Bodo Schlegelmilch

Bodo Schlegelmilch
Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien | WU · Institute of International Marketing Management

Ph.D., D.Litt., Ph.D. (hon.)

About

297
Publications
89,443
Reads
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12,317
Citations
Citations since 2017
62 Research Items
5508 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
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Introduction
Bodo heads the Institute for International Marketing Management at WU Vienna. Starting at Deutsche Bank and Procter & Gamble, he continued his career at the University of Edinburgh and the University of California, Berkeley. Professorships at the University of Wales (UK) and at Thunderbird School of Global Management (USA) followed. Bodo taught in over 30 countries on six continents, and his research interests span from international marketing strategy to CSR.
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
Association of MBAs (AMBA) and Business Graduates Association (BGA)
Position
  • Chair
October 2004 - September 2015
Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Description
  • Direct report to University President (Rector). Responsible for all Executive Education activities of WU Vienna, including all MBA and LLM programs By 2015, the WU Executive Academy served some 2000 students p.a., had an administrative staff of 50+ people and employed some 490 instructors each year. During my deanship, it obtained EQUIS, AMBA and AACSB accreditations and developed an alumni network spanning more than 80 countries.
October 2000 - September 2003
Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Education
March 2003 - April 2007
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Focus: Corporate Social Responsibility
April 1981 - September 1983
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Focus: International Marketing
September 1979 - March 1981
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Focus: Economics of International Business

Publications

Publications (297)
Article
Despite widespread agreement that corporate social responsibility (CSR) should not be motivated only by a desire to increase corporate financial performance (CFP), marketers are aware of the possible links between CSR and CFP. Surprisingly, after decades of empirical investigation, the evidence on whether and how CSR affects CFP has still not reach...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental sustainability research suffers from a paucity of comprehensive, cross-cultural investigations and lacks insight into the interplay of human values and environmental beliefs and behaviors. In addition, despite the importance of understanding why consumers engage in active attempts to protect the environment, studies looking at the rol...
Article
Purpose-This paper aims to illustrate the scope and challenges of using computer-aided content analysis in international marketing with the aim to capture consumer sentiments about COVID-19 from multilingual tweets. Design/methodology/approach-The study is based on some 35 million original COVID-19-related tweets. The study methodology illustrates...
Article
Research on wait management has almost exclusively focused on customer affective response, trying to mitigate their negative emotions. As such, prior studies appear to be motivated by the assumption that encouraging customers to quit the wait is not an option. Our study challenges this assumption by proposing that during peak hours or for customers...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between social norms and pro-environmental consumer behavior is well established, but what moderates this norm-sustainability relationship is much less clear. Previous studies reported inconclusive results regarding the effects of culture. This paper aims to shed light on the reported discrepancies by conducting an in-depth investi...
Chapter
This chapter discusses business responsibility in a global marketing context. It looks at corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability, and business ethics from a corporate perspective and briefly explores the role of consumers and regulators. When attempting to clarify what business responsibility entails, we note persistent disagreements...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the tension between global synergies and local responsiveness, which dominates many global marketing and strategy decisions. We start with a review of forces that encourage global integration and then look at forces pushing companies toward local responsiveness. Subsequently, we introduce two frameworks that help managers ma...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on two important decisions: how to select the most promising geographic market(s) and which market entry method is the most appropriate. Thus, the first part of the chapter describes how to systematically assess and select geographic markets. The second part describes alternative market entry methods. A distinction is made betw...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the process of designing global marketing strategies. Specifically, we take an in-depth view at three key choices every company has to make when developing a global marketing strategy, namely, “where to compete,” “how to compete,” and “what we need to compete.” We also briefly discuss the “organizational purpose” as a centra...
Chapter
Senior management needs to align global marketing strategy with an appropriate organizational design. This chapter introduces some pertinent aspects of organizational design encountered by companies with a global footprint. We structure the discussion into three parts. First, we look at the “anatomy” of an organization, which captures the roles, th...
