Bob Woods

Bob Woods
Bangor University · Dementia Services Development Centre

About

362
Publications
118,289
Reads
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19,687
Citations
Introduction
Bob Woods is Emeritus Professor of Clinical Psychology of Older People at the Dementia Services Development Centre, Bangor University. Bob does research in dementia care.
Additional affiliations
March 1996 - present
Bangor University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 1992 - March 1996
University College London
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (362)
Article
Full-text available
Background Many people living with dementia remain undiagnosed, with diagnosis usually occurring long after signs and symptoms are present. A timely diagnosis is important for the wellbeing of the person living with dementia and the family, allowing them to plan and have access to support services sooner. The aim of this study was to identify demog...
Article
Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/'proxy' AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
Article
Full-text available
Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‘proxy’ AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer’s disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study res...
Article
It is estimated that a third of people in the United Kingdom with signs of dementia are living without a formal diagnosis. In Wales, the proportion is nearly half. Some explanations for the gap between prevalence of dementia and number of diagnoses include living with a long-term partner/spouse and systemic barriers to diagnosis. This study recruit...
Article
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Objectives Healthcare is often delivered through complex interventions. Understanding how to implement these successfully is important for optimising services. This article demonstrates how the complexity theory concept of ‘self-organisation’ can inform implementation, drawing on a process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial of the GREA...
Article
Objectives Relationship quality (RQ) between a person with dementia and a family carer may influence their health and quality of life. However, evidence regarding its course and influencing factors is limited. We aimed to explore RQ trajectories in dementia, and identify predictors of change. Methods We analysed longitudinal data from a cohort of...
Article
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Objectives To examine prospectively the association between unmet needs for daytime activities and company and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Methods We included 451 people with mild or moderate dementia, from eight European countries, who were assessed three times over 12 months. Unmet needs were measured with the Camberwell...
Article
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Purpose The Quality of Life Alzheimer’s Disease Scale (QoL-AD) is commonly used to assess disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as rated by patients and their carers. For cost-effectiveness analyses, utilities based on the EQ-5D are often required. We report a new mapping algorithm to obtain EQ-5D indices when only QoL-AD data are...
Article
Objective There is a growing interest in how people living with dementia may achieve good outcomes and be resilient despite their health challenges. Understanding what might be important for resilience in this population is largely untested theory. Methods The analysis draws a subsample with cognitive impairment (N=579) from two waves of the CFAS...
Article
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Purpose: Informal care constitutes an important part of the total care for people with dementia. Therefore, the impact of the syndrome on their caregivers as well as that of health and social care services for people with dementia should be considered. This study investigated the convergent and clinical validity of the CarerQol instrument, which me...
Article
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There is widespread concern about the potential impact on health and social care services of the ageing population and long-term health conditions, such as dementia. To effectively plan services it is important to understand current need and use and identify gaps in provision. Using data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS Wale...
Article
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Background A dementia diagnosis can prevent people from participating in society, leading to a further decline in cognitive, social and physical health. However, it may be possible for people with dementia to continue to live meaningful lives and continue to participate actively in society if a supportive psychosocial environment exists. Resilience...
Article
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Objectives: Home-dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers experience barriers impeding access to community care services. This study is a part of the Actifcare project where eight countries participated. The aim was to achieve consensus on best practice recommendations for enhancing access to and use of formal community care service...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deciphering the genetic landscape of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is essential to define the pathophysiological pathways involved and to successfully translate genomics to potential tailored medical care. To generate the most complete knowledge of the AD genetics, we developed through the European Alzheimer’s Disease BioBank (EADB) consortium a discove...
Article
INTRODUCTION Relationship quality (RQ) in dyads of persons with dementia and their family carers is important both as a clinical outcome and as a determinant of health and quality of life. In previous work we studied RQ using baseline data of a large-scale European longitudinal study on timely access to and use of community formal services in demen...
