Bo Tan

Bo Tan
Ryerson University · Department of Aerospace Engineering

Ph.D

About

162
Publications
18,797
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,240
Citations
Introduction
Bo Tan currently works at the Department of Aerospace Engineering , Ryerson University. Bo does research in Aerospace Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. Their most recent publication is 'Non plasmonic semiconductor quantum SERS probe as a pathway for in vitro cancer detection'.
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - December 2012
Ryerson University
May 1998 - December 2002
Nanyang Technological University

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Full-text available
Natural Killer (NK) cells, a subset of innate immune cells, undergo cancer-specific changes during tumor progression. Therefore, tracking NK cell activity in circulation has potential for cancer diagnosis. Identification of tumor associated NK cells remains a challenge as most of the cancer antigens are unknown. Here, we introduce tumor-associated...
Article
Nanomedicine possesses the immense potential to tackle cancer effectively. Cancer recurrence is predominantly due to this small subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties known as Cancer stem cells (CSCs). Studies have established a clear understanding of nanomaterial's uptake mechanism in cancer cells; however, the internalization pathway in...
Article
Diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM) poses a recurring struggle due to many factors, including the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in addition to the significant tumor heterogeneity. Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are the primary immune surveillance mechanism for GBM and identify GBM tumors without any previous sensitiza...
Article
The clinical relevance of liquid biopsy for glioblastoma (GBM) remains undetermined due to practical and biological limitations such as absence of a reliable GBM‐specific biomarker, trace levels in circulation due to the blood–brain–barrier, and lack of a sensitive method to detect the trace levels of biomarkers. It is hypothesized that GBM stem ce...
Article
Cancer diagnosis and determining its tissue of origin are crucial for clinical implementation of personalized medicine. Conventional diagnostic techniques such as imaging and tissue biopsy are unable to capture the dynamic tumor landscape. Although circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) shows promise for diagnosis, the clinical relevance of ctDNA remains la...
Article
The ability of cancer to metastasize to distant organs is an urgent problem to be solved clinically and continue to pose a greater challenge to researchers. Current treatments for cancer are ineffective for metastatic cancer due to inability of conventional imaging techniques to detect at early stages. Additionally, the ability to predict the abili...
Article
Cancer epigenomic-environment is a core center of a tumor's genetic and epigenetic configuration. Surveying epigenomic-environment of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) is vital for developing novel diagnostic methods and improving current therapies since CSCs are among the most challenging clinical hurdles. To date, there exists no technique which can s...
Article
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)-based sub-cellular cancer diagnosis can simultaneously obtain multiple biomolecular signals crucial in diagnostic platform for a heterogeneous disease like cancer. But, SERS-probes being typically tagged with chemical functionalization demonstrate limitations due to adverse biocompatibility, ineffective cell...
Article
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the fundamental building blocks of cancer dissemination, so it is desirable to develop a technique to predict the behavior of CSCs during tumor initiation and relapse. It will provide a powerful tool for pathological prognosis. Currently, there exists no method of such prediction. Here, we introduce nickel-based functio...
Article
Organic based nanomaterials, and particularly graphite, have attracted significant interest over the last decade for a wide range of applications, including biosensing. This paper presents self-assembled nitrogen-doped graphite quantum-scale structures (N-G) with different nitrogen concentrations synthesized and demonstrated as SERS-active biosenso...
Article
Detection of molecules which cannot access the hot-spots of plasmonic nanostructures with Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is challenging. This can result in weak SERS as well as low repeatability and reproducibility. To overcome this, here, semiconductor-based quantum probes were functionalized with positive and negative live-charge. Extre...
Article
The SERS sensing of nucleic acids (DNA) by coating the plasmonic materials with a biocompatible layer and complementary DNA strands developed an entire stimulating area in biomedical applications, specifically for the diagnosis of malignant diseases. However, the labels and coating increase the overall hydrodynamic size of the plasmonic nano-materi...
Article
Current single-molecule SERS sensing is mostly done by plasmonic materials like Gold and Silver due to higher enhancement efficiency. However, plasmonic materials suffer from inherent disadvantages, including inconsistent spectral signature and non-biocompatibility. Researchers are actively searching for a replacement with superior biocompatibility...
Article
This article presents a unique 3D biocompatible Aluminum-based quantum structure (QS) for in vitro cancer detection using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). The Al-based QSs fabricated using ultrashort pulsed laser are of two distinct surface characters, wrinkled and smooth spherical. The limit of detection for chemical sensing of Crystal Vi...
