Bo Christensen

Bo Christensen
Copenhagen Business School · Department of Marketing

PhD

About

60
Publications
8,849
Reads
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1,544
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - September 2016
Copenhagen Business School
Position
  • Professor w/ special responsibilities in Creative Cognition
June 2009 - present
Copenhagen Business School
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (60)
Chapter
Full-text available
Meta-reasoning refers to the metacognitive processes that monitor and control ongoing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving. These monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of “certainty” or “uncertainty” regarding how well a process is unfolding. The “meta-reasoning framework” advanced by Ackerman and Thompson (2017) captures many...
Article
Full-text available
We explore why and how designers move sticky notes by conducting a visuospatial analysis of sticky note moves as they unfold across time in design practice. We find that individual sticky note moves have a relatively stable sequential order containing strategies for directing and maintaining shared attention. Further, three kinds of sticky note mov...
Article
Sticky notes abound as a material in design practice, yet their use is under-explored empirically and theoretically. We address the research question: how do sticky notes support design cognition and collaboration when compared to other kinds of design materials? We compare four types of design materials (sketches, prototypes, cards, sticky notes)...
Article
Jane Darke’s 1979 article “The Primary Generator and the Design Process” appeared in the very first issue of Design Studies. In the four decades of design research that followed, the article became a classic. In the article’s revaluation of the role subjectivity plays in design, Darke posits a construct called the “the primary generator”—a limited...
Article
Full-text available
Searching for sources of inspiration is central to creative design; however, we have limited knowledge of individual inspiration search strategies in response to varying levels of task constraints. We studied 39 high-school students’ inspiration search strategies using Google Images. Low task constrainedness led to divergent search marked by quick...
Chapter
This chapter overviews the nature of creative cognition, adopting a dual-process framework whereby idea generation typically involves the operation of implicit, associative processes that drive the generation of so-called “preinventive forms”, whereas idea exploration typically involves the operation of explicit, analytic processes that develop and...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Fifty years ago Spencer Silver at 3M invented a not-so-sticky reusable adhesive that enabled development of the Post-it ® note. Since then, sticky notes have become the most commonly used design material, and their use is standard practice in a multitude of creativity techniques such as brainstorming, business model generation, and design thinking....
Article
Perceptual fluency typically has a positive influence on aesthetic evaluations of beauty, but few studies have examined its influence on creativity evaluations. Creativity has two facets, originality and quality. If creativity judgments involve estimating product originality, such judgments may be associated with perceptual disfluency, while produc...
Article
Sparked by concerns with increased domain fragmentation in design research, we explored indicators of expansion, integration and consolidation in this area of enquiry through the lens of publications in Design Studies across the 40-years since the journal's inception. We examined several key indicators, including authors' disciplinary affiliations,...
Article
In this article we review progress that has been made in advancing a theoretical understanding of design cognition and design metacognition. We identify a high level of consistency in empirical findings, including good evidence for core design strategies such as conjecture-based problem formulation, problem–solution co-evolution, analogical reasoni...
Article
Full-text available
Since brainstorming was introduced as a technique in 1953 it has been assumed that the best way to produce good ideas is through the production of many ideas, which has later been named the equal-odds rule. However, this finding that productivity often leads to creative quality has rarely been examined in psychometric studies of creative cognition....
Article
Contemporary approaches to the study of design teams tend to assume that teamwork equates to social interactions, thereby failing to examine the extent to which design team processes involve the assumed joint attention and shared dialogue. Nowadays, mobile personal computing devices enable a situation where almost the entire design process can be c...
Article
Reasoning is a fundamental process in design activity, and it provides a way to understand design behaviour. Theories and models of design propose reasoning that follows abductive-deductive patterns. At the micro-level, these patterns are untested. This study analyses verbal reasoning patterns at the micro-level for group idea generation using prot...
Article
We investigate the way Post-It notes support creative design team practice, focusing on how they function as cognitive externalisations that, through grouping activities, support categorisation qualities associated with semantic long-term memory. We use a multimodal approach, drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, which places gestu...
Article
Full-text available
We report an experiment investigating how stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency (i.e., the ease of deriving meaning) influence aesthetic liking judgments for abstract artworks. We presented participants with paintings at two levels of complexity (high vs. low) and five levels of conceptual fluency (determined from a prior norming study) and re...
Article
Full-text available
The case presented here was the center of the 11th Design Thinking Research Symposium (DTRS11) and concerns extensive in situ collected video-based data of everyday design team activity traced longitudinally in a professional team of designers working with user involvement. The DTRS11 dataset was shared and analyzed by 28 international design resea...
Article
Full-text available
Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. We analyzed not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing and information selection, but also its long-term impact on downstream creative processes. Ou...
Article
Full-text available
A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correl...
Conference Paper
The Post-It note is a frequently used, and yet seldom studied, design material. We investigate the functions Post-It notes serve when providing cognitive support for creative design team practice. Our investigation considers the ways in which Post-It notes function as design externalisations, both individually and when grouped, and their role in ca...
Article
Full-text available
We integrated two research traditions – one focusing on analogical reasoning, the other on knowledge sharing – with the aim of examining how designers’ unique knowledge backgrounds can fuel analogy-based creativity. The present dataset afforded a unique opportunity to pursue this aim since the design dialogue derived from team members with highly d...
Article
Full-text available
