Blair T Johnson

Blair T Johnson
University of Connecticut | UConn · Department of Psychology

BA, MS, PhD

About

201
Publications
122,763
Reads
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18,684
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on social structure and human welfare, and how health promotion efforts may best succeed in the face of difficult social and economic environments. My collaborators and I addressed such issues in the Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) model of HIV prevention (Johnson et al., 2010, AIDS & Behavior), a behavior change theory that incorporates dynamic dyadic and network creating important social structures. Other interests include meta-analysis and other big data analyses.
Additional affiliations
March 2015 - present
University of Connecticut
Position
  • Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor
January 2001 - December 2011
University of Connecticut
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Members of the SHARP research group believe in doing high-quality quantitative research with the best potential to improve quality of life, nesting individuals in networks of peers, families, and larger communities.
August 1999 - March 2015
University of Connecticut
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 1983 - August 1988
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Social psychology
August 1981 - May 1983
Minnesota State University Moorhead
Field of study
  • Psychology and Philosophy

Publications

Publications (201)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) have proliferated with a concomitant increase in reviews of SRs/MAs or "meta-reviews" (MRs). As uncovered by the 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (PAGAC), there is a paucity of best practice guidance on MRs on physical activity health-related research. This manuscr...
Article
When seeking to inform and improve prevention efforts and policy, it is important to be able to robustly synthesize all available evidence. But evidence sources are often large and heterogeneous, so understanding what works, for whom, and in what contexts can only be achieved through a systematic and comprehensive synthesis of evidence. Many barrie...
Article
Rationale and objective. In the United States, gun violence claims over 30,000 lives a year and is a pressing public health issue. To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, this study spatially analyzed county- and state-level predictors of yearly gun violence rate and gun-related casualty rate. Method This study modeled hypothesized pred...
Article
Changes in autonomic control have been suggested to mediate postexercise hypotension (PEH). We investigated through meta-analysis the after-effects of acute resistance exercise (RE) on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic activity in individuals with normal and elevated BP. Electronic databases were searched for trials including: adults; exclusive RE...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Consumer-grade electroencephalogram (EEG) devices designed to assist people with meditation are gaining popularity. This study investigates EEG-based outcome measures provided by the Muse device and their relation to mindfulness scores and mental health in a meditation intervention.Methods Fifty-three novice meditators (university studen...
Article
Background: Chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) vary greatly and are difficult to treat; we investigate the impact of meditation, yoga, and mindfulness-based interventions on this treatment group. Method: Search included four databases, allowing studies of any design containing pre/post outcomes for meditation, yoga, or mindfu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Professional health organizations are not currently recommending Tai Ji Quana longside aerobic exercise to treat hypertension. We aimed to examine the efficacy of Tai Ji Quan as antihypertensive lifestyle therapy. Methods Tai Ji Quan interventions published in English and Chinese were included when they involved healthy adults, reported...
Article
Overlap in meta‐reviews results from the use of multiple identical primary studies in similar reviews. It is an important area for research synthesists because overlap indicates the degree to which reviews address the same or different literatures of primary research. Current guidelines to address overlap suggest that assessing and documenting the...
Article
Self-regulation is one primary mechanism in interventions for health behaviour change and has been examined in numerous recent meta-analyses, which this meta-review systematically synthesizes. The meta-review protocol was pre-registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017074018): Meta-analyses of any intervention and health behaviour/outcome were eligible if the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of yoga as antihypertensive lifestyle therapy and identify moderators that account for variability in the blood pressure (BP) response to yoga. Methods: We systematically searched 6 electronic databases from inception through June 4, 2018, for articles published in English language journals on trials of yog...
Article
Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with risky sex, which increases the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Objective: To examine the prevalence of, and associations among alcohol, risky sex, and HIV, in Nigeria. Methods: We searched electronic databases and reviewed reference sections of relevant papers to locate studies that sa...
Article
Full-text available
The single-arm first phase of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial was designed to assess the efficacy of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in “real-world” patients. STAR*D improvement scores and response rates based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), which had been designated as the prim...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the many facets of the relations between persuasive communication and attitude change, exploring the processes and effects of who says what to whom. It begins with a brief summary of some of the major theoretical perspectives on how communications affect attitude change and continues with a review of various cau...