Chapter
Segmentation, targeting, and positioning are core disciplines in marketing strategy, both in a domestic and global environment. Mistakes in these areas are likely to be costly and may result in failure; getting it right is a critical prerequisite for corporate success. In the age of “Big Data,” companies now have the possibility to micro-segment, t...
Chapter
Let me be clear—the heading of this chapter is a complete oversell. It is impossible to predict the future with any degree of certainty! The Covid-19 pandemic vividly illustrates how unpredictable our environment is. The widely used VUCA acronym further reminds us that the future is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous. But does this rising...
Chapter
This introductory chapter makes the point that managers cannot afford to think in functional silos and that marketing and strategy always go together. It maps out the field by explaining the key terms: marketing, strategy, and global. Next, we look at theories that explain the rationale for globalization, focusing particular on firm-level explanati...
Chapter
Branding is the lynchpin of any corporate communication. But what makes brands valuable, what is a global brand, and why are there still so many local brands? This chapter addresses these and other questions. It first looks at some basic aspects of branding, such as the brand value, brand architecture, brand identity, brand image, and brand resonan...
Chapter
There is no greater leverage for revenues and profits than pricing. Unfortunately, setting prices is also one of the most difficult decisions in global marketing. This chapter considers some of the key influences on setting prices in an international arena and looks at global pricing strategies and practices. The discussed topics range from differe...
Chapter
This chapter looks at digitalization from a consumer perspective and from a corporate perspective. We start by pointing out how uneven the Internet penetration and the adaption of smartphones still are across the globe. Next, we take a closer look at the substantial differences in e-commerce and proximity mobile payment systems between countries. W...
Chapter
Supply chains that stretch over different countries on different continents are one of the defining characteristics of globalization. At its core, global supply chain management comprises logistics, purchasing (sourcing), operations, and marketing channels. This chapter starts by clarifying the conceptual differences between global supply chains an...
Chapter
This chapter introduces different analytical frameworks to analyze foreign market characteristics. We discuss two approaches in depth: the CAGE framework, which looks at cultural, administrative, geographic, and economic differences between countries, and the PESTEL framework, which focuses on political, economic, social, technological, environment...
Chapter
The chapter starts with a distinction between different types of products and services. This provides the basis for the standardization-adaptation debate. Subsequently, the discussion shifts to global innovation and product development and demonstrates how different types of innovations may have rather different implications for the innovating comp...
Chapter
In recent years, social media has emerged as a popular communication channel for senior management, especially for chief executive officers (CEOs). Twitter is one of the most popular social media platforms because of its ease in reaching out to customers, employees, media, and the general public (Weber Shandwick 2017). Some of the current and forme...
Article
Studies looking at how millions of people attending exhibition events evaluate these events have identified many event characteristics. Using Means-End Chain Theory we categorise them into an overarching inputs–processes–outputs–outcomes model. Focusing on value-in-use as an end outcome, we devise a new measure of non-economic exhibition value usin...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper illustrates the scope and challenges of using computer-aided content analysis in international marketing with the aim to capture consumer sentiments about COVID-19 from multi-lingual tweets. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on some 35 million original COVID-19- related tweets. Our methodology illustrates the use...
Article
The availability of a wide variety of luxury brands has resulted in declining commitment toward a single brand. Enhancing brand commitment has, therefore, become a significant challenge for international businesses and marketing managers. We develop a multi–dimensional brand commitment framework underpinned by marketing, organizational, and social...
Article
Purpose This study aims to analyze the ways in which chief executive officers (CEOs) communicate via Twitter and help develop guidelines for effective tweeting strategies that can leverage Twitter in leadership communication. Design/methodology/approach The authors conduct a large-scale content analysis of more than 65,000 tweets by 338 CEOs. Fin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper documents state-of-the-art research on the impact of social norms on pro-environmental consumer behavior. Our aim was to identify possible research gaps, in particular in terms of the moderating role of culture and self-construal, and to suggest potentially fruitful research avenues. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a systematic...
