Profile-revised (PIPP-R) is a well-established measure for infant pain assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and clinical utility of the PIPP-R electronic learning (e-Learning) module to promote standardized health care training for nurses. Materials and methods: A descriptive...
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The Implementation of Infant Pain Practice (ImPaC) Resource is an eHealth tool designed to support infant pain practice change and ultimately enhance pain outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine users' perspectives on usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the ImPaC Resource. A descriptive prospective mixed‐methods quality improvemen...
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Objective To metasynthesize the results of qualitative studies on the factors that affect parents’ participation in pain management for their infants during procedures in the NICU. Data Sources We conducted a literature search for articles published from 1976 through November 2019 using MeSH terminology in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL...
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Background: Hospitalized infants undergo multiple painful procedures daily. Despite the significant evidence, procedural pain assessment and management continues to be suboptimal. Repetitive and untreated pain at this vital developmental juncture is associated with negative behavioral and neurodevelopmental consequences. To address this knowledge...
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Background: Parents are confronted with a range of direct costs and intense caregiving demands following their child's cancer diagnosis, which may potentially threaten the financial stability of the family. Objective: The aims of this study were to explore the financial impact of a new childhood cancer diagnosis on families and understand the st...
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Most newborns undergo newborn screening blood tests. Breastfeeding, skin-to-skin care, and sweet solutions effectively reduce pain; however, these strategies are inconsistently used. We conducted a 2-armed pilot randomized controlled trial in a mother-baby unit to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a parent-targeted and -mediated video de...
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Background: Chronic pain affects more than 6 million Canadians. Patients need to be involved in setting research priorities to ensure a focus on areas important to those who will be most impacted by the results. Aims: The aim of this study was to leverage patient experiences to identify chronic pain research priorities in Canada. Method: The proces...
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Background: Orally administered sucrose is effective and safe in reducing pain intensity during single, tissue-damaging procedures in neonates, and is commonly recommended in neonatal pain guidelines. However, there is wide variability in sucrose doses examined in research, and more than a 20-fold variation across neonatal care settings. The aim o...
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Families of children with cancer are confronted with unexpected out-of-pocket expenses and productivity costs associated with the diagnosis. One productivity cost that falls on children is the impact of cancer on children’s school attendance, performance, and activities (eg, play, friendships, and socialization). Nested within the Childhood Cancer...
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Clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of analgesics across all pediatric age cohorts are needed to avoid inappropriate extrapolation of adult data to children. However, the selection of acute pain models and trial design attributes to maximize assay sensitivity, by pediatric age cohort, remains problematic. Acute pain models used for drug...
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Background Despite substantial research on pediatric pain assessment and management, health care professionals do not adequately incorporate this knowledge into clinical practice. Organizational context (work environment) is a significant factor in influencing outcomes; however, the nature of the mechanisms are relatively unknown. The objective of...
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CONTEXT: Abundant evidence of sweet taste analgesia in neonates exists, yet placebo-controlled trials continue to be conducted. OBJECTIVE: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes. DATA SOURCES: (1) Data from 2 systematic reviews of sweet s...
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Background: Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. Objectives: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by va...
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Background: Infant pain has been historically under-managed. Review question: This review assessed 24 different ways of reducing young children's pain during medical procedures without using drugs, such as using a pacifier, distracting the child, and rocking a child. We analysed studies separately for babies who were born preterm, full-term newborn...
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Patient decision aids (PtDAs) supplement advice from health care professionals by communicating the absolute risk or benefit of treatment options (i.e., X/100). As such, PtDAs have been amenable to binary outcomes only. We aimed to develop and test the validity of the Conversion to Risk Estimates through Application of Normal Theory (CREATE) method...
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Extremely low gestational age infants (<28 weeks at birth) experience significant pain from repeated therapeutic procedures while hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. As part of a program of research examining pain in preterm infants, we conducted a qualitatively driven mixed-methods design, supplemented with a qualitative and quantita...
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The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of toolkits as a knowledge translation (KT) strategy for facilitating the implementation of evidence into clinical care. Toolkits include multiple resources for educating and/or facilitating behaviour change. Systematic review of the literature on toolkits. A search was conducted o...
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Background: Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A...
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Background and objectives: Pain in Child Health (PICH) is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadia...
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Abstract Background. Health care trainees/students lack knowledge and skills for the comprehensive clinical assessment and management of pain. Moreover, most teaching has been limited to classroom settings within each profession. Objectives. We developed and evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of "Pain-Interprofessional Education (...
