Bo Richter Larsen

Bo Richter Larsen
European Commission | ec · Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Lic. Tech., Ph.D

About

158
Publications
28,493
Reads
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5,906
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
1592 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
June 1987 - present
European Commission
Position
  • European Commission Joint Research Centre
January 1984 - July 1986
Technical University of Denmark
Position
  • Interactive effects of acid rain and trace organic compounds on plants
September 1983 - January 1984
Queen's University
Position
  • hydrocracking of Tar Sand

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
The concentrations of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCP methanol) and the structurally similar compound, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCP methane) are reported for the first time in human milk at the concentration of 2.0 and 1.6 ng/g milk fat, respectively. This is 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than the detected levels of other organochlorine compo...
Article
Very high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) are frequently encountered in the north of Italy and air quality limits are regularly exceeded. To obtain quantitative information on the pollution sources and to gain understanding of the dynamics of pollution episodes in this populated area PM10 and/or PM2.5 samples were collected daily at nine...
Article
Full-text available
Aromatic hydrocarbons are important constituents in polluted air. The atmospheric photo-oxidation of aromatic compounds, mainly initiated by reactions of the OH radical, has an impact on photochemical oxidant formation and is believed to be a major source of secondary aerosol (SOA) (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). The OH-initiated oxidation of benzene,...
Article
The ozonolytic decomposition of terpenes and terpenoids during sampling on Tenax is investigated in an artificial air system at ambient concentration levels. The detrimental effect of 8-150 ppbv ozone depends on the chemical structure of the compounds:  saturated terpenoids such as 1,8-cineole, camphor, and bornyl acetate are unaffected by ozone. T...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effect of grid resolution on the particulate matter (PM 10 , PM 2.5) mass concentrations and its chemical composition simulated with the AMS-MINNI modelling system. The air pollution was simulated over Italy with grid resolutions of 20 and 4 km, for a whole year. The gridded emissions were produced performing speciation...
Article
Full-text available
A new methodology to assess source apportionment model performance in intercomparison exercises,encompassing the preparation of real-world and synthetic datasets and the evaluation of the source apportionment results reported by participants, is described. The evaluation consists of three types of tests: complementary tests, preliminary tests, and...
Book
Full-text available
This report contains a guide and a European harmonised protocol prepared within the framework of the JRC initiative for the harmonisation of source apportionment with receptor models. This initiative was launched in collaboration with the European networks in the field of air quality modelling (FAIRMODE) and measurements (AQUILA). The initiative al...
Article
Full-text available
The time resolved chemical composition of aerosol particles, formed by the oxidation of alpha-pinene has been investigated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using negative and positive ionisation methods (ESI(-) and APCI(+)). The experiments were performed at the EUPHORE facility in Valencia (Spain) under various experimental condi...
Book
Full-text available
Globally, coal is second to oil the biggest energy source. Coal combustion is utilized mainly for power generation, in industry and to a lesser extent also for home heating in small stoves and boilers. The latter is known to be a major burden for air quality. The present paper describes the results of a PM and PAH source apportionment casestudy, ca...
Book
Full-text available
Particulate matter (PM) is one of today’s most challenging environmental problems in urban environments. A number of studies have pointed to adverse health effects of particulate matter with a diameter below 10 μm (PM10). Limit values for PM mass concentrations in ambient air expressed as PM10 is frequently exceeded in major cities and WHO (World H...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The identification of sources is one of the prerequisites for the implementation of the Air Quality Directive (AQD). It provides scientific support to the development and periodic revision of air quality plans and short term action plans and to the quantification of categories with special status like long range transport, natural sources and winte...
Article
Ubiquitous use of fragrances and air fresheners in the indoor environment may pose health implications for consumers because of the reaction of terpenes with ozone, which generates not only harmful gas phase products, such as formaldehyde, but also secondary organic aerosol (SOA) consisting of nanometer-sized particles. In outdoor air, SOA formatio...
Article
Full-text available
In Milan (MI), the largest city in Northern Italy, the annually average PM2.5 concentration is above 25 μg m(-3), the value that the EU established as a target for 2010, and the upper limit from 2015 onwards (2008/30/CE). Over a three-year period (2006-2009) PM concentrations and chemical compositions were measured in an urban site (MI), a rural si...
Article
Particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) constitutes an air pollution problem in many areas of Europe and has been linked to biomass burning (BB). The present study, conducted in 2007 and 2009 at ten stations in the North Italian Po Plain and Valtelline Valley, examines four methods for the quantification of BB contributions to particle-bound B(a)P us...
Article
A novel approach for measuring vertical profiles of HCs and particle number concentrations was described and applied in the low troposphere over Milan (Italy) during typical spring and summer days. Particle profiles yielded nearly homogeneous concentrations below the mixing height, with level-to-ground concentration ratios of 92-97%, while HCs show...