Chapter
Ageing and personality interact. While experiences that may be associated with age, including changes in roles and social networks, losses and health challenges, may require adaptation of aspects of personality, personality across the lifespan fundamentally influences how ageing is experienced. There are indications that extraversion, conscientious...
Article
Cognitive rehabilitation for people living with early-stage dementia improves functional ability in areas targeted in the therapy, but little is known about how participants experience this intervention. This qualitative paper investigates participants' views about a cognitive rehabilitation intervention in a randomized controlled trial (the GREAT...
Article
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Background: Enabling people with dementia to 'live well' is a policy and research priority in many countries. However, instruments for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions designed to promote well-being in dementia are often derived from a symptom-focused, loss/deficit approach, or from broad quality of life concepts. A pan-European de...
Article
Objectives This exploratory study aimed at investigating profiles of care needs in people with mild to moderate dementia and examined variables associated with these profiles. Design A longitudinal international cohort study. Setting and Participants The baseline data of 447 community-dwelling dyads of people with dementia and their caregivers fr...
Article
Background The effective management of agitation and other neuropsychiatric and behavioural symptoms in people with dementia is a major challenge, particularly in care home settings, where dementia severity is higher and there is limited training and support for care staff. There is evidence for the value of staff training and the use of psychosoci...
Article
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Background and objectives: Arts activities can improve social connectedness and foster reciprocity between people living with dementia and their caregivers. The extent to which the arts can help shape attitudes towards dementia remains unclear. This paper explores the impact of a 12-week visual arts program "Dementia and Imagination" on the attitu...
Article
Objectives: Resilience-building interventions have not yet targeted older adults, despite the importance of well-being for maintaining independence and health. The ‘My Generation’ programme aims to build resilience through greater access to social networks, well-being activities, and psycho-educational support; this paper examines service evaluatio...
Article
Little is known about the experiences of people living alone with dementia in the community and their non-resident relatives and friends who support them. In this paper, we explore their respective attitudes and approaches to the future, particularly regarding the future care and living arrangements of those living with dementia. The study is based...
Article
Objectives: Churches and faith groups have an important role to play in the development of dementia-friendly communities; their support of spirituality of people with dementia and their care-givers adds an important dimension, interwoven with concepts of personhood and identity. Priests have a central role here, but little is known of their experi...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore user experiences of three different implementations of digital LSW. Sixteen individuals, including people with dementia (n = 6), family caregivers (n = 6), and care staff (n = 4) working in a dementia care home took part. Participants were interviewed about their experience of learning to use a digital life...
Article
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Background: Assistive technology (AT) is rapidly emerging within dementia care and support. One area of AT application is support of people with dementia in compensating for cognitive symptoms and thereby promoting their self-management. There is, however, little evidence for the applicability, usability, and effectiveness of AT for people with dem...
Article
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Purpose The pressure on healthcare budgets remains high, partially due to the ageing population. Economic evaluation can be a helpful tool to inform resource allocation in publicly financed systems. Such evaluations frequently use health-related outcome measures. However, in areas such as care of older people, improving health outcomes is not neces...
Article
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Objective: To provide a new perspective on integrated biomedical and psychosocial dementia research. Background: Dementia is being recognized as a multifactorial syndrome, but there is little interaction between biomedical and psychosocial approaches. A way to improve scientific knowledge is to seek better understanding of the mechanisms underlying...
Article
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Background Assistive technology is advocated as a key solution to the need for support among people living with dementia. There is growing awareness of the benefits of user involvement in the design and test of these technologies and the need to identifying applicable and effective methods for implementation. The aim of this review was to explore a...
Article
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Objectives: In the current study, the Anderson model is used to determine equitable access to dementia care in Europe. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were investigated to find out whether there is equitable access to dementia-specific formal care services. Results can identify which specific factors should be a target to improve access...