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Objectives To determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures and procedural pain management practices in neonatal units in Kenya. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Level I and level II neonatal units in Kenya. Patients Ninety-five term and preterm neonates from seven neonatal units. Methods Medical records of neonates admitted for at...
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Background Refractory angina is a severe chronic disease, defined as angina which cannot be controlled by usual treatments for heart disease. This disease is frightening, debilitating, and difficult to manage. Many people suffering refractory have inadequate pain relief, continually revisit emergency departments for help, undergo repeated cardiac i...
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Objectives To examine the construct validity, inter-rater reliability, and feasibility of the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised in infants of varying gestational ages, diagnoses, and procedures. Methods A prospective cross-over study with infants in three gestational age groups (26–31, 32–36, and ≥ 37 weeks) at three university-affiliated Neon...
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BACKGROUND: Procedural pain assessment and management have been extensively studied through multiple research studies over the past decade. Results of this research have been included in numerous pediatric pain practice guidelines.
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Pain that occurs both within and outside of the hospital setting is a common and distressing problem for adolescents with cancer. The use of smartphone technology may facilitate rapid, in-the-moment pain support for this population. To ensure the best possible pain management advice is given, evidence-based and expert-vetted care algorithms and sys...
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To describe revisions to the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) and initial construct validation and feasibility of the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R). The PIPP was revised to enhance validity and feasibility. To validate the PIPP-R, data from 2 randomized cross-over studies were utilized to: (1) calculate and compare PIPP and PIP...
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The Evidence-Based Practice Identification and Change (EPIC) strategy is a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention. Although the intervention promoted evidence-based practice, the process of delivering the intervention components is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of the Process Evaluat...
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The current study investigated the construct validity of a multidimensional pain diary for youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and also compared participants' responses on electronic and retrospective diary measures. The purpose of the latter part of this study was to compare absolute agreement, between and within-person consistency and judged...
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Procedural pain assessment and management have been extensively studied through multiple research studies over the past decade. Results of this research have been included in numerous pediatric pain practice guidelines. To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendat...
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Hospitalized children frequently receive inadequate pain assessment and management despite substantial evidence to support effective pediatric pain practices. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a multidimensional knowledge translation intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), on procedural pain prac...
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Chronic pain negatively affects an adolescent's life; however, little is known about the social impact of chronic pain for adolescents. More is known about the general peer relationships of adolescents with chronic pain than their close friendships. Close friendships begin to take on more importance during adolescence as these relationships facilit...
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Organizational context is recognized as an important influence on the successful implementation of research by healthcare professionals. However, there is relatively little empirical evidence to support this widely held view. The objective of this study was to identify dimensions of organizational context and individual (nurse) characteristics that...
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Hospitalized children frequently receive inadequate pain assessment and management despite substantial evidence to support effective pediatric pain practices. The objective was to determine the effect of a multidimensional knowledge translation intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), on procedural pain practices and clin...
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Full-text available
Although documentation of children’s pain by health care professionals is frequently undertaken, few studies have explored the nature of the language used to describe pain in the medical records of hospitalized children. OBJECTIVES: To describe health care professionals’ use of written language related to the quality and quantity of pain experience...
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Although clinical narratives – described as free-text notations – have been noted to be a source of patient information, no studies have examined the composition of pain narratives in hospitalized children’s medical records. OBJECTIVES: To describe the structure and content of health care professionals’ narratives related to hospitalized children’s...
Article
<⁄span> Sucrose has been demonstrated to provide analgesia for minor painful procedures in infants. However, results of trials investigating other sweet solutions for neonatal pain relief have not yet been synthesized. <⁄span> To establish the efficacy of nonsucrose sweet-tasting solutions for pain relief during painful procedures in neonates. <⁄...
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Families of children with cancer are confronted with a broad range of direct costs (out-of-pocket expenses), but the nature of these costs is poorly understood. This study aimed to disaggregate and describe these costs. A prospective, mixed method, cost-of-illness design was utilized. Starting in the fourth week following their child's diagnosis, p...
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Given the inherent variability in pain responding, using an "average" pain score may pose serious threats to internal and external validity. Using growth mixture modeling (GMM), this article first examines whether infants can be differentiated into stable groups based on their pain response patterns over a 2-minute post-needle period. Secondary ana...