Article
Full-text available
Research on online retailer–customer interactions has extensively focused on how to turn negative reviews into marketing wins. By contrast, few prior studies have investigated how retailers should best respond to positive reviews. The current study aims to fill this gap. Drawing on interpersonal relationship research into capitalizing on positive e...
Book
Full-text available
PART I FUNDAMENTALS 1. Foundations of Strategic Marketing 2. Economic Foundations of Marketing Strategy PART 2 CUSTOMERS 3. Customer Behavior and E-Commerce 4. An Updated Framework for Customer Relationship Management 5. Customer Journey: From Practice to Theory 6. Customer Satisfaction 7. Customer Experience Creation in today’s Digital World...
Chapter
We investigate consumer behavior in situations of interracial sales contact and explore how prejudice influences prosocial purchase decisions towards vendors from a racial in- and out-group by applying the theory of overcorrection. In general, out-group interactions are widely associated with negative behavior; however, the opposite can also occur...
Article
Business education is undergoing paradigmatic changes, and business schools are feeling the brunt of these changes. This article proposes that “business as usual” is over for traditional business schools. Using Ohmae’s 3Cs—customers, competitors, and company—as an analytical framework, I examine important changes from different vantage points. From...
Book
This book examines topical issues in global corporate social responsibility (CSR) from both scholarly and practical perspectives. It offers a variety of viewpoints and cases from countries around the globe and combines them with current academic knowledge. Intended for students, academics, and managers wishing to keep abreast of the challenges and...
Chapter
This chapter opens with a discussion of the concept of shared value and then focuses on interactions and collaborations with regard to CSR across institutional boundaries. Subsequently, this chapter points to persisting differences in CSR across different regions, using Europe to illustrate the scope for equifinality in embracing corporate responsi...
Chapter
Different perspectives on the role of the private sector in society are discussed, including the shift from a profit-driven to a value-driven company. The chapter then takes a specific look at multinational enterprises and their contribution to human well-being before analyzing the potential benefits of CSR for global business. The latter offers in...
Chapter
This chapter provides a short introduction into CSR and offers an overview of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. These are subsequently linked to the private sector and its responsibilities. This chapter ends with some thoughts on the general nature of CSR as voluntary versus obligatory.
Chapter
As the number of companies aiming for a positive impact on their surroundings rises, this chapter argues that CSR has to be part of corporate strategy. It offers specific steps to draft and embed CSR strategies into corporate strategy development. In conclusion, the chapter looks at measuring and reporting the impact of CSR.
Article
Full-text available
Despite burgeoning academic interest in anticonsumption, a lack of definitional clarity and overlapping constructs beleaguer the pertinent literature, preventing research in the field from reaching its full potential. This paper aims to strengthen the foundations for advancing knowledge in this fragmented field by (a) undertaking a thorough systema...
Article
Drawing on social identity theory and self-verification theory, this study seeks to delineate the relationship between global identity and global social networking sites usage. Despite the significance of users’ motivation in predicting SNS usage, there has been insufficient focus on other potential drivers that are relevant in today’s global and c...
Article
Recent decades have witnessed considerable research advances on the relationship between sustainable product attributes and consumer decision-making. However, despite the substantial body of research, findings remain fragmented and sometimes even contradictory. This study provides a state-of-the-art overview of extant research, uncovers knowledge g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate consumer behavior in situations of interracial sales contact and explore how prejudice influences prosocial purchase decisions towards vendors from a racial in-and out-group by applying the theory of overcorrection. In general, out-group interactions are widely associated with negative behavior; however, the opposite can also occur b...
Article
Full-text available
Online reviews are of considerable interest to both practitioners and academics. Prior research has focused mostly on the valence and volume of online reviews. Questions on how the emotional content of online reviews influence consumers remain open. Given that non-verbal cues of communication are limited in the online environment, content can be a...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to represent the first empirical attempt to explore global-local consumer identities as drivers of global digital brand usage. Specifically, this study considers a unique category of digital products, social networking sites (SNS), and develops a set of hypotheses to assess the mechanism through which location-...