Article
Timely access to care services is crucial to support people with dementia and their family carers to live well. Carers of people with dementia (N = 390), recruited from eight countries, completed semi-structured interviews about their experiences of either accessing or not using formal care services over a 12-month period in the Access to Timely Fo...
Article
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Objectives: It is essential to develop interventions that meet individual needs for coping and self-management of people with dementia. This study explored the feasibility and applicability of an intervention merging methods of cognitive rehabilitation and self-management groups for people with early stage dementia. The potential of this interventi...
Article
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Background: A major gap exists internationally in providing support to maintain functional and social independence of older people with dementia living at home. This project evaluates a model of care that integrates evidence-based strategies into a person-centred interdisciplinary rehabilitation package: Interdisciplinary Home-bAsed Reablement Pro...
Article
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This paper reports on qualitative data from the Actifcare study investigating experiences, attitudes, barriers and facilitators concerning access to and use of formal care. A total of 85 semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were conducted in eight European countries. Results were analysed with a deductive content analysis, first within country and t...
Article
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Background: Assistive technology (AT) has the potential to support and enhance self-management of people living with dementia. However, a range of special and heterogeneous needs must be considered when designing and deploying AT for people with dementia, and consequently the involvement of end-users throughout the design process is essential to p...
Article
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Introduction: People with dementia and their relatives should have timely access to formal care in the community. The EU-Actifcare project analysed access to and use of formal services, as related to unmet needs for care. We describe the cohort study implementation and baseline results in Portugal, with a focus on needs for care and service use as...
Article
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Objectives: This study aimed to explore the quality of life and well-being of care home residents living with advanced dementia, how personalised care can be achieved where the person is completely dependent on others for care and how individuals' choices and human rights were upheld. Methods: The study design used a qualitative approach, with d...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Assistive technology (AT) is fast emerging within dementia care and support. One area of application is AT to support people with dementia in compensating for cognitive symptoms and thereby promote their self-management. There is, however, generally little evidence for the applicability, usability and effectiveness of AT for people with...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Assistive technology (AT) is rapidly emerging within dementia care and support. One area of AT application is support of people with dementia in compensating for cognitive symptoms and thereby promoting their self-management. There is, however, little evidence for the applicability, usability, and effectiveness of AT for people with de...
Article
Full-text available
The loss of language skills is one of the most challenging aspects of living with dementia. This is particularly true for bilingual individuals, who have difficulty in maintaining fluency in more than one language. Language and culture overlap greatly, with potential implications for the well-being of people with dementia (PWD) being cared for in t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is an individualised, person-centred intervention for people with mild to moderate dementia that addresses the impact of cognitive impairment on everyday functioning. Objectives To determine whether or not CR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention for people with mild to moderate Alzheime...
Article
Objective Quality of life of people with dementia and their family carers is strongly influenced by interpersonal issues and personal resources. In this context, relationship quality (RQ) and sense of coherence (SOC) potentially protect and promote health. We aimed to identify what influences RQ in dyads of people with dementia and their carers and...
Article
Aim: To investigate the quality of life (QoL) and well-being of people living with advanced dementia in care homes. Method: A mixed-methods approach was taken combining participant observations, interviews with the participants' families and carers, and quantitative measurements. The quantitative measures included AwareCare assessments, QoL in L...
Article
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Objectives To determine whether individual goal‐oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) improves everyday functioning for people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia. Design and methods Parallel group multi‐centre single‐blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CR added to usual treatment (CR) with usual treatment alone (TAU) for people with an...
Chapter
This chapter documents the developments in Wales relating to a National Dementia Vision and Strategy. A new Strategy is to appear by December 2016. While activity and progress are evident in many areas, much remains to be done. Wales benefits from having an Older People’s Commissioner, a statutory voice for older people, including those living with...
Article
Objectives: Home dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers often do not receive the formal care services they need. This study examined and mapped the research regarding interventions to improve access and use of formal community care services. Method: This is a scoping review with searches in PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Medline, Cochr...