Article
The research with ultra-sensitive detection by Raman enhancement has traditionally focused on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) or Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) from predominantly Raman active materials (monolayers of metallic nanoparticles of gold and silver). However, these traditional SERS & TERS methods have demonstrated limited a...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer stem cells (CSC) can be identified by modifications in their genomic DNA. Here, we report a concept of precisely shrinking an organic semiconductor surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe to quantum size, for investigating the epigenetic profile of CSC. The probe is used for tag-free genomic DNA detection, an approach towards the adva...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are believed to be the driving force of cancer metastases and are a rare population of self‐renewing cells that contribute majorly to the poor outcomes of cancer therapy. The detection of CSC is of utmost importance to shed light on the indestructible nature of certain solid tumors and their metastatic ability. However, tumo...
Article
Cancer metastasis is the primary reason for cancer-related deaths, yet there is no technique capable of detecting it due to cancer pathogenesis. Current cancer diagnosis methods evaluate tumor samples as a whole/pooled sample process loses heterogeneous information in the metastasis state. Hence, not suitable for metastatic cancer detection. In ord...
Article
Current use of graphene quantum dot for cancer detection is highly impeded by the low Raman cross‐section and used as a carrier for plasmonic materials. Hence, there is a need for a sensor an efficient Raman cross‐section, with maintaining the cellular homeostasis to attain accurate detection. Here, we report a SERS‐activated graphene oxide (GO) qu...
Article
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a non-invasive and powerful tool for identification of molecular species. Proposed SERS structures have thus far been restricted to noble metals such as Au and Ag. However, metal-oxide-based SERS represents a new frontier in the field of biosensing. While the implementation of semiconductor materials su...
Article
Recently, nonplasmonic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has gained intense interest. Compared to commonly studied noble metals, semiconductors offer more uniformity, better chemical stabilities and improved biocompatibilities, which are promising for their broader practical applications. Unfortunately, semiconductors suffer from very low en...
Article
Although the use of gold quantum dots for non-cellular sensing is growing rapidly, the use of quantum gold dots are still limited because of comparatively large overall size (biocompatible layer), overlapped Raman readout of lower concentrated metabolites inside the cells and dispersion of QDs inside the cancer cells. This is due to the labelling o...
Article
Gold quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as a distinct approach for cancer theranostics by using labeled and functionalized chemotherapeutic‐drug to realize its detection and chemotherapeutic functions. However, the toxicity induced by chemical‐based synthesis, their nonspecific accumulation in healthy tissues and organs hamper its translation to clini...
Article
Flourishing development of quantum scale materials offer great potential in the field of cancer theranostics. Presently, quantum materials are severely limited due to 0D & 1D material which lacks biocompatibility resulting in coated materials with labelled tags for fluorescence excitation. In-addition, application of magnetic quantum materials has...
Article
Aim: To develop a drug-free strategy addressing limitations of current cancer therapy. Materials & methods: A 3D self-assembled magnetic nickel oxide (NiO) nanomatrix is synthesized using femtosecond pulsed laser to mimic extracellular matrix. Results: The tunable laser pulse-interaction time and repetition rate aided in generating programmabl...
Article
A noninvasive intracellular component analysis technique is important in cancer treatment and the initial identification of cancer. Carbon nanomaterials/nanostructures, such as CNTs and graphene, have little to no SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering) ability. Because of these structures’ low Raman responses, they are conjugated with gold or sil...
Article
Accurate In-vitro molecular level analysis is an essential step prior to in-vivo and clinical application for early diagnosis and cancer treatment. Amongst the diagnostic techniques, SERS biosensing has shown growing potential due to its non-invasive and real-time characterization of the biomolecules. However, the application of SERS-biosensing is...
Article
Full-text available
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostics is an important analytical tool in early detection of cancer. Current work in SERS focuses on plasmonic nanomaterials that suffer from coagulation, selectivity, and adverse biocompatibility when used in vitro, limiting this research to stand-alone biomolecule sensing. Here we introdu...
Article
Full-text available
Herein, a label-free multiplex photoluminescent silicon nanoprobe (PLSN-probe) is introduced as a potential substitute for quantum dots (QDs) in bioimaging. An inherently non-photoluminescent silicon substrate is altered to create the PLSN-probe, to overcome the major drawbacks of presently available QDs. Additionally, crystallinity alterations of...
Article
Currently, the quantum scale surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties of Si materials have yet to be discovered for universal biosensing applications. In this study, a potential universal biosensing probe is generated by activating the SERS functionality of Si nanostructures through near quantum-scale (nQS) engineering. We introduce here...
