Björn Rost

Björn Rost
Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research | AWI · Department of Marine Biogeosciences

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158
Publications
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Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Atmospheric and oceanic CO2 concentrations are rising at an unprecedented rate. Laboratory studies indicate a positive effect of rising CO2 on phytoplankton growth until an optimum is reached, after which the negative impact of accompanying acidification dominates. Here, we implemented carbonate system sensitivities of phytoplankton growth into our...
Article
One of the great challenges in biogeochemical research over the past half a century has been to quantify and understand the mechanisms underlying stable carbon isotope fractionation (εp) in phytoplankton in response to changing CO2 concentrations. This interest is partly grounded in the use of fossil photosynthetic organism remains as a proxy for p...
Article
Full-text available
Sea ice retreat, changing stratification, and ocean acidification are fundamentally changing the light availability and physico-chemical conditions for primary producers in the Arctic Ocean. However, detailed studies on ecophysiological strategies and performance of key species in the pelagic and ice-associated habitat remain scarce. Therefore, we in...
Chapter
The acquisition of dissolved inorganic carbon by aquatic primary producers became increasingly challenging with higher structural complexity of algae, and with simultaneously declining atmospheric CO 2 partial pressure. This chapter starts with a brief outline of Rubisco's properties and the reasons why CO 2 ‐concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are req...
Preprint
One of the great challenges in biogeochemical research over the past half a century has been to quantify and understand the mechanisms underlying stable carbon isotope fractionation (εp) in phytoplankton in response to changing pCO2. Partly, this interest is grounded in the use of fossil photosynthetic organism remains as a proxy for past atmospher...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean acidification (OA) appears to have diverse impacts on calcareous coccolithophores, but the cellular processes underlying these responses are not well understood. Here we use stable boron and carbon isotopes, B/Ca ratios, as well as inorganic and organic carbon production rates to investigate the carbon utilization and the internal pH regulati...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological stability under environmental change is determined by both interspecific and intraspecific processes. Particularly for planktonic microorganisms it is challenging to follow intraspecific dynamics over space and time. We propose a new method, Microsatellite PoolSeq Barcoding (MPB), for tracing allele frequency changes in protist populatio...
Article
Full-text available
Responses of marine primary production to a changing climate are determined by a concert of multiple environmental changes, e.g. in temperature, light, pCO2, nutrients, and grazing. To make robust projections of future global marine primary production, it is crucial to understand multiple driver effects on phytoplankton. This meta-analysis quantifi...
Article
Full-text available
Thalassiosira hyalina and Nitzschia frigida are important members of Arctic pelagic and sympagic (sea‐ice associated) diatom communities. We investigated the effects of light stress (shift from 20 to 380 µmol photons m‐2 s‐1, resembling upwelling or ice break‐up) under contemporary and future pCO2 (400 vs. 1000 µatm). The responses in growth, eleme...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to the rest of the globe, the Arctic Ocean is affected disproportionately by climate change. Despite these fast environmental changes, we currently know little about the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine key species in this area. Moreover, the existing studies typically test the effects of OA under constant, hence artificial, l...
Article
Full-text available
Although phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, its implications for species responses to climate change are not well understood. For example, toxic cyanobacteria can form dense surface blooms threatening water quality in many eutrophic lakes, yet a theoretical framework to predict how phenotypic plasticity affects bloom development at e...
Article
Full-text available
Authentic biomarker standards were obtained from algal cultures in an attempt to accurately determine blank C added during sample processing for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis. Emiliania huxleyi and Thalassiosira pseudonana were grown under manipulated Δ14C dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels and chlorophyll a and either alkenones (E. h...
Article
Enrichment of the oceans with CO2 may be beneficial for some marine phytoplankton, including harmful algae. Numerous laboratory experiments provided valuable insights into the effects of elevated pCO2 on the growth and physiology of harmful algal species, including the production of phycotoxins. Experiments close to natural conditions are the next...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to the rest of the globe, the Arctic Ocean is affected disproportionately by climate change. Despite these fast environmental changes, we currently know little about the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine key species in this area. Moreover, the existing studies typically test the effects of OA under constant, hence artificial li...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to the hierarchical organization of biology, from genomes over transcriptomes and proteomes down to metabolomes, there is continuous debate about the extent to which data and interpretations derived from one level, e.g. the transcriptome, are in agreement with other levels, e.g. the metabolome. Here, we tested the effect of ocean acidificatio...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic phytoplankton and their response to future conditions shape one of the most rapidly changing ecosystems on the planet. We tested how much the phenotypic responses of strains from an Arctic diatom population diverge and whether the physiology and intraspecific composition of multi‐strain populations differ from expectations based on single st...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton photosynthesis strongly relies on the operation of carbon‐concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to accumulate CO2 around their carboxylating enzyme ribulose‐1,5‐bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Earlier evolved phytoplankton groups were shown to exhibit higher CCM activities to compensate for their RuBisCO with low CO2 specifici...
