Bonnie Spring

Bonnie Spring
Northwestern University | NU · Department of Preventive Medicine

PhD

About

427
Publications
122,315
Reads
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21,644
Citations
Citations since 2016
142 Research Items
12769 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - present
Northwestern University
Position
  • Professor (Full) of Preventive Medicine, Psychiatry, Psychology & Public Health
September 1998 - September 2005
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Professor
September 1977 - June 1984
Harvard University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (427)
Article
Full-text available
Background Rural Appalachian residents experience among the highest prevalence of chronic disease, premature mortality, and decreased life expectancy in the nation. Addressing these growing inequities while avoiding duplicating existing programming necessitates the development of appropriate adaptations of evidence-based lifestyle interventions. Ye...
Article
Objective: Concerns have been raised regarding the impact of time-restricted eating (TRE) on sex hormones in females. This study examined how TRE affects sex steroids in premenopausal and postmenopausal females. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of an 8-week TRE study (4- to 6-hour eating window) conducted in adults with obesity. Men and per...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Consuming a whole food plant-based diet (WFPBD) is a promising, low-risk strategy for reducing risk of prevalent chronic disease and certain cancers, with synergistic benefits for climate and environment. However, few US adults report consuming a WFPBD. Understanding the reasons for this inconsistency is important for developing and impl...
Article
Background : Digital approaches are frequently described as an ideal way to engage young people with health interventions. However, uptake and adherence to these interventions is often poor. Identifying factors associated with engagement, and the best methods to encourage engagement, is a critical issue for the digital health field. This presentati...
Article
Lifestyle risk behaviors often co-occur and are prevalent among adolescents. Parent-based interventions addressing risk behaviors concurrently have the potential to improve youth and parent outcomes. This systematic review evaluated the efficacy of parent-based interventions targeting multiple lifestyle risk behaviors among adolescents and parents....
Article
Full-text available
A growing evidence base suggests that complex healthcare problems are optimally tackled through cross-disciplinary collaboration that draws upon the expertise of diverse researchers. Yet, the influences and processes underlying effective teamwork among independent researchers are not well-understood, making it difficult to fully optimize the collab...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Despite the presence of several weight loss apps on the market, the validity of the diet data collected from these apps has rarely been tested. A granular analysis of app validity at the food-level, rather than overall intake, is needed to closely examine factors that contribute to the variability of diet data between these apps and stan...
Article
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Objectives This study examined the effect of 10-h time restricted diet on breast cancer risk, assessing changes in body weight, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein 1, 2, and 3 among pre and postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity. Methods Women with overweight or obesity (n = 25) were enrolled into a time-restricted diet for 6 months....
Article
Full-text available
Although US tobacco use trends show overall improvement, social disadvantage continues to drive significant disparities. Traditional tobacco cessation interventions and public policy initiatives have failed to equitably benefit socially-disadvantaged populations. Advancements in mobile digital technologies have created new opportunities to develop...
Article
Importance: Observational evidence suggests that higher physical activity is associated with slower kidney function decline; however, to our knowledge, no large trial has evaluated whether activity and exercise can ameliorate kidney function decline in older adults. Objective: To evaluate whether a moderate-intensity exercise intervention can af...
Article
Background Obesity is a substantial public health concern; however, gold-standard behavioral treatments for obesity are costly and burdensome. Existing adaptations to the efficacious Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrate mixed results. Our prior research applying the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) to DPP identifies a more parsimoni...
Article
Background: Despite emerging evidence that a whole food plant-based diet (WFPBD) can reduce risk for CVD morbidity and mortality, adoption rates in the US remain low (~4%). Little is known about why this disconnect exists, and understanding this is critical to designing and implementing interventions intended to increase WFPBD consumption in the US...
Article
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) persists as the leading preventable cause of death in the US and worldwide. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines ideal cardiovascular health as the presence of: non-smoking, normal weight, adequate physical activity, healthy diet, normal blood pressure, normal fasting plasma glucose, and normal chole...
Article
Background In people with peripheral artery disease, post hoc analyses of the LITE (Low Intensity Exercise Intervention in Peripheral Artery Disease) randomized trial were conducted to evaluate the effects of walking exercise at a pace inducing ischemic leg symptoms on walking velocity and the Short Physical Performance Battery, compared with walki...