Article
Cellular interactions are regulated by various mechanical, physical and chemical factors that are either introduced to or are pre-existing in their local microenvironments. These factors include geometric confinement, cell-substrate interactions and cell-cell contacts. The systematic elucidation of these dictating mechanisms is crucial for fundamen...
Article
Full-text available
We report in this study, the development of a polymorphic biosensitive Si nanocore superstructure as a SERS biosensing platform. The polymorphic Si nanostructure in this study is created through ultrafast pulse laser ion-plume (UPLIP) formation and we observe enhanced detection of L-glutathione (GSH). The distinctive polymorphic nanomaterial chemis...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon nanomaterials have emerged as a promising material in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Carbon nanomaterials/nanostructures (C-C molecular structure) act as a carrier/skeleton and require further surface modification through functionalization with chemicals or biomolecules to attain a cell response. We report the synthesis of a novel carbon nano...
Article
Nanomaterials with a broadband photon absorption capability are essential for better performing solar cells. Plasmonic nanostructures and Quantum Dots, often fabricated via complex time intensive methods, have a narrow absorption spectrum. In this paper, we report a plasmon hybridised self-assembled 3D nano network of multiphase titanium oxide, whi...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon nanomaterials have been investigated for various biomedical applications. In most cases, however, these nanomaterials must be functionalized biologically or chemically due to their biological inertness or possible cytotoxicity. Here, we report the development of a new carbon nanomaterial with a bioactive phase that significantly promotes cel...
Article
We introduce a “non-noble metal” based SERS active nano-biosensor using a self-assembled 3D hybrid nickel nanonetwork. A tunable biomolecule detector fabricated by a bottom-up approach was functionalized using a multiphoton ionization energy mechanism to create a self-assembled 3D hybrid nickel nanonetwork. The nanonetwork was tested for SERS detec...
Article
Full-text available
This in-vitro study introduces residual stress as a third dimension of cell stimulus to modulate the interaction between cells and bio-template, without the addition of either chemical or physical stimuli onto the bio-template surface. Ultrashort Pulsed Laser (USPL) irradiation of silicon-based bio-template causes recrystallization of silicon, whic...
Article
We report the fabrication of hybrid Si SERS nanobiosensor biochip devices. The biochip exhibits a proposed hybridized SERS biomolecule sensing phenomenon with the creation of a SERS-active 3D amorphous/crystalline silicon nanoweb that has undergone nano-ornamentation with gold nanospheres. The underlying interconnected 3D hybrid Si nanospheroid net...
Article
Nanomaterials have proven to possess great potential in biomaterials research. Recently, they have suggested considerable promise in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Among others, silicon (Si) nanomaterials have been extensively employed for various biomedical applications; however, the utilization of Si for cancer therapy has been limited to nanopart...
Article
Full-text available
We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor ha...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate absorption of Near Infrared (NIR) photons by conventional silicon solar cells has been a major stumbling block towards the attainment of a high efficiency "full spectrum" solar cell. An effective enhancement in the absorption of such photons is desired as they account for a considerable portion of the tappable solar energy. In this work,...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge about cancer cell behavior on heterogeneous nanostructures is relevant for developing a distinct biomaterial that can actuate cancer cells. In this manuscript, we have demonstrated a harmonized approach of forming multi Ti-oxide phases in a nanostructure (MTOP nanostructure) for its unique cancer cell controlling behavior.Conventionally,...
Article
We introduce a hybrid nanostructured biomaterial that is a combination of rare phases of immiscible gold and silicon oxide, functionalized via ultrafast laser synthesis. For the first time, we show cancer controlling properties of rare phases of gold silicides, which include Au7Si, Au5Si, Au0.7Si2.3 and Au8Si2. Conventionally, pure forms of gold an...
Article
Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, the use of nano silicon in cancer therapy is limited as drug delivery vehicles and markers in imaging, not as manipulative/controlling agents. This is due to limited properties that native states of nano silicon and silicon oxides offers. We introduce nano-functionalized multi-phased silicon/silicon oxide biomaterials synthesized via ult...
Article
Full-text available
Applications of biomaterials in cancer therapy has been limited to drug delivery systems and markers in radiation therapy. In this article, we introduce the concept of phase-functionalization of silicon to preferentially select cancer cell populations for survival in a catalyst and additive free approach. Silicon is phase-functionalized by the inte...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research in the field of photovoltaics has shown that polymer solar cells have great potential to provide low-cost, lightweight and flexible electronic devices to harvest solar energy. In this paper, we propose a new method for the generation of three-dimensional nanofibers coated on polymer substrate induced by femtosecond laser pulses. In...