Article
Full-text available
The source contributions to carbonaceous PM 2.5 aerosol were investigated at a European background site at the edge of the Po Valley, in Northern Italy, during the pe-riod January–December 2007. Carbonaceous aerosol was described as the sum of 8 source components: primary (1) and secondary (2) biomass burning organic carbon, biomass burning element...
Article
Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector’s contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested,...
Article
Full-text available
The source contributions to carbonaceous PM2.5 aerosol were investigated at a European background site at the edge of the Po Valley, in Northern Italy, during the period January–December 2007. Carbonaceous aerosol was described as the sum of eight source components: primary (1) and secondary (2) biomass burning organic carbon, biomass burning eleme...
Article
The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C2–C9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of the present study is to identify the contribution of wood burning and biomass burning to the levels of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric particulate matter. Benzo(a)pyrene has been selected as a marker of PAHs since it is predominantly present in the solid phase and is the only isomer having a target v...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge on the main emission sources and their relative importance is essential for policy makers to define effective pollution reduction strategies. Such knowledge can be gained by receptor modeling using e.g. the chemical mass balance model (CMB). For a successful application of CMB all important sources must be known and information must be av...
Article
Particulate organic matter represents a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol, ranging from 20 - 50 % of fine particulate mass in urban areas, up to 90% in tropical forested areas. Regulatory purposes require to develop and optimize models able to describe accurately and at a known level of confidence the contribution of different anthropogenic sou...
Article
In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds a study was carried out to comprehensively characterize exhaust gases of mopeds complying current EURO-2 emission standards. Three mopeds with different engine types (carburetor, direct injection, and electronic carburetion system ECS) where invest...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Levels of PM10 exceed limit values not only in the densely populated and industrialized Po Valley but also in the nearby Alpine valleys. In addition, annual means of benzo(a)pyrene in the valley floor in the southern Alps are higher than those observed in the adjacent Po Valley and exceed the target value set by EU Directive 2004/107/EC. In a recen...
Article
The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry, and traffic. Emissions w...
Book
Full-text available
Bioethanol is the most widely used biofuel in the world. This fuel is particularly popular in Brazil, in USA and in Sweden. The use of ethanol as transport fuel is considered also the most important option to achieve the ambitious target of reaching the 10% market share of fuels from renewable sources by 2020. In fact, compared to biodiesel, ethano...
Book
Full-text available
Due to the significant emission reduction from light and heavy duty vehicles in the past few years, it came out that two-stroke engines are a considerably strong source of pollution in the urban areas where congested traffic made of these vehicles an appropriate alternative to increase mobility. After the entry into force of additional measures on...
Article
The Lombardia Region (RL) is situated in the central part of the Po Plain (I) where the mesoscale climatological conditions are determined to a high degree by the orographical characteristics of this area. Encirclement from three sides (North, West and South) by the mountain chains contributes greatly to the climatological peculiarities that are re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Lombardy Region (RL) is located in the Po Valley and with its more than 9 million residents it is Italys most densely inhabited area and one of the most polluted areas in Europe with regard to PM and photochemical smog. The EU air quality limit for PM10 of 50 µg m-3 (24 hours average) is exceeded up to 180 days per year and the limit of 40 µg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Krakow is Poland¿s second largest city and one of the most polluted cities in Europe with regards to particulate matter (PM) and associated compounds, such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The study was designed to apportion coal combustion sources in comparison with other main sources for these pollutants PM10 samples were collected in Krakow during typ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In urban areas, motor vehicles represent one of the main sources of CO, PM, NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. These emissions tend to be either unburned or partially oxidized fuel components, and several, such as benzene and 1,3-butadiene, are known carcinogens [1,2]. Others are involved in atmospheric reactions, the so-called ozone precursors. The Eu...
Article
Stable weather conditions together with extensive use of coal combustion often lead to severe smog episodes in certain urban environments, especially in Eastern Europe. In order to identify the specific sources that cause the smog episodes in such environments, and to better understand the mixing state and atmospheric processing of aerosols, both s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ozone is the main product of complex photochemical processes in the lower atmosphere involving NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as precursors. The main sectors that emit ozone precursors are industry, petrol storage and distribution, powerplants and road transport, the latter representing ~45% of the emissions in the EU [1]. The European C...
Book
Full-text available
Transport is a key factor in modern economies. However, the EU transport system is currently not sustainable, and in many respects moving away from sustainability rather than towards it. The European Environment Agency highlights in particular the sector's growing CO2 emissions that threaten the EU meeting its target under the Kyoto protocol. Trans...