Article
Objectives: Little is understood about the optimal way to implement digital life story work (LSW). The aim of this research was to explore the preferences of people with dementia and caregivers in relation to digital LSW in an effort to improve future engagement. Methods: 67 caregivers responded to an online discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey...
Article
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Objectives: Poor social connections may be associated with poor cognition in older people who are not experiencing mental health problems, and the trajectory of this association may be moderated by cognitive reserve. However, it is unclear whether this relationship is the same for older people with symptoms of depression and anxiety. This paper aim...
Article
Objectives: Previously developed dementia caregiver profiles defined by caregiver age and burden, have been associated with caregiver quality of life, depression and perseverance time. The current aim was to investigate whether these caregiver profiles could predict subsequent service use. In addition, non-personal (e.g. meals on wheels) and suppor...
Article
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Background: Living alone may be associated with greater risk for social isolation and loneliness. Living alone, social isolation, loneliness, and limited engagement in social activity have all been associated with poorer cognitive function in later life. Hence, if individuals who live alone are also at greater risk of isolation and loneliness, thi...
Article
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Objectives: This study investigates the relationship between attitudes of care staff and social well-being and challenging behavior of residents in long-term dementia care. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional design using questionnaires. Care staff members (N = 291) of 15 long-term care facilities in the Netherlands completed the A...
Article
Objectives: To identify correlates of self-rated and proxy-rated quality of life (QoL) in people with dementia on (i) a dementia-specific and (ii) a capability-wellbeing QoL measure at baseline and 12-month follow-up, and to consider such factors in the context of QoL intervention development. Method: Prospective clinical and demographic data were...
Article
Background: Access to formal care is not always timely and a better understanding on the impact of untimely access is needed. Objective: To examine, from a societal perspective, the impact of untimely access to formal care in terms of total costs and quality of life over one year in community dwelling people with dementia. Methods: Within the...
Article
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Background: With 10.5 million people with dementia in Europe and $301 billion associated costs, governments face challenges organizing access to care. Objective: To examine the costs related to formal and informal care use and quality of life for people with dementia in eight European countries, and explore the association with unmet needs. Met...
Article
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Objectives Timely diagnosis of dementia is recommended in national strategies. To what extent is it occurring across Europe, what factors are associated with it, and what is the impact on carers emotions of quality of diagnostic disclosure? Methods/Design Survey of family carers recruited through five Alzheimer's associations (Czech Republic, Finl...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence to suggest that social isolation is associated with poor cognitive health, although findings are contradictory. One reason for inconsistency in reported findings may be a lack of consideration of underlying mechanisms that could influence this relationship. Cognitive reserve is a theoretical concept that may account for the role o...
Data
Longitudinal association between social isolation and sub-domains of cognition assessed by the CAMCOG. We conducted further regression analyses to determine whether social isolation was more associated with any specific cognitive domains assessed by the CAMCOG using longitudinal data (see “S4 Table”). Social isolation was significantly associated w...
Data
Cross-sectional association between social isolation and sub-domains of cognition assessed by the CAMCOG. We conducted further regression analyses to determine whether social isolation was more associated with any specific cognitive domains assessed by the CAMCOG (see “S2 Table”). Social isolation was significantly associated with orientation (adju...
Data
Comparison of included and excluded participants at two year follow-up. S1 Table provides a comparison of participants who were included and excluded at follow-up. Excluded participants were significantly older, had a significantly lower baseline CAMCOG score, fewer years of education, lower scores for cognitive activity, lower occupational complex...
Data
Longitudinal association between social isolation and cognitive change. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the reliability of the regression analysis assessing the relationship between social isolation and cognitive change score. As there was little cognitive change across the sample over two years, a binary variable was created to d...
Article
Introduction: Reminiscence therapy (RT) is a popular psychosocial intervention widely used in dementia care. It involves discussion of past events and experiences, using tangible prompts to evoke memories or stimulate conversation. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of RT for people with dementia. It includes stu...