Article
Purpose Widespread adoption of reporting frameworks has contributed to current global practices undertaken by firms to report social, environmental and economic impact. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the most widely used of those frameworks, has produced several generations of guidelines. Their third-generation guidelines (G3), which had t...
Article
Online reviews can strongly influence purchase decisions. In the past decade, extensive research in the field of online reviews has focused on product categories (e.g., hedonic, utilitarian) and product sales. However, research on how the characteristics of online reviews (valence, volume, and variance) influence attitudes toward brands is sparse,...
Chapter
Online reviews have obtained much attention in research during the last decade. Most studies focus on consumer characteristics (Zhu & Zhang, 2010), website reputation (Park & Lee, 2009a), valence (Chakravarty et al., 2010; Ho-Dac et al., 2013; Liu, 2006) or perceived helpfulness (Mudambi & Schuff, 2010; Purnawirawan et al., 2012) of online reviews...
Chapter
In online purchasing, the ability to draw on the experience of other consumers may lead to decision-making based more on product facts and less on the emotional attachment to a brand (Simonson and Rosen 2014; Thomson et al. 2005). Obviously, there is a shift from traditional brand management in which the company created the image of a brand to shar...
Chapter
Moral licensing is a nonconscious effect that provides a moral boost in the self-concept, which increases the preference for a relative immoral action by dampening the negative self-attributions associated with such behavior. Applied to a marketing context, moral licensing explains why a purchase of a green product (a positive moral act) is likely...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation has become a universal feature of corporate life. Almost no company can survive without innovation. However, when it comes to developing innovation strategies, managers are often left alone. They need to decide which innovation types to pursue, how to balance them in an overall portfolio, how to allocate resources, and how to implement t...
Article
Materialism has an ugly face. The dominant view of materialism regards materialists as self-prioritizing individuals who oppose collective and prosocial goals in favor of a lifestyle led by money, possessions, and status. The present research argues that there is a side of materialism that is concerned with collective-oriented interests. We examine...
Article
Full-text available
Moral licensing is a cognitive bias, which enables individuals to behave immorally without threatening their self-image of being a moral person. We investigate this phenomenon in a cross-cultural marketing context. More specifically, this paper addresses the questions (i) how big moral licensing effects typically are and (ii) which factors systemat...
Chapter
There is an unresolved paradox in the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in consumer behavior. On the one hand, consumers demand more and more CSR information from corporations. On the other hand, research indicates a considerable gap between consumers’ apparent interest in CSR and the role of CSR in purchase behavior. This paper attempt...
Chapter
Corporate philanthropy (CP) is gradually taking up a more prominent position in business strategy. For companies, it offers a way to demonstrate social responsiveness, which may eventually lead to enhanced reputation (Brammer and Millington 2005, Luo and Bhattacharya 2006). Consumers’ growing expectations of the role of business in society have fur...
Chapter
Reports on industrial crises are increasing in frequency and becoming part of the everyday life of consumers and companies. The purpose of this paper is to draw a clear line between two common crisis types: product-harm crises and brand crises, and their impact on consumer behavior. In a product-harm crisis, the product is defective and/or dangerou...
Chapter
Despite increasing awareness and cognizance of the importance of sustainability, market shares of products integrating social or environmental attributes remain relatively small. This divergence puzzles both academia and industry practice. We propose that in consumers’ minds sustainability attributes “fit” only specific product categories and conse...
Article
This paper seeks to understand the role of psychological ownership in shaping perceptions and preferences of domestic versus foreign products. We provide evidence that quality judgments and purchase behavior of domestic products depend on different levels of shared ownership. From a theoretical perspective, we show that domestic psychological owner...
Chapter
Service and sales employees represent a substantial segment of the global workforce, and firms’ economic success hinges upon their performance. Firms opt to organize sales and service tasks differently; these duties can be merged or separated into distinct units of the organization. Sub-optimal organization of sales and service may lead to low job...