Book
Full-text available
This report summarises the state of the art concerning ozone-initiated chemistry and its impact on indoor air quality and human health and recommends prioritised research goals for the future. The focus is on terpenes (e.g., limonene, α-pinene) for reasons of high chemical reactivity and abundance.
Book
Full-text available
Transport is a key factor in modern economies. However, the EU transport system is currently not sustainable, and in many respects moving away from sustainability rather than towards it. The European Environment Agency highlights in particular the sector's growing CO2 emissions that threaten the EU meeting its target under the Kyoto protocol. Trans...
Book
Full-text available
CONCAWE, EUCAR and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission jointly carried out a major test programme specifically designed to investigate the influence of gasoline vapour pressure and ethanol content on evaporative emissions from modern passenger cars as determined using the current European regulatory test procedure. Breathing losses...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nitrophenols and nitrocresols are semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) which can be present both in the gas and particulate phase of the atmosphere. They can be emitted as primary pollutants (e.g. traffic source in urban atmosphere) or they can be secondary compounds which form from atmospheric oxidation processes from aromatic compounds. One of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PART C: it was found that biofuels can efficiently reduce the emissions (Fig 4) when compared to standard fossil diesel fuels for all measured species, excepting NOx and, in the case of ESC, for TEQ. The results for pure rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), for PM, CO, NOx and HC emissions were similar to the mixture of soy and sunflower oil methyl est...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European Commission has proposed a target limit value of 1 ng/m3 annual mean concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (used as a marker for the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as part of the 4th Air Quality Daughter Directive [1]. Episodes of high ambient benzo[a]pyrene concentrations (up to 200 times higher than the EU target val...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Results are presented on the chemical speciation of 24-h particulate matter (PM) samples collected during two episodes of thermal inversion (14/1 – 2/3, 2005) and at the four different air monitoring stations in Krakow (AGRI: urban background site, INDU: industrial site at Nova Huta, POLI: domestic coal heating district, TRAFIC: traffic site), from...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Results are presented on the chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) from major sources in Krakow. Chimney exhaust was sampled iso-kinetically during winter/spring 2005 from 21 individual sources
Article
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Limited and nonlimited emissions of scooters were analyzed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Agency of Environment Forests and Landscape (SAEFL, BUWAL). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an...
Article
Full-text available
Results from an intercomparison of several currently used in-situ techniques for the measurement of atmospheric formaldehyde (CH<sub>2</sub>O) are presented. The measurements were carried out at Bresso, an urban site in the periphery of Milan (Italy) as part of the FORMAT-I field campaign. Eight instruments were employed by six independent research...
Article
One of the major technological challenges for the transport sector is to cut emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously from diesel vehicles to meet future emission standards and to reduce their contribution to the pollution of ambient air. Installation of particle filters in all existing diesel vehicles (for new...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the major technological challenges for the transport sector is to reduce particulate emissions from diesel vehicles in order to meet future emission standards and to reduce their contribution to the pollution of ambient air. Installation of particle filters in all diesel vehic les could be efficient but expensive and complex therefore, other...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor models have been used to identify and apportion the dominating sources for individual C 2 -C 9 hydrocarbons specified in the European Ozone Directive 2002/3/EC in Milan (I) and Lille (F). A new approach estimating the uncertainties in the ambient concentrations as a fu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Experimental: Seven different Euro-3 LD diesel vehicles, with an approximate 2L displacement, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and oxidation catalyst, were used and compared to a common Euro-2 LD diesel vehicle, representing the common rail system, the unit injector technology, and the old rotary pump technology. Regulated pollutant emissions were m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Nitrophenols and nitrocresols are produced by the oxidation of benzene and toluene with the main atmospheric oxidising agents (mainly [ . OH] radical) in the presence of NO x . Recent results from smog chamber experiments have shown that mixtures of benzene, toluene, and NO x , irradiated with UV light, produce secondary organic aeros...
Book
Full-text available
Particulate matter (PM) is one of today’s most challenging environmental problems in urban environments. A number of studies have pointed to adverse health effects of particulate matter with a diameter below 10 μm (PM10). Limit values for PM mass concentrations in ambient air expressed as PM10 is frequently exceeded in major cities and WHO (World H...
Article
The European Ozone Directive 2002/3/EC specifies the analysis of 30 individual C2-C9 hydrocarbons in urban air with the attribution of emission sources to pollution concentrations as a major objective. In the present study, we investigate an approach for source apportionment of these ozone precursor hydrocarbons in urban air based on reliable semi...
Article
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been applied to the quantitative analysis of 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Equilibration curves for the partitioning of the VOCs between the fiber coating and fortified water obtained at 20, 50, and 80 °C are found between the theoretical curves for completely agitated and non-agitate...