Björn Kuhla

Björn Kuhla
Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | FBN

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103
Publications
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Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Full-text available
• We aimed to establish common guidelines for experimental studies with cattle. • A book on “Methods in cattle physiology and behaviour research” was published. • The book is designed as an open-access living handbook and is open to everyone. • Citing the book saves space and avoids repetitions in scientific journals. • Referencing guidelines reduc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. The gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in animal health and in the development of diseases. External environmental effects, e.g. ambient temperature, antibiotics, and nutrients modify living conditions for gut microbes. However, it is not known whether high ambient temperatures causing heat stress possess the capability to disturb th...
Preprint
Milk urea concentration is an indicator for dietary nitrogen (N)-supply and urinary N-excretion. Dairy cows with high (HMU) compared to low milk urea (LMU) concentration have greater plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations, but if the liver metabolism accounts for these differences is unknown. Eighteen HMU and 18 LMU cows were fed a di...
Article
Full-text available
Direct measurements of methane (CH4) from individual animals are difficult and expensive. Predictions based on proxies for CH4 are a viable alternative. Most prediction models are based on multiple linear regressions (MLR) and predictor variables that are not routinely available in commercial farms, such as dry matter intake (DMI) and diet composit...
Article
Among the endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) plays a key role in regulating energy homeostasis and energy intake. Recent studies suggest the existence of a peripheral mechanism by which AEA increases feed intake in the short term and modulates whole-body energy metabolism in dairy cows. Here, we aimed to test the hypothes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmentally induced hyperthermia jeopardizes farm animal health, among others by compromising the immune system. Leucocytes are important immune cells, which respond to hyperthermia by increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. HSP70 has been shown to inhibit the translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor !B p65 (NF !B p...
Conference Paper
The composition of breast milk is influenced by maternal nutrition and plays a pivotal role in offspring development. Among others, milk oligosaccharides (OS) promote the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, modulate host-epithelial immune response, and prevent pathogen adhesion. Prebiotics are indigestible dietary fiber to the host, serve as...
Article
Full-text available
Endocannabinoids, particularly anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are instrumental in regulating energy homeostasis and stress response. However, little is known about the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in ruminants, although EC could improve dairy health and productivity, at least by increasing feed intake. In this study, we report...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a pivotal role in the complex control and regulation of food intake. Pharmacological ECS activation could improve health in energy-deficient stages by increasing food intake, at least in intermittent feeders. However, knowledge of the mechanism regulating appetite in species with continued nutrient delivery is...
Article
Full-text available
Excreted nitrogen (N) of dairy cows contribute to environmental eutrophication. The main N-excretory metabolite of dairy cows is urea, which is synthesized as a result of N-metabolization in the liver and is excreted via milk and urine. Genetic variation in milk urea (MU) has been postulated but the complex physiology behind the trait as well as th...
Article
Full-text available
Prebiotic supplements and high-protein (HP) diets reduce body weight and modulate intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to elucidate the combined effect of an inulin/oligofructose (FOS) and HP diet on body weight gain, energy metabolism and faecal microbiota. Forty male C57BL/6NCrl mice were fed a control (C) diet for 2 weeks and allocated to a C or H...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change affects the duration and intensity of heat waves during summer months and jeopardizes animal health and welfare. High ambient temperatures cause heat stress in dairy cows resulting in a reduction of milk yield, feed intake, and alterations in gut barrier function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mucosal amino aci...
Article
Full-text available
Intensified milk replacer (MR) feeding in calves has nutritional long-term effects and is suggested to increase milk production later in life. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate whether MR feeding intensity has long-term effects on energy metabolism and energy use efficiency of...
Article
Full-text available
The environmental pollution of phosphorus (P) from livestock farming is becoming increasingly problematic especially with regard to dwindling global P resources. Thus, a more sustainable handling of P resources, including improvements in P use efficiency and a reduction of P loss from farm animals is necessary. Dairy cows may differ in milk P yield...
Article
Ammonia emissions have wide-ranging negative consequences for human, animal and environmental health. Regulations including EU Directive 2016/2284 require European Union member states to reduce emissions. Dairy farming has one of the highest levels of ammonia emissions. Most dairy barns in Germany are naturally ventilated to meet higher animal welf...
Article
This paper reviews existing on-farm GHG accounting models for dairy cattle systems and their ability to capture the effect of dietary strategies in GHG abatement. The focus is on methane (CH4) emissions from enteric and manure (animal excreta) sources and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal excreta. We identified three generic modelling appro...
Chapter
Full-text available
Knowledge about dry matter intake (DMI) is a very important element in cattle management. Modern, high producing dairy cows require great amount of feed in order to meet the nutrient and energy requirements for maintenance and milk production, particularly during early lactation. In beef animals, current breeding strategies aim to select animals wi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace; for the history of calorimetry, see McLean and Tobin [1]. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calo...