Article
The Lupus Intervention Fatigue Trial (LIFT) is a prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a six-month motivational interviewing intervention program versus an educational control to reduce fatigue in persons with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Participants are randomized using a stratified, 1:1 allocation desig...
Article
Full-text available
Self-reports indicate that stress increases the risk for smoking; however, intensive data from sensors can provide a more nuanced understanding of stress in the moments leading up to and following smoking events. Identifying personalized dynamical models of stress-smoking responses can improve characterizations of smoking responses following stress...
Article
Objective: In a randomized clinical trial of people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), to test whether walking exercise conducted at a pace without ischemic leg symptoms improved physical activity more than walking exercise conducted at a pace that induced ischemic leg symptoms and more than an attention control group. Methods &...
Article
Introduction: Recent evidence showed that among people with peripheral artery disease (PAD), walking exercise conducted at a pace inducing ischemic leg symptoms improved six-minute walk distance (6MW), while walking exercise conducted at a pace without ischemic leg symptoms had no effect on 6MW. This report describes associations of walking exercis...
Article
Background Raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in young adulthood (aged 18-39 years) is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) later in life. Most young adults with elevated LDL-C do not currently receive lipid-lowering treatment. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of elevated LDL-C in ASC...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The benefits of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for breast cancer survivors are well established. However, most are insufficiently active. Fit2Thrive used the Multiphase Optimization Strategy methodology to determine the effect of 5 intervention components on MVPA in this population. Methods: Two hundred sixty-nine part...
Article
To improve understanding of how interventions work or why they do not work, there is need for methods of testing hypotheses about the causal mechanisms underlying the individual and combined effects of the components that make up interventions. Factorial mediation analysis, i.e., mediation analysis applied to data from a factorial optimization tria...
Article
Background Commercial nutrition apps are increasingly used to evaluate diet. Evaluating the comparative validity of nutrient data from commercial nutrition app databases is important to determine the merits of using these apps for dietary assessment. Objective Nutrient data from four commercial nutrition apps were compared with a research-based fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objective Growing recognition that collaboration among scientists from diverse disciplines fosters the emergence of solutions to complex scientific problems has spurred initiatives to train researchers to collaborate in interdisciplinary teams. Evaluations of collaboration patterns in these initiatives have tended to be cross-sectional,...
Article
Background Physical inactivity, poor diet, sedentary recreational screen time, poor sleep, alcohol use and smoking (the “Big 6”) are key lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease. The Big 6 typically emerge during adolescence, co-occur and continue into adulthood. To improve short- and long-term health, early and effective prevention is critical....
Article
Full-text available
Increased moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with better health outcomes in breast cancer survivors; yet, most are insufficiently active. Smartphone applications (apps) to promote MVPA have high scalability potential, but few evidence-based apps exist. The purpose is to describe the testing and usability of Fit2Thrive, a M...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Relapse to smoking is commonly triggered by stress, but behavioral interventions have shown only modest efficacy in preventing stress-related relapse. Continuous digital sensing to detect states of smoking risk and intervention receptivity may make it feasible to increase treatment efficacy by adapting intervention timing. Objective:...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Increased incidence and life expectancy have resulted in a growing population of patients with metastatic breast cancer, and these patients experience high rates of morbidity and premature mortality. Increased physical activity (PA) is consistently associated with improved health and disease outcomes among early-stage survivors. Howeve...
Preprint
Background and Aims: Self-reports indicate that stress increases risk for smoking; however, intensive data from sensors can provide a more nuanced understanding of stress in the moments leading up to and following smoking events. Identifying personalized dynamical models of stress-smoking responses can improve characterizations of smoking responses...
Article
This study investigated cross-sectional associations of peripheral artery disease (PAD) severity (defined by the ankle–brachial index (ABI)) and amounts of daily sustained physical activity (PA) (defined as > 100 activity counts per minute lasting 5 consecutive minutes or more). This study also investigated associations of amounts of daily sustaine...
Article
Importance Supervised high-intensity walking exercise that induces ischemic leg symptoms is the first-line therapy for people with lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), but adherence is poor. Objective To determine whether low-intensity home-based walking exercise at a comfortable pace significantly improves walking ability in people wi...