Article
Full-text available
Background Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of interventions to reduce risk for sexually transmitted infections in adolescents in recent years, but their global effects remain unknown since 2008, the last date of a comprehensive review of prior studies. Aims This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of interventions to promote sexual...
Data
Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis (k = 63). (DOCX)
Data
Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To examine the effects of exercise training on cognitive function in individuals at risk of or diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design: Meta-analysis. Setting: PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ProQuest were searched from inception until August 1, 2017. Participants: Nineteen studies with 23 interventions including...
Article
Introducción. Estudios previos indican que el divorcio de los padres puede aumentar la vulnerabilidad de los hijos a desarrollar determinados problemas personales, como bajo rendimiento académico. El presente estudio examina el rendimiento académico de los adolescentes españoles con padres divorciados y su relación con el autoconcepto y la ansiedad...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol use is often reported among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and is associated with increased sexual risk and poor medication adherence. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of behavioral interventions addressing alcohol use among PLWHA. Twenty-one studies (N = 8461 PLWHA) that evaluated an individual-level intervention addressing a...
Article
Considerable variability exists in the cardiometabolic disease biomarker response to exercise. We propose a major contributor to this heterogeneity is underpowered studies due to small sample sizes. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a systematic review to identify meta-analyses/reviews of randomized control trials (RCTs) and RCTs that examined t...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to examine the (a) prevalence of and (b) association between alcohol, risky sex, and HIV among Russians at risk for primary or secondary HIV transmission. Method Electronic databases were searched to locate studies that sampled Russians, assessed alcohol use, and included either a behavioral measure of risk or a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Aerobic exercise (AE) is recommended as first‐line antihypertensive lifestyle therapy based on strong evidence showing that it lowers blood pressure (BP) 5 to 7 mm Hg among adults with hypertension. Because of weaker evidence showing that dynamic resistance training (RT) reduces BP 2 to 3 mm Hg among adults with hypertension, it is recom...
Data
Data S1. Full search strategy for each of the five electronic databases queried: PubMed, Scopus (including EMBASE), Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). Data S2. Augmented version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Table S1. Antihypertensive Effects of Dynamic Resistance Training Compa...
Article
Background Evidence-based, single-session STI/HIV interventions to reduce sexual risk taking are potentially effective options for implementation in resource-limited settings and may solve problems associated with poor participant retention. PurposeThe purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions in r...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Meta-analyze the literature to determine the efficacy of CET as antihypertensive therapy. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for trials that included: adults (>19yr); controlled CET interventions; and BP measured pre- and post-intervention. Study quality was assessed with a modified Downs and Black Checklist. Analyses incorpora...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension is the most common, costly, and preventable cardiovascular disease risk factor. Numerous professional organizations and committees recommend exercise as initial lifestyle therapy to prevent, treat, and control hypertension. Yet, these recommendations differ in the components of the Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type (FITT) principle...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpos...
Article
To meta-analyze candidate gene association studies on the change in blood pressure beyond the immediate post-exercise phase after versus before aerobic exercise. Meta-analysis. A systematic search was conducted. Studies retrieved included acute (short-term or postexercise hypotension) or chronic (long-term or training) aerobic exercise intervention...
Article
The Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on the management of adult hypertension was recently released. Rather than recommending specific lifestyle modifications as in the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline, the Eighth Joint National Committee endorsed the recommendations of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Unprotected sex accounts for the largest proportion of new HIV infections even though correct and consistent condom use can prevent HIV. Behavioral interventions typically focus on negative (i.e., disease-prevention) rather than positive (i.e., sexual health, pleasure) aspects of condom use. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of b...
Conference Paper
Alcohol consumption in Russia is among the highest per capita in the world and HIV in Russia has increased dramatically over the past three decades, accounting for nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the prevalence of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Systematic reviews now routinely assess methodological quality to gauge the validity of the included studies and of the synthesis as a whole. Although trends from higher quality studies should be clearer, it is uncertain how often meta-analyses incorporate methodological quality in models of study results either as predictors, or, more...
Article
Full-text available