Chapter
Full-text available
The nutritional value of a feed for cattle depends on its nutrient and energy contents, the extent of rumen fermentation and degradation, and the post-ruminal digestibility. Different methods at the in vivo, in vitro or in situ level are available to measure the digestibility of nutrients. The total collection method in vivo, also known as a conven...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High ambient temperatures cause heat stress in dairy cows resulting in a reduction of milk yield, feed intake, and alterations in whole-body protein metabolism. Whether the intestine is involved in the adaptation of whole-body amino acid metabolism during heat stress is not known. Glutamine and glucose serve as main energy sources for enterocytes a...
Article
BACKGROUND A robust proxy for estimating methane (CH4) emissions of individual dairy cows would be valuable especially for selective breeding. This study aimed to improve the robustness and accuracy of prediction models that estimate daily CH4 emissions from milk Fourier‐transform mid‐infrared (FT‐MIR) spectra by 1) increasing the reference dataset...
Article
Full-text available
Urine and fecal excretions from cattle contributing to global nitrogen (N) emissions. The milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in dairy cows is positively correlated with urinary urea N (UUN) emissions, and both decline with the reduction in crude protein intake. However, MUN concentration may differ between individual cows despite feeding the sa...
Article
Full-text available
Archaeol is a cell membrane lipid of methanogenic archaea excreted in feces and is therefore a potential biomarker for individual methane emission (MEM). The aims of this study were to examine the potential of the fecal archaeol concentration (fArch) to be a proxy for MEM prediction in cows fed different diets and determine if the time of fecal col...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming and accompanying high ambient temperatures reduce feed intake of dairy cows and shift the blood flow from the core of the body to the periphery. As a result, hypoxia may occur in the digestive tract accompanied by disruption of the intestinal barrier, local endotoxemia and inflammation, and altered nutrient absorption. However, wheth...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Transformation of feed energy ingested by ruminants into milk is accompanied by energy losses via fecal and urine excretions, fermentation gases and heat. Heat production may differ among dairy cows despite comparable milk yield and body weight. Therefore, heat production can be considered an indicator of metabolic efficiency and direct...
Article
Full-text available
A growing need exists for the development of practical feeding strategies to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of milk replacer feeding intensity (MFI) in calves on CH4 emission, rumen development, and performance. Twenty-eight female newborn Holstein calves were rando...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Einfluss einer maternalen Supplementierung mit 10% Inulin/FOS zu einer Hochfett-oder Hochproteindiät in Mäusen auf den Trächtigkeitsverlauf und die Entwicklung der Nachkommen F Koch1; M Langhammer2; E Wytrwat2; A Tuchscherer2; HM Hammon1; M Mielenz1; B Kuhla1; CC Metges1 1Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Nutritional imbalances o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Impact of a maternal supplementation of 10% inulin/FOS to a high-protein or high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation in mice on body weight gain, glucose tolerance, mammary gland development and offspring body weight
Book
This book provides an inventory of guidelines for different recordings in an experimental unit. The chapters of this book will encompass methods that deal with measuring different metabolic, digestive, anatomic and behavioural traits in cattle. The experimental methods have been divided into two main categories: a) routine measurements, conducted i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cys is limiting for reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and can be synthesized from Met. We hypothesized that the dietary Met hydroxyl analogue dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (dl-HMTBA) affects Cys and GSH metabolism and oxidative stress defense differently than Met. Objective: The objective was to elucidate whether dl-HMTBA s...
Article
Full-text available
Partners in Expert Working Group WG2 of the COST Action METHAGENE have used several methods for measuring methane output by individual dairy cattle under various environmental conditions. Methods included respiration chambers, the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, breath sampling during milking or feeding, the GreenFeed system, and the l...
Article
Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance due to increasing energy demands and insufficient voluntary feed intake in the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. For supplying sufficient energy toward the conceptus and the mammary gland, insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues is reduced leading to adipose tissue mobilization. Adi...
Patent
The present invention relates to a method for predicting the methane (CH4) emission of a dairy cow comprising: a) determining the total amount of milk of a dairy cow per one day; b) determining the energy corrected milk value (ECM) of the milk of the dairy cow of the same day as in a); c) determining the percentage amount of saturated fatty acids (...
Conference Paper
The use of machine learning (ML) algorithms in predictive modelling of CH 4 emission from heterogeneous across-country datasets containing missing or imputed data-points is rarely reported. The objective was to use ML ensemble algorithms to predict CH 4 output and assess the effects of imputation on within and between-herd prediction accuracies. Da...
Article
The endocannabinoids N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) participate in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. Most mammals increase their feed intake after parturition to cope with the increased energy and nutrient requirements for milk synthesis, thereby increasing their metabolic rate. Here we investigate...