Article
Full-text available
To understand the role of micrometer-scale oxygen (O2 ) gradients in facilitating dinitrogen (N2 ) fixation, we characterized O2 dynamics in the microenvironment around free-floating trichomes and colonies of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101. Diurnal and spatial variability in O2 concentrations in the bulk medium, within colonies, along trichomes an...
Article
Full-text available
In the Arctic Ocean, climate change effects such as warming and ocean acidification (OA) are manifesting faster than in other regions. Yet, we are lacking a mechanistic understanding of the interactive effects of these drivers on Arctic primary producers. In the current study, one of the most abundant species of the Arctic Ocean, the prasinophyte M...
Article
Full-text available
In the Arctic Ocean, climate change effects such as warming and ocean acidification (OA) are manifesting faster than in other regions. Yet, we are lacking a mechanistic understanding of the interactive effects of these drivers on Arctic primary producers. In the current study, one of the most abundant species of the Arctic Ocean, the prasinophyte M...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic and subarctic shelf seas, which sustain large fisheries and contribute to global biogeochemical cycling, are particularly sensitive to ongoing ocean acidification (that is, decreasing seawater pH due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions). Yet, little information is available on the effects of ocean acidification on natural phytoplankton assemb...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic Ocean is a region particularly prone to ongoing ocean acidification (OA) and climate-driven changes. The influence of these changes on Arctic phytoplankton assemblages, however, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how OA and enhanced irradiances (e.g., resulting from sea–ice retreat) will alter the species composition, prim...
Article
Full-text available
The authors regret an error in the published article, where incorrect data was used to produce Figure 2, showing the temporal development of pH over the duration of the experiment. The corrected Fig. 2 shows that the error did not affect the interpretation of nor the conclusions drawn from the present dataset. The original article has been correcte...
Chapter
Full-text available
Haptophyta are predominantly planktonic and phototrophic organisms that have their main distribution in marine environments worldwide. They are a major component of the microbial ecosystem, some form massive blooms and some are toxic. Haptophytes are significant players in the global carbonate cycle through photosynthesis and calcification. They ar...
Article
Full-text available
The potential for adaptation of phytoplankton to future climate is often extrapolated based on single strain responses of a representative species, ignoring variability within and between species. The aim of this study was to approximate the range of strain-specific reaction patterns within an Arctic diatom population, which selection can act upon....
Article
Full-text available
In order to understand how ocean acidification (OA) and enhanced irradiance levels might alter phytoplankton eco-physiology, productivity and species composition, we conducted an incubation experiment with a natural plankton assemblage from sub-surface Subarctic waters (Davis Strait, 63 • N). The phytoplankton assemblage was exposed to 380 and 1,00...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m³ were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in fiv...
Data
Raw data of photoacclimation parameters from photosynthesis-irradiance response curves. (XLSX)
Data
PAR (?mol m-2 s-1) inside the mesocosms during the time of the experiment. (PNG)
Chapter
Full-text available
Haptophyta are predominantly planktonic and phototrophic organisms that have their main distribution in marine environments worldwide. They are a major component of the microbial ecosystem, some form massive blooms and some are toxic. Haptophytes are significant players in the global carbonate cycle through photosynthesis and calcification. They ar...
Article
Full-text available
In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Proto...
Article
Full-text available
Recent ocean acidification (OA) studies revealed that seawater [H+] rather than [CO2] or [ ] regulate short-term responses in carbon fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi. Here, we investigated whether acclimation to altered carbonate chemistry modulates this regulation pattern and how the carbon supply for calcification is affected by carbonate chemistry. W...