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Background: Neonatal Follow-Up (NFU) programmes provide health services for families of infants at high risk of developmental problems following difficult or extremely premature birth: yet, up to 30% of families do not attend these programmes with their infants. Methods: The study objective was to determine maternal and infant factors that predi...
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The use of oral sucrose has been the most extensively studied pain intervention in newborn care to date. More than 150 published studies relating to sweet-taste-induced calming and analgesia in human infants have been identified, of which 100 (65%) include sucrose. With only a few exceptions, sucrose, glucose, or other sweet solutions reduced pain...
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A diagnosis of cancer in childhood places a considerable economic burden on families, although costs are not well described. The objectives of this study were to identify and determine independent predictors of the direct and time costs incurred by such families. A prospective, cost-of-illness study was conducted in families of children newly diagn...
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Unlabelled: Numerous acute pediatric pain assessment measures exist; however, pain assessment is not consistently performed in hospitalized children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature and frequency of acute pain assessment in Canadian pediatric hospitals and factors influencing it. Pain assessment practices and pain intensity...
Article
Background: Cancer in children may place considerable economic burden on more than individual family members. The costs incurred to families' support networks (FSNs) have not been previously studied. Objectives: The study objectives were to (a) identify and determine independent predictors of the direct and time costs incurred by the FSN and (b)...
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The study goal was to compare the efficacy of expressed breast milk (EBM) versus 25% glucose on pain responses of late preterm infants during heel lancing. In a noninferiority randomized controlled trial, a total of 113 newborns were randomized to receive EBM (experimental group [EG]) or 25% glucose (control group [CG]) before undergoing heel lanci...
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Analgesic trials pose unique scientific, ethical, and practical challenges in pediatrics. Participants in a scientific workshop sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration developed consensus on aspects of pediatric analgesic clinical trial design. The standard parallel-placebo analgesic trial design commonly used for adults has ethical and pr...
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Neonatal follow-up (NFU) programs provide health services for infants at high risk for developmental problems after they transition home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The purpose of the study was to assess current patterns of NFU attendance and explore time points when mothers and infants withdrew from NFU programs during the infant...
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Background: Infant acute pain and distress is commonplace. Infancy is a period of exponential development. Unrelieved pain and distress can have implications across the lifespan. This is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10 2011 entitled 'Non-pharmacological management of infant and yo...
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There are few validated measures of organizational context and none that we located are parsimonious and address modifiable characteristics of context. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to meet this need. The instrument assesses 8 dimensions of context, which comprise 10 concepts. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence to furthe...
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Background: Extensive evidence exists showing analgesic effects of sweet solutions for newborns and infants. It is less certain if the same analgesic effects exist for children one year to 16 years of age. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011 (Harrison 2011) titled Sweet tasting solutions for reduc...
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Adolescents with chronic pain are at risk for impairment in their friendships. They miss out on leisure activities, have increased school absence, may have fewer friends, are at an increased risk for victimization, and may be perceived by peers as less likeable. To help determine the source of these problems, the Social Information Processing Model...
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Full-text available
Acute pain and distress during medical procedures are commonplace for young children. To assess the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for acute procedural pain in children up to three years of age. Study inclusion criteria were: participants <3 years of age, involved in a randomized controlled or crossover trial, and use of a 'no treatme...
Article
The costs incurred by the families of children with cancer remain under researched. The objectives were to systematically review the literature and identify research and clinical implications. Thirteen studies were critically appraised using the Pediatric Quality Appraisal Questionnaire (PQAQ) [Ungar and Santos. Value Health 2003; 6:584-594]. Exist...
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Critically ill children are at risk for psychological sequelae following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This article reports on the psychometric testing of the first self-report measure of psychological distress for 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale....
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Full-text available
Children being cared for in hospital undergo multiple painful procedures daily. However, little is known about the frequency of these procedures and associated interventions to manage the pain. We undertook this study to determine, for children in Canadian hospitals, the frequency of painful procedures, the types of pain management interventions as...
Article
Unlabelled: Summary Aim: To explore the pain experience of youths (9-18 years old) with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, using a real-time data capture electronic pain diary. Materials & methods: A descriptive study design with repeated measures was used. A total of 76 youths, aged 9-18 years old with juvenile idiopathic arthritis were recruite...
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In this qualitative descriptive study, we explored health care professionals' perceptions of the influence of context (i.e., organizational culture, structure, resources, capabilities/competencies, and politics) on evidence-based pain practices. A total of 16 focus groups with 147 health care professionals were conducted in three neonatal intensive...