Chapter
There is a dearth of knowledge on the impact of corporate philanthropic initiatives on corporate reputation. This study investigates how philanthropic support impacts customers’ perception of a philanthropic company in Austria and Egypt. Set in the telecommunication industry, the analysis is theoretically anchored in balance theory, consumer ethnoc...
Article
This study analyzes the link between cause assessment, corporate philanthropy, and dimensions of corporate reputation from different stakeholders’ perspectives, using balance theory as a conceptual framework and the telecommunications industry in Austria and Egypt as the empirical setting. Findings show that corporate philanthropy can improve perce...
Article
This study extends previous research by exploring perceptions of healthiness in the international food marketplace. To this end, it aims to fill an important gap by shedding light on the role of country of origin in shaping perceptions of healthiness. The authors provide evidence that domestic and foreign food products elicit different perceptions...
Article
Purpose – Based on theoretical input from punctuated equilibrium theory and the exploration vs exploitation paradigm, a set of innovation drivers and propositions is developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a starting point for a more comprehensive investigation of companies’ innovation trajectories towards balance. Design/methodology/ap...
Chapter
Branding is the lynchpin of any corporate communication. But what makes brands valuable, what is a global brand and why are there still so many local brands? This chapter addresses these and other questions. It first looks at some basic aspects of branding, such as the brand value, brand architecture, brand identity, brand image and brand resonance...
Chapter
Supply chains that stretch over different countries on different continents are one of the defining characteristics of globalization. At its core, global supply chain management comprises logistics, purchasing (sourcing), operations and marketing channels. This chapter starts by illustrating the key benefits of global supply chain management. This...
Chapter
This introductory chapter makes the point that managers cannot afford to think in functional silos and that marketing and strategy always go together. It maps out the field by explaining the key terms: marketing, strategy and global. Next, it looks at different corporate paths and rationales for becoming a global company. This is followed by a shor...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on assessing and selecting suitable overseas markets. It show how mangers can use secondary data to assess different geographic markets and looks at the challenges of conducting primary marketing research in different countries and cultures. Last, the discussion focuses on the design of ongoing marketing information within an a...
Chapter
Segmentation, targeting and positioning can be seen as core disciplines in marketing strategy; mistakes in these areas are likely to be costly and may result in failure; getting it right is a critical prerequisite for corporate success. This chapter distinguishes between different possibilities of segmenting a market and then looks at the selection...
Chapter
This chapter subscribes to the view that products and services are merely vehicles that help consumers to achieve solutions. It starts with a distinction between different types of products and services. This then provides the basis for the standardization—adaptation debate. Subsequently, the focus shifts to global innovation and product developmen...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on aligning global marketing strategy and organizational structure. Instead of thinking in dichotomies, successful companies strive for the right balance between local and global. Often, this middle ground involves a regional solution, such as establishing a regional headquarters. The discussion starts by looking at alternative...
Chapter
It is impossible to predict the future with any degree of certainty. However, what is possible is to spot trends. This chapter aims to identify some of these trends and discusses the likely implications for global marketing strategy. Decision-makers need to understand how they can capitalize on the opportunities trends may offer and minimize the th...
Chapter
The discussion in this chapter may focuses on three questions: why companies globalize, when they globalize, and how they enter different national markets. Emphasis is placed on the discussion of specific foreign market entry modes. Here a distinction is made between non-equity modes, such as different means of exporting and contractual agreements,...
Chapter
Business leaders like to talk about their companies’ latest social responsibility initiatives, the environmental credentials of their companies and the ethical behavior of their management and employees. While this is laudable, there is still considerable disagreement on rather fundamental questions, such as when, exactly, is a particular course of...
Chapter
There is no bigger leverage for revenues and profits than pricing. Unfortunately, setting prices is also one of the most difficult decisions in global marketing. This chapter considers some of the key influences on setting prices in an international arena and looks at some global pricing strategies and practices. It also scrutinizes the vexing issu...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Halal food endorsements perceived positively by the focal target group may lead to a negative reaction of consumers that harbor animosity against this target group. For such potentially controversial endorsements, in-group animosity against out-group associated product endorsements could lead to a rejection and even an outspoken disappro...