Article
Full-text available
Global change will affect multiple physico-chemical parameters of the oceans, amongst them also the abundances of macronutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen that are critical for phytoplankton growth. Here, we assessed the transcriptomic responses to phosphorus (P) depletion in the haploid and diploid life-cycle stage of the coccolithophore Emilia...
Article
Full-text available
Along with increasing oceanic CO2 concentrations, enhanced stratification constrains phytoplankton to shallower upper mixed layers with altered light regimes and nutrient concentrations. Here, we investigate the effects of elevated pCO2 in combination with light or nitrogen-limitation on 13C fractionation (εp) in four dinoflagellate species. We cul...
Data
Overview of the carbonate chemistry in all treatments. Average dissolved CO2 concentrations (μmol L-1), total alkalinity (TA: μmol L-1), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; μmol L-1) and pH (NBS scale). Values represent the mean (±SD) of triplicate incubations (n = 3), except for LN experiments which represent the mean of duplicate incubations (n = 2...
Article
Full-text available
A combined increase in seawater [CO2] and [H⁺] was recently shown to induce a shift from photosynthetic HCO3⁻ to CO2 uptake in Emiliania huxleyi. This shift occurred within minutes, whereas acclimation to ocean acidification (OA) did not affect the carbon source. To identify the driver of this shift, we exposed low‐ and high‐light acclimated E. hux...
Article
Global climate change involves an increase in oceanic CO2 concentrations as well as thermal stratification of the water column, thereby reducing nutrient supply from deep to surface waters. Changes in inorganic carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) availability have been shown to affect marine primary production, yet little is known about their interactive ef...
Chapter
Full-text available
Haptophyta are predominantly planktonic and phototrophic organisms that have their main distribution in marine environments worldwide. They are a major component of the microbial ecosystem, some form massive blooms and some are toxic. Haptophytes are significant players in the global carbonate cycle through photosynthesis and calcification. They ar...
Data
- A combined increase in seawater [CO2] and [H+] was recently shown to induce a shift from photosynthetic HCO3- to CO2 uptake in Emiliania huxleyi. This shift occurred within minutes, whereas acclimation to ocean acidification (OA) did not affect the carbon source.- To identify the driver of this shift, we exposed low- and high-light acclimated E....
Data
Along with increasing oceanic CO2 concentrations, enhanced stratification constrains phytoplankton to shallower upper mixed layers with altered light regimes and nutrient concentrations. Here, we investigate the effects of elevated pCO2 in combination with light or nitrogen-limitation on 13C fractionation (epsilon p) in four dinoflagellate species....
Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current has a high potential for primary production and carbon sequestration through the biological pump. In the current study, two large-scale blooms observed in 2012 during a cruise with RV Polarstern were investigated with respect to phytoplankton standing stocks, primary productivity and nutrient budgets. While net pri...
Data
Fig. S1 Night‐time development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) with increasing irradiance under the different treatment conditions. Table S1 Results from two‐way ANOVAs for all measured acclimation parameters Table S2 Results from two‐way ANOVAs for Chl fluorescence‐based parameters, net primary production and the electron requirement for car...
Article
Full-text available
Marine phytoplankton can evolve rapidly when confronted with aspects of climate change because of their large population sizes and fast generation times. Despite this, the importance of environment fluctuations, a key feature of climate change, has received little attention-selection experiments with marine phytoplankton are usually carried out in...
Article
Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-formi...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that different light intensities strongly modulate the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine phytoplankton. The aim of the present study was to investigate interactive effects of OA and dynamic light, mimicking natural mixing regimes. The Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros debilis was grown under two pCO2 (390 and 100...
Article
Full-text available
To predict effects of climate change on phytoplankton, it is crucial to understand how their mechanisms for carbon acquisition respond to environmental conditions. Aiming to shed light on the responses of extra- and intracellular inorganic C (Ci) fluxes, the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 was grown with different nitrogen sources (N...
Data
There is increasing evidence that different light intensities strongly modulate the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine phytoplankton. The aim of the present study was to investigate interactive effects of OA and dynamic light, mimicking natural mixing regimes.The Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros debilis was grown under two pCO2 (390 and 1000...
Article
Full-text available
Global change will affect patterns of nutrient upwelling in marine environments, potentially becoming even stricter regulators of phytoplankton primary productivity. To better understand phytoplankton nutrient utilization on the subcellular basis, we assessed the transcriptomic responses of the life-cycle stages of the biogeochemically important mi...