B.L. William Wong

B.L. William Wong
Middlesex University, UK · Interaction Design Centre

PhD

About

218
Publications
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1,890
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Publications

Publications (218)
Article
The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) systems in environments that involve high risk and high consequence decision-making is severely hampered by critical design issues. These issues include system transparency and brittleness, where transparency relates to (i) the explainability of results and (ii) the ability of a user to inspect and verif...
Article
In this paper, we demonstrate how insight seeking strategies and rules can be captured from analyst interactions with a question-answer system, as they perform an investigation. We present our analysis of an interactive investigation exercise undertaken by 14 experienced intelligence analysts. We propose that our approach to model the abstract high...
Chapter
Criminal investigations involve repetitive information retrieval requests in high risk, high consequence, and time pressing situations. Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems can provide significant benefits to analysts, by sharing the burden of reasoning and speeding up information processing. However, for intelligent systems to be used in critical...
Article
Criminal investigations are guided by repetitive and time-consuming information retrieval tasks, often with high risk and high consequence. If Artificial intelligence (AI) systems can automate lines of inquiry, it could reduce the burden on analysts and allow them to focus their efforts on analysis. However, there is a critical need for algorithmic...
Article
Full-text available
TimeSets is a temporal data visualization technique designed to reveal insights into event sets, such as all the events linked to one person or organization. In this article, we describe two TimeSets-based visual analytics tools for intelligence analysis. In the first case, TimeSets is integrated with other visual analytics tools to support open-so...
Article
We present and report on Design Exposition Discussion Documents (DExDs), a new means of fostering collaboration between visualization designers and domain experts in applied visualization research. DExDs are a collection of semi-interactive web-based documents used to promote design discourse: to communicate new visualization designs, and their und...
Article
For conversational agents to provide benefit to intelligence analysis they need to be able to recognise and respond to the analysts intentions. Furthermore, they must provide transparency to their algorithms and be able to adapt to new situations and lines of inquiry. We present a preliminary analysis as a first step towards developing conversation...
Chapter
Full-text available
Police and law enforcement agencies perform social media analysis to gain a better understanding of criminal social networks structures and to identify potential criminal activities. The use of data mining techniques in social media analysis, however, faces issues and challenges such as linkage-based structural analysis, association extraction, com...
Article
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This paper presents the preliminary results of our initial, descriptive, practical, hybrid argumentation model, designed for the use by criminal intelligence analysts (from now on referred to as analysts) working with sophisticated visual analytical software in uncertain sense-making environments. Analysts are required to create exhibits (as eviden...
Article
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Visualising how social networks evolve is important in intelligence analysis in order to detect and monitor issues, such as emerging crime patterns or rapidly growing groups of offenders. It remains an open research question how this type of information should be presented for visual exploration. To get a sense of how users work with different type...
Article
In this paper we introduce the problem of algorithmic opacity and the challenges it presents to ethical decision-making in criminal intelligence analysis. Machine learning algorithms have played important roles in the decision-making process over the past decades. Intelligence analysts are increasingly being presented with smart black box automatio...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents our initial, descriptive, practical, hybrid argumentation model, designed for the use by Criminal Intelligence Analysts (from now on referred to as analysts) working with sophisticated visual analytical software in uncertain sense-making environments. Analysts are required to create exhibits (as evidence) for a court of law or a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Studying how analysts use interaction in visualization systems is an important part of evaluating how well these interactions support analysis needs, like generating insights or performing tasks. Analytic Provenance commonly known as interaction histories contains information about the sequence of choices that analysts make when exploring data or p...
Chapter
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In developing a semi-automated decision support system using cutting-edge visual technologies to aid police intelligence analysts (the VALCRI project) it was recognised that addressing ethical, privacy and legal issues would need to be considered from the start. From the beginning, experts in these fields were embedded in the project and externally...
Chapter
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Intelligence analysts frequently find themselves in situations of high uncertainty and ambiguity. The characteristics of those situations force the analyst to rely on creative generation of plausible explanations – ‘storytelling’. We argue that current interaction design approaches obstruct the storytelling process and impede analysts to perform we...