Article
Background In older adults, increases in physical activity may prevent decline in lower-extremity function, but whether the benefit differs according to metabolic syndrome (MetS) status is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether structured physical activity is associated with less decline in lower-extremity function among older adults with versus...
Article
Full-text available
IMPACT: Our research identifies key opportunities for increased cross-CTSA collaboration, as a means to improve community-research cooperation and better CBPR practices. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Currently, team science training prioritizes developing the collaborative competencies of interdisciplinary scientists to work with each other and, more recently,...
Article
Objective: We applied the ORBIT model to digitally define dynamic treatment pathways whereby intervention improves multiple risk behaviors. We hypothesized that effective intervention improves the frequency and consistency of targeted health behaviors and that both correlate with automaticity (habit) and self-efficacy (self-regulation). Method:...
Article
Objective Associations between cancer beliefs and health behavior engagement are largely unexplored in cancer survivors, particularly among those with overweight and obesity. We investigated belief-behavior associations for cancer survivors, and whether obesity altered these associations. Methods Cancer survivors were identified from the National...
Article
Background Women with breast cancer in medically underserved areas are particularly vulnerable to persistent pain and disability. Behavioral pain interventions reduce pain and improve outcomes. Cancer patients in medically underserved areas receive limited adjunctive cancer care, as many lack access to pain therapists trained in behavioral interven...
Article
Full-text available
Background: eHealth technologies have been found to facilitate health-promoting practices among cancer survivors with BMI in overweight or obese categories; however, little is known about their engagement with eHealth to promote weight management and facilitate patient-clinician communication. Objective: The objective of this study was to determin...
Article
Full-text available
African Americans have disproportionate rates of post-cessation weight gain compared to non-Hispanic whites, but few studies have examined this weight gain in a multiracial sample of smokers receiving evidence-based treatment in a community setting. We examined race differences in short-term weight gain during an intervention to foster smoking cess...
Article
Background and Aims To estimate and compare the change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between an accelerometer and technology-supported physical activity (PA) log across a 3-week PA intervention. Method Participants ( N = 204, 77% female, age = 33 ± 11 years, body mass index = 28.2 ± 7.1 kg/m ² ) were randomized to one of two act...
Article
Team science (TS) is a new interdisciplinary field that examines the processes by which scientific teams organize, communicate, and conduct research to achieve scientific breakthroughs that surpass those attainable by individual or simply additive efforts. Whereas the science of TS examines conditions that facilitate or hinder interdisciplinary res...
Article
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Seven health factors are associated with ideal cardiovascular health: being a non-smoker; not overweight; physically active; having a healthy diet; and normal blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and cholesterol. Whereas approximately half of U.S. youth have id...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have been found to facilitate health-promoting practices among cancer survivors with overweight or obesity. However, little is known about the characteristics of cancer survivors who demonstrate engagement with eHealth to promote weight management and facilitate patient-clinician communication. O...
Article
The development and validation of computational models to detect daily human behaviors (e.g., eating, smoking, brushing) using wearable devices requires labeled data collected from the natural field environment, with tight time synchronization of the micro-behaviors (e.g., start/end times of hand-to-mouth gestures during a smoking puff or an eating...
Article
Full-text available
Improvements in cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates among young adults in the past 2 decades have been offset by increasing racial/ethnic and gender disparities, persistence of unhealthy lifestyle habits, overweight and obesity, and other CVD risk factors. To enhance the promotion of cardiovascular health among young adults 18 to 39 years old, the m...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Accounting for how end-users engage with technologies is imperative for designing an efficacious mobile behavioral intervention. OBJECTIVE This mixed-methods analysis examined the translational potential of user-centered design and basic behavioral science to inform the design of a mobile intervention for obesity and binge eating. METH...
Article
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Background Accounting for how end users engage with technologies is imperative for designing an efficacious mobile behavioral intervention. Objective This mixed methods analysis examined the translational potential of user-centered design and basic behavioral science to inform the design of a new mobile intervention for obesity and binge eating....