Article
Full-text available
The state-of-the-art in synthesis of nanostructured cell and contra-cell surfaces relies on techniques that utilize elaborate precursor chemicals, catalysts, or vacuum conditions, and any combination thereof. Two type s of nanostructures, sodium oxide (Na2O) nanotips and silicon oxide (SiO2 nanofibers, have been fabricated on soda-lime glass using...
Article
Nanotips are the key nanostructures for the improvement of field emission, flat panel displays, force microscopy, and biosensor applications. We propose a single-step, rapid synthesis method to generate nanotips using femtosecond laser irradiation at megahertz frequency with a background flow of nitrogen gas at ambient conditions. Two different typ...
Article
Controlling the growth of cells on the surface of silicon without an additive layer or topographical modification is unexplored. This research article delineates the discovery of unique properties of a bio-functionalized silicon substrate, programmed to repel or control cells, generated by ultrafast femtosecond pulse interaction with silicon. Remar...
Article
Full-text available
In this study the composition of nanostructures generated owing to ablation of crystalline silicon using high repletion rate femtosecond laser under ambient condition is investigated. The web-like silicon fibrous nanostructures are formed in and around the laser irradiated area. Electron Microscopy investigation revealed that the nanostructures are...
Article
Full-text available
Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to the many reviewers for their hard works. We would also like to thank the authors for their contributions to the special issue. This special issue could not have been completed without their dedication and support.
Article
Hybrid biomaterials are a combination of two or more different materials that work synergistically to produce superior properties. Nano structuring of such hybrid materials has also posed complications. In this study, we present, for the first time a nanofibrous hybrid of gold and silicon fabricated by femtosecond laser synthesis for tissue enginee...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we devised a new concept for the precise nanofabrication of Au-Si fibrous nanostructures using megahertz femtosecond laser irradiation in air and atmospheric pressure conditions. The weblike fibrous nanostructures of Au thin layer on silicon substrate, which are proposed for the application of solar cells, exhibit a specific improvem...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research in the field of photovoltaic and solar cell fabrication has shown the potential to significantly enhance light absorption in thin-film solar cells by using surface texturing and nanostructure coating techniques. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a new method for nano sandwich type thin-film solar cell fabrication by comb...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the gener...
Article
Full-text available
The current challenge in tissue engineering is to design a platform that can provide appropriate topography and suitable surface chemistry to encourage desired cellular activities and to guide 3-D tissue regeneration. Compared with traditional cell culture materials, 3-D nanofibrous platforms offer a superior environment for promoting cell function...
Article
The advent of tissue engineering has invigorated interest in novel tissue regeneration matrices. An ideal matrix that simulates the natural extra cellular matrix (ECM) should be nanoscale, with three dimensionally interconnected nanofibers which cannot be generated by current methods such as electrospinning. Furthermore, certain biocompatible mater...
Article
In this study, we report a new phenomenon of multiphoton polymerization induced by dual wavelength irradiation with femtosecond laser of 515 and 1030nm. We demonstrated a spatial resolution of 1200nm from a laser spot of 1020nm diameter. This is a significant increase in the spatial resolution of about 33 and 58% than the two photon absorption (2PA...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a novel technique to synthesize functional carbonaceous 3-D micro/nanocompounds from agricultural by-products using femtosecond laser irradiation. Bio-wastes of rice husk and wheat straw are value-engineered to carbonaceous structures in single step under ambient conditions. Our results demonstrate that by controlling the laser...
Article
This article reports a prototype of a sandwich-structured solar cell. A thin layer of three dimensional Si nanofiber was created between the p-type and n-type layers in a single homojunction silicon cell. This nanofibre layer, which works as a “space region”, was synthesized using MHz ultrafast laser ablation at ambient conditions. The high surface...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf-like nanostructures with nanoscale apex are induced on dielectric target surfaces by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser irradiation in ambient conditions. We have recently developed this unique technique to grow leaf-like nanostructures with such interesting geometry without the use of any catalyst. It was found to be possible only in the...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we report a new method for direct-write maskless lithography using oxidized silicon layer induced by high repetition (MHz) ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pulses under ambient condition. The induced thin layer of predetermined pattern can act as an etch stop during etching process in alkaline etchants such as KOH. The proposed method ca...