Conference Paper
Large display and touch screens are becoming ubiquitous within the work place including multiple display screens. There is limited evidence on what configurations and arrangements of the display screens are most effective for data analysis. We conducted two user studies to understand the effectiveness of the display angle, physical size, resolution...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of criminal activity based on offenders’ social networks is an established procedure in intelligence analysis. The complexity of the data poses an obstacle for analysts to gauge network developments, e.g. detect emerging problems. Visualization is a powerful tool to achieve this, but it is essential to know how the analysts’ sense-making s...
Article
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In this paper, we report on our application of Cognitive Work Analysis to create an Abstraction Hierarchy model that helps librarians identify key functional relationships for managing the overall performance of a library. By themselves, functional relationships are not as useful in providing insights into the reasons for good or poor performance....
Conference Paper
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A common characteristic of applied visualization is collaboration between visualization researcher and domain expert – where the visualization researcher attempts to assimilate sufficient detail around data, task and requirements to design a visualization tool that is manifestly useful. We report on a method for enabling such a collaboration that c...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we try to demystify the process of gaining insight. It is important to design decision supporting systems that facilitate insightful decision-making but until we don't know how this process is formulated, it is hard to support it by a system. We propose that it is intuition and leap of faith that triggers the process of gaining insigh...
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Visual analytics systems combine machine learning or other analytic techniques with interactive data visualization to promote sensemaking and analytical reasoning. It is through such techniques that people can make sense of large, complex data. While progress has been made, the tactful combination of machine learning and data visualization is still...
Article
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The reconstruction of analysts’ reasoning processes (reasoning provenance) during complex sensemaking tasks can support reflection and decision making. One potential approach to such reconstruction is to automatically infer reasoning from low-level user interaction logs. We explore a novel method for doing this using machine learning. Two user stud...
Article
The reconstruction of analysts’ reasoning processes (reasoning provenance) during complex sensemaking tasks can support reflection and decision making. One potential approach to such reconstruction is to automatically infer reasoning from low-level user interaction logs. We explore a novel method for doing this using machine learning. Two user stud...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract—Criminal Intelligence Analysis often requires a search different from the semantic and keyword based searching to reveal the associations among semantically and operationally connected objects within a crime knowledge base. In this paper we introduce associative search as a search along the networks of association between objects like peop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
— Semantic Gap, High retrieval efficiency, and speed are important factors for content-based image retrieval system (CBIR). Recent research towards semantic gap reduction to improve the retrieval accuracy of CBIR is shifting towards machine learning methods, relevance feedback, object ontology etc. In this research study, we have put forward the id...
Article
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In this paper we present three cognitive acts analysts use while solving criminal cases: intuition, leap of faith and insight. We used the Emergent Themes Analysis to find out how these cognitive acts help analysts’ inference making and what are their features. We analyzed the interviews with six analysts that were done with the Critical Decision M...
Article
In this paper we present our observations of how seven criminal intelligence analysts use inference making and storytelling to create explanations. Adapting the Critical Decision Method, we observe they engage in a process of anchoring to gain traction and initiate further inquires; they engage in a laddering process, where they develop explanation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present findings from our research into how criminal intelligence analysts make decisions in the absence of clear facts. We used the Emergent Themes Analysis method to analyze interview transcripts of seven analysts to discover how intuition, leap of faith and insight help analysts use suppositions to deal with missing or ambiguous...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present three cognitive acts analysts use while solving criminal cases: intuition, leap of faith and insight. We used the Emergent Themes Analysis to find out how these cognitive acts help analysts’ inference making and what are their features. We analyzed the interviews with six analysts that were done with the Critical Decision M...
Article