Article
Full-text available
Objective Intensive behavioral obesity treatments face scalability challenges, but evidence is lacking about which treatment components could be cut back without reducing weight loss. The Optimization of Remotely Delivered Intensive Lifestyle Treatment for Obesity (Opt‐IN) study applied the Multiphase Optimization Strategy to develop an entirely re...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Lifestyle risk behaviours, including alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, poor sleep (duration and/or quality) and sedentary recreational screen time (‘the Big 6’), are strong determinants of chronic disease. These behaviours often emerge during adolescence and co-occur. School-based interventions have the potential to...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical trials are a fundamental tool used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new drugs and medical devices and other health system interventions. The traditional clinical trials system acts as a quality funnel for the development and implementation of new drugs, devices and health system interventions. The concept of a “digital clinical trial...
Conference Paper
Objectives Cancer-specific diet and exercise recommendations are not often discussed during oncology visits due to limited time and resources. eHealth [i.e., apps, activity trackers, electronic medical records (EMR)] could facilitate patient-clinician communication about health behaviors, but it is unknown how cancer survivors use eHealth and how e...
Conference Paper
Objectives Increasing interest in using commercial nutrition apps to evaluate energy intake and diet quality warrants further investigation of how diet data are being analyzed by clinicians. Few studies have compared food composition databases from commercial apps with a validated nutrient database used by the scientific community. We investigated...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: A new researcher-facing module to support community engaged research has been added to the updated COALESCE website and user traffic was tracked since last reporting. We describe the process of development and the features of the new module, past 2-year traffic, and plans to develop a community facing module. METHODS/STUDY POPULAT...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mobile messaging is often used in behavioral weight loss interventions, yet little is known as to the extent to which they contribute to weight loss when part of a multicomponent treatment package. The multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) is a framework that researchers can use to systematically investigate interventions that achieve...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Addressing key lifestyle risk factors during adolescence is critical for improving health outcomes and reducing chronic disease risk. Schools are ideal intervention settings and eHealth interventions afford several advantages, including increased student engagement, scalability a...
Article
Background: Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Addressing key lifestyle risk factors during adolescence is critical for improving physical and mental health outcomes and reducing chronic disease risk. Schools are ideal intervention settings, and electronic health (eHealth) interventions afford several advantages, including...
Article
Full-text available
Background Compared with national averages, rural Appalachians experience extremely elevated rates of premature morbidity and mortality. New opportunities, including approaches incorporating personal technology, may help improve lifestyles and overcome health inequities. Objective This study aims to gather perspectives on whether a healthy lifestyl...
Article
Intensive lifestyle interventions targeting diet and physical activity are recommended for reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in adults. However, existing interventions often do not reach immigrant populations because of a mismatch between the social, cultural, and environmental context of immigrants and Western bio behavi...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of barriers to seeking health care for a concerning mole found during skin self-examination (SSE) by women educated during screening mammography. In this sequential mixed methods research, interviews with women who found a concerning mole and did not have health-care follow-up were analyzed and a survey was created. One year after SS...
Article
Full-text available
Poor quality diet, physical inactivity, and obesity are prevalent, covariant risk factors for chronic disease, suggesting that behavior change techniques (BCTs) that effectively change one risk factor might also improve the others. To examine that question, registered meta-review CRD42019128444 synthesized evidence from 30 meta-analyses published b...
Article
Full-text available
Background Melanoma survivors often do not engage in adequate sun protection, leading to sunburn and increasing their risk of future melanomas. Melanoma survivors do not accurately recall the extent of sun exposure they have received, thus, they may be unaware of their personal UV exposure, and this lack of awareness may contribute towards failure...
Article
Objectives: Our aim was to examine the impacts of baseline fatigue on the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) intervention to prevent major mobility disability (MMD) and persistent major mobility disability (PMMD) in participants from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. Design: Prospective cohort of indivi...
Chapter
Although current funding announcements increasingly call for research that involves collaboration across several scholarly disciplines, many senior scientists were trained in an era when team-based cross-disciplinary collaboration was uncommon and even discouraged. The need for team science professional development opportunities that cross discipli...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Mobile messaging is often used within behavioral weight loss interventions, yet varying messaging procedures (e.g., message content, delivery frequency) make it challenging to determine the most effective methods to implement. The multiphase optimization strategy is a framework that researchers can use to investigate treatment components...