Chapter
Given the growing importance of sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the field of marketing and management, it is not surprising to increasingly encounter these topics in capital markets as well. The creation of socially responsible investments (SRI) as distinct investment type has led to the fact that “responsible investing...
Chapter
Materialism, which is the importance placed on the acquisition and possessions of material objects, is often depicted as a self-prioritizing trait rooted in an individualistic value (Belk 1985; Richins and Dawson 1992). Materialistic consumers are seen as self-centered individuals who prefer to build meaningful relationships with possessions rather...
Chapter
The online purchasing process usually follows the same pattern: Search the web; read recommendations and reviews; decide. Thus, reviews and recommendations are central to the online purchasing process, since they contain information about the functionality of the brand and the experiences other consumers made. Consequently, some researchers postula...
Book
This book has been written for experienced managers and students in postgraduate programs, such as MBA or specialized Masters programs. In a systematic yet concise manner, it addresses all major issues companies face when conducting business across national and cultural boundaries, including assessing and selecting the most promising overseas marke...
Book
This book has been written for experienced managers and students in postgraduate programs, such as MBA or specialized Masters programs. In a systematic yet concise manner, it addresses all major issues companies face when conducting business across national and cultural boundaries, including assessing and selecting the most promising overseas marke...
Article
With different religions mixing in many societies, religious consumer groups receive increasing attention as target segments. Trying to appeal to such religious segments, companies differentiate food products by adding religious labels (e.g. kosher or halal) to packaging. But while this makes the products more attractive to the consumers of the foc...
Article
Scholarly work over the past 15 years has demonstrated that corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives can have a positive impact on consumer behavior toward brands. Many consumers, however, claim they are uninformed about CSR. The goal of the current study was to find out what types of CSR-related media and content are more effectively comm...
Chapter
This paper compares the characteristics and activities of female marketing academics at U.K. universities with those of their male colleagues. Specifically, the characteristics are explored in terms of demographic profiles, educational background and career structures, while activity patterns provide insights into the composition and length of the...
Chapter
Despite a rise in environmental consciousness amongst the British public during the past decade, very little academic research has been conducted on consumers’ perceptions of environmental problems. This holds particularly for research relating to perceptions of environmental issues in industrial sectors and service industries. This paper aims to r...
Chapter
This study forms part of a larger project on differences in consumer preferences across various countries. It presents an initial investigation of the scope for marketing standardisation in EC markets through a comparison of product attribute preferences for cars of consumers in Britain and Germany. In a multi-cue context, emphasis is placed on the...
Chapter
This interactive session highlights some challenges involved in balancing global, regional and local perspectives in international marketing and strategy. Three complementary perspectives are offered. The first presentation looks at the phenomena of “globalness” and “localness” from a consumer perspective and provides managerial insights on the des...
Chapter
In multi-cultural environments, product endorsements addressing minority groups may not be appreciated by the majority of consumers. This renders such endorsements potentially controversial. We analyze a specific religious endorsement, namely the Muslim Halal endorsement, and use an experimental setting to gauge the reaction of Christian consumers...
Chapter
In multi-cultural environments, product endorsements addressing minority groups may not be appreciated by the majority of consumers. This renders such endorsements potentially controversial should there be animosity between the majority (in-group) and minority (out-group).
Chapter
In a typical purchase situation, consumers often have to evaluate different product alternatives which are incompletely described on the attributes they entail. When being confronted with only limited information on certain attributes, consumers are likely to infer beyond given properties to assess the value of these unobservable attributes (Kardes...
Chapter
This paper assesses the role of product knowledge on consumer response to product-harm crises. An experiment with three product categories – cars, notebooks, and sports drinks – was carried out. The study reveals that the company’s product evaluation, as well as company attitude and company trust depends on subjective product knowledge. Results ind...
Article
Purpose – Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives can provide a mechanism for tapping into the vast consumer markets of developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how regional headquarters (RHQs) of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Africa pursue CSR and whether their initiatives are aligned with their own global...

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