Many datasets have multiple perspectives – for example space, time and description – and often analysts are required to study these multiple perspectives concurrently. This concurrent analysis becomes difficult when data are grouped and split into small multiples for comparison. A design challenge is thus to provide representations that enable mult...
Article
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Comparative Case Analysis (CCA) is an important tool for criminal investigation and crime theory extraction. It analyzes the commonalities and differences between a collection of crime reports in order to understand crime patterns and identify abnormal cases. A big challenge of CCA is the data processing and exploration. Traditional manual approach...
Article
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Although the concept of dynamic risk assessment has in recent times become more topical in the training manuals of most high-risk domains, only a few empirical studies have reported how experts actually carry out this crucial task. The knowledge gap between research and practice in this area, therefore, calls for more empirical investigation within...
Article
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Business Process Management (BPM) has significantly advanced and gained high popularity in industry. However, it remains an open issue why tools frequently are used for business process modeling that are not mainly implemented for this purpose. Often, macros for Microsoft Visio or Microsoft Excel form the first choice to capture the flow of busines...
Chapter
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In comparison with intelligence analysis, OSINT requires different methods of identifying, extracting and analyzing the data. Analysts must have the tools that enable them to flexibly, tentatively and creatively generate anchors to start a line of inquiry, develop and test their ideas, and to fluidly transition between methods and thinking and reas...
Conference Paper
Developing applications for multi-surface user interfaces is challenging. Sharing and transferring information between these surfaces requires the need for multi-modal interaction methods. In this paper we describe the Police Analyst work- station for supporting multi-surface interaction for criminal intelligence analysis with sense making using mu...
Article
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In this article, we introduce a novel timeline visualization technique, TimeSets, that helps make sense of complex temporal datasets by showing the set relationships among individual events. TimeSets visually groups events that share a topic, such as a place or a person, while preserving their temporal order. It dynamically adjusts the level of det...
Article
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Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming u...
Article
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In this paper we present early observations of how seven criminal intelligence analysts think and how the make inferences. We used the Critical Decision Method to identify the causal mechanisms of how they think and reason, i.e. how they organize, structure and assemble their information, understandings and inferences. We envisaged that this would...
Article
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Intelligence analysis activities are increasingly seen as a sense-making activity. Information systems supporting these activities have, therefore, to be designed in a way to enable analysts to engage in sensemaking in an efficient manner. In the context of the VALCRI project, we developed guidelines for an appropriate design of intelligence analys...
Article
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This study investigates tactile reasoning in relation to sense-making in the context of designing a new non-traditional information environment. We define tactile reasoning as an interaction technique that supports analytical reasoning by the direct manipulation of information objects in the graphical user interface. When people directly manipulate...
Article
We developed the Patterns of Life (PoL) suite for the IEEE VAST 2014 Mini-Challenge 2. The suite comprises PoL Atlas for visualising movement and transactions spatiotemporally, PoL Classifier for classifying locations and identifying trips, and PoL Location Timeline, for visualising where time is spent.
Article
In this paper we describe work-in-progress to develop a description of the ways by which intelligence analysts engage in the thinking and reasoning processes when engaged in the intelligence analysis task. Such a model will be used to inform the design the interactive visual interfaces for a next generation intelligence analysis system. We introduc...
Article
This article reports an exploratory user study in which a group of civil servants with experience of, or involvement in, intelligence analysis used the tool INVISQUE to address a problem using the 2011 VAST data set. INVISQUE uses a visual metaphor that combines searching, clustering, and sorting of document surrogates with free-form manipulation o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the application of three different port-folio formation rules using standard clustering techniques-K-means, K-mediods, and hierarchical-to a large financial data set (16 years of daily CRSP stock data) to determine how the choice of clustering technique may affect analysts' perceptions of the riskiness of different portfolios in...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of visual analytics — the science of analytical reasoning enhanced by interactive visualizations tightly coupled with data analytics software — and discusses its potential benefits in monitoring systemic financial stability. Macroprudential supervisors face a daunting challenge with at least three facets of the finan...
Article
Full-text available
We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data s...