: Despite increasing recent emphasis on the social and structural determinants of HIV-related behavior, empirical research and interventions lag behind, partly because of the complexity of social-structural approaches. This article provides a comprehensive and practical review of the diverse literature on multi-level approaches to HIV-related behav...
Article
Objective: Numerous meta-analyses have examined the success of trials of interventions to reduce the behavioral risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Yet, to date, meta-reviews have not systematically examined which type of intervention content is more likely to lead to successful HIV outcomes. The current study addresses this gap. Methods: Pub...
Article
: Many behavior change interventions for the prevention and treatment of HIV have been evaluated, but suboptimal reporting of evaluations hinders the accumulation of evidence and the replication of interventions. In this article, we address 4 practices contributing to this problem. First, detailed descriptions of the interventions and their impleme...
Article
Objectives: This meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize evaluations of mass media-delivered HIV prevention interventions, assess the effectiveness of interventions in improving condom use and HIV-related knowledge, and identify moderators of effectiveness. Study selection: We systematically searched electronic databases, relevant Web sites, r...
Article
Full-text available
The present longitudinal study examined the complex role of race-including racial attitudes and visual representations of race-in White Americans' responses to Obama during the 2008 U.S. presidential election. Consistent with prior research, participants who perceived Obama as darker skinned were less likely to vote for him and generally evaluated...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this meta-review was to identify characteristics of successful HIV prevention interventions for adolescents based on quantitative (i.e., meta-analyses) and qualitative reviews published to date, and to inform intervention utilization and future development. To that end, we were guided by principles of triangulation. Searches of seven...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy depends on patient adherence to a daily medication regimen, yet many patients fail to adhere at high enough rates to maintain health and reduce the risk of transmitting HIV. Given the explosive global growth of cellular-mobile phone use, text-messaging interventions to promote adherence are especially appropri...
Article
Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted to summarize the growing numbers of trials addressing the effects of exercise on blood pressure (BP), yet it is unclear how well they have satisfied contemporary methodological standards. We applied an augmented version of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTARExBP) scale to 33 meta-analyses...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides guidelines for meta-analyses conducted within social-personality psychology. A meta-analysis is literally an analysis of analyses, but conventionally the term is used to apply more broadly to reviews that systematically retrieve relevant studies and integrate their results statistically. The examples used to illustrate methods...
Chapter
Introduction and DefinitionsThis entry reviews research and knowledge relating to the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention programs for school-aged children (see definitions in Cornman, Sileo, and Johnson, (2013) in this encyclopedia). This entry reviews the scope of the problem and outlines the current recommendations for effectiv...
Chapter
IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infectious diseases today, with over 25 STIs having been identified now. Individuals become infected with STIs through contact with infected body fluids during sex, sharing of injection drug equipment, pregnancy and delivery, or...
Article
This publication provides a contemporary treatment of the subject of meta-analysis in relation to social-personality psychology. Meta-analysis literally refers to the statistical pooling of the results of independent studies on a given subject, although in practice it refers as well to other steps of research synthesis, including defining the quest...
Chapter
The literature about child and adolescent sexuality has increased exponentially in recent years. Therefore, scholars have written many meta-analyses and systematic reviews to understand and provide evidence-based knowledge of the different topics related to child and adolescent sexuality. The methodology behind systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based, single-session HIV/AIDS interventions to decrease and eliminate high-risk sexual behavior are promising solutions for prevention programs that lack the financial backing to implement multi-session interventions. Single-session interventions are an ideal resolution to reaching resource-stricken populations, as they provid...
Article
Full-text available
Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that...
Article
The purpose of this meta-analytic study is to summarize the current science concerning the (a) prevalence of alcohol use, (b) prevalence of sexual risk behaviors, and (c) association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Studies were included if they sampled PLWHA, evaluated both alcohol use and se...
Article
Full-text available
The current study was conducted to synthesise evaluations of couple-based HIV prevention interventions, assess the efficacy of these interventions in reducing sexual risk, and identify moderators of intervention efficacy. A comprehensive literature search identified 29 interventions (22 reports; N=5168 couples) that met the inclusion criteria, incl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PURPOSE: We meta-analyzed the literature and found sample features and the angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T (rs699) polymorphism explained 76.9-84.5% and 5.8% of the variability in the BP response to aerobic exercise (AE) training, respectively. This meta-analysis attempted to identify factors explaining variability in the BP response to acute AE. METHO...