We examined evaluative reasoning taking place during expert ‘design critiques’. We focused on key dimensions of creative evaluation (originality, functionality and aesthetics) and ways in which these dimensions impact reasoning strategies and suggestions offered by experts for how the student could continue. Each dimension was associated with a spe...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the reported study was to gain further insight into how two cognitive strategies – analogical reasoning and mental simulation – influence team dynamics in innovative product design. A particular emphasis was placed on exploring the association between these two strategies and team cohesion and team collaboration. Analogies were coded for...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that people judge words as having bigger font size than non-words. This finding has been interpreted in terms of processing fluency, with higher fluency leading to judgments of bigger size. If so, symmetric numbers (e.g., 44) which can be processed more fluently are predicted to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g.,...
Article
Full-text available
Consumer perception of creativity in design products equivalent in function was measured using global single-item ratings of creativity. The measure was found to have a high level of agreement between raters and have discriminant validity to another aesthetic construct, that of beauty. In two experiments using designer lamps and wrist watches as st...
Article
Full-text available
In order to examine implicit theories of the relation between Big-5 personality traits and creativity, this article draws on lexical searches for adjectives in job ads, in particular jobs with a stated creativity (as opposed to a not explicitly stated creativity) requirement. Our findings show that implicit theories of the link between personality...
Conference Paper
Engineering design is frequently described as an ill-defined problem: usually many possible solutions exist and there are no clearly defined rules to obtain these solutions. The process of generating design solutions is both a divergent and convergent process with a variety of solutions being created and few being selected for further development....
Article
Full-text available
Creative design concepts are often viewed as developing iteratively, with the design problem and solutions ‘co-evolving’ in a mutually adaptive manner. We report a study examining whether the co-evolution concept captures the creativity arising in collaborative, team-based design practice, which has not previously been assessed from a co-evolution...
Article
This paper investigates the gate screening of ideas in engineering design, by examination of the validity of employee voting schemes and biases associated with such voting. After conducting an employee-driven innovation project at a major producer of disposable medical equipment, 99 ideas had to be screened for further development. Inspired by the...
Article
This symposium responds to calls for an integration of in-vivo and in-vitro methods when studying how people tackle complex, open-ended issues in the areas of creativity, design, and innovation. Bringing together expertise from multiple perspectives and methodological backgrounds we explore fruitful ways towards integrative approaches to analyzing...
Article
Full-text available
The paper investigates the question of screening ideas in the 'fuzzy front end' of engineering design, examining the validity of employee voting schemes and related biases. After an employee-driven innovation project at {Company Name removed for review}, 99 ideas were to be screened for further development. Based on the concept of 'wisdom of the cr...
Article
This paper investigates the potential involvement of “epistemic uncertainty” in mediating between complex design requirements and strategic switches in software design strategies. The analysis revealed that the designers produced an initial “first-pass” solution to the given design brief in a breadth-first manner, with this solution addressing seve...
Article
Two studies tested whether introducing images to designers during the design process lead to more useful design solutions as evaluated by the end users’ willingness to use the final design. It was hypothesized based on theories in cognitive science and design that there were at least two paths from images to usefulness. One path concerns analogical...
Article
This paper presents evidence for shared insight moments in real world design processes in the context of product development for a large international medical appliance manufacturer. The findings are discussed related to the existing literature of insights in creative processes and regarding possible explanations from analoguous fields of interest,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience in an adaptive design domain. Protocol analyses of 12 design engineers have been analyzed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real-world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indi...
Article
Random cues may be both beneficial and harmful to creativity. Theories of analogical transfer and association assume that cues are helpful in generating new ideas. However, theories of path-of-least-resistance, fixation, and unconscious plagiarism say that cues can lead you into traps. Empirical research partly supports both theories. So what is a...
Article
Although theories of mental simulations have used different formulations of the premises of ‘thought experiments’, they can be fitted under a minimalist hypothesis stating that mental simulations are run under situations of uncertainty to turn that uncertainty into approximate answers. Three basic assumptions of mental simulations were tested by us...
Article
This paper aims to further an understanding of the nature and function of analogising and mental simulation in design through an analysis of the transcripts of two engineering design meetings. Analogies were coded for ‘purpose’ and in terms of whether they were within-domain or between-domain. Mental simulations were coded for ‘focus’: technical/fu...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant differ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant differ...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant differ...
Article
Analogy was studied in real-world engineering design, using the in vivo method. Analogizing was found to occur frequently, entailing a roughly equal amount of within- and between-domain analogies. In partial support for theories of unconscious plagiarism (Brown & Murphy, 1989; Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1996) and Ward's (1994) path-of-least-resistance...
Article
Incubation often plays a role in creative problem solving. Theories of analogical problem solv- ing and Opportunistic Assimilation (OA) theory (Seifert, Meyer, Davidson, Patalano, & Yaniv, 1995) of incubation in creative problem solving were tested. OA theory predicts that a previously encoded unsolved problem will be spontaneously accessed and map...
Article
The in vivo research methodology holds promise to improve some of the limitations of typical design cognition methodologies. Whereas typical design cognition methodology use protocol a nalysis (utilizing special 'think-aloud' instructions and/or artificial settings) or retrospective analyses, in vivo research attempts to study design thinking and r...

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