Article
Full-text available
High ambient temperature has multiple potential effects on the organism such as hyperthermia, endotoxemia, and/or systemic inflammation. However, it is often difficult to discriminate between cause and consequence of phenotypic effects, such as the indirect influence of heat stress via reduced food intake. Lactating dairy cows are a particularly se...
Article
The variation in feed efficiency among dairy cows is due to differences in fermentation and digestion characteristics, but recent studies have suggested that various aspects of postabsorptive metabolic processes including heat production or the metabolizable energy for maintenance are more crucial. Thus, metabolic efficiency largely determines feed...
Article
Full-text available
Background: DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (DL-HMTBA), an L-methionine (L-Met) hydroxyl analogue, has been suggested to be a dietary L-Met source. How dietary DL-HMTBA compared with L-Met affects whole-body L-Met kinetics in growing individuals is unknown. Objectives: We determined to what extent DL-HMTBA supplementation of an L-Met-defic...
Article
Full-text available
Milk fatty acids (MFA) are a proxy for the prediction of CH4 emission from cows, and prediction differs with diet. Our objectives were (1) to compare the effect of diets on the relation between MFA profile and measured CH4 production, (2) to predict CH4 production based on 6 data sets differing in the number and type of MFA, and (3) to test whether...
Article
Full-text available
The pressure-based noseband sensor system (RWS: RumiWatch System; ITIN + HOCH GmbH Feeding Technology, Liestal, Switzerland) has recently been validated for the measurement of rumination time in mature cows. We aimed in this study at developing a similar pressure-based system for monitoring rumination in young dairy calves. To this end, a vegetable...
Conference Paper
High temperatures jeopardize animal welfare of dairy cows. During periods of hot weather, leaky gut syndrome, characterized by impaired gut integrity, may occur. Diminished intestinal barrier facilitates penetration of toxic and bacterial compounds, leading to increased inflammation in jejunum and reflected by increased appearance of immune cells....
Article
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic respo...
Article
Full-text available
Ruminant enteric methane emission contributes to global warming. Although breeding low methane-emitting cows appears to be possible through genetic selection, doing so requires methane emission quantification by using elaborate instrumentation (respiration chambers, SF6 technique, GreenFeed) not feasible on a large scale. It has been suggested that...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, various applications of gaseous exchange measurements have been developed to quantify the production or consumption of particular gases by animals. Notably, booming research into methane emissions has led to an expansion of the number of facilities in which such measurements are made. Results of a ring test calibration of respir...
Article
Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH4) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-cha...
Chapter
The high-yielding dairy cow faces major adaptions during the transition period from late pregnancy to early lactation where physiological changes occur in support of the dramatically increase in milk yield. The coordinated physiological changes secure mobilization of nutrients and energy from the body tissue that, in part, covers the rapid increase...
Article
Full-text available
Where have we come with breeding for methane emissions – update from international collaborations Climate change is a growing international concern and it is well established that release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. So far, within animal production, there is little or no concerted effort on long-term breeding strategies to m...
Article
Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) play significant roles in various physiological processes, including energy metabolism, through interaction with their ligands, fatty acids. To determine whether the receptors FFAR1 and FFAR2 are involved in the regulation of liver metabolism during the peripartal period, we selected 13 German Holstein multiparous d...
Article
The liver plays a central role in adaptation for energy requirements around calving, and changes in the effects of insulin on hepatic energy metabolism contribute to metabolic adaptation in dairy cows. Hepatic insulin effects may depend on body fat mobilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on the hepatic ge...
Article
Archaeol (1,2-di-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol) is a cell membrane lipid component of methanogens that has the potential to be used as a biomarker for methane production in ruminants. However, its analysis via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is challenging because of its molecular size and structure. In this study, 2 different sample preparat...
Article
The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production a...
Article
Full-text available
Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Tw...
Article
Dairy cows undergo significant metabolic and endocrine changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, and impaired insulin action influences nutrient partitioning toward the fetus and the mammary gland. Because impaired insulin action during transition is thought to be related to elevated body condition and body fat mobilization, we hyp...
Article
Full-text available
We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothes...
Article
The evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies requires the quantitative assessment of individual methane production. Because methane measurement in respiration chambers is highly accurate, but also comprises various disadvantages such as limited capacity and high costs, the establishment of an indicator for estimating methane production of...
Article
Neurons that reenter the cell cycle die rather than divide, a phenomenon that is associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reexpression of cell-cycle related genes in differentiated neurons in AD might be rooted in aberrant mitogenic signaling. Because microglia and astroglia proliferate in the vicinity of amyloid plaques, it i...
Article
Enhancing longevity by reducing involuntary culling and consequently increasing productive life and lifetime production of dairy cows is not only a strategy to improve a farm's profit, but is also related to improved animal welfare. High rates of involuntary culling in dairy cows are currently attributed to fertility problems, mastitis and locomoti...