Björn Anders Gustafsson

Björn Anders Gustafsson
University of Gothenburg | GU · Department of Social Work

Ph D

About

197
Publications
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4,277
Citations
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July 2015 - present
University of Gothenburg
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (197)
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the employment structure in rural China were studied with a focus on off‐farm self‐employment. Data from the Chinese Household Income Project surveys were used, covering the same 14 provinces from 1988 to 2018. We found that the proportion of adults in rural China with self‐employment as their primary form of off‐farm employment increase...
Article
We estimate the size of the global middle class in China and 33 other countries and analyze China's expanding middle class in an international context. The “global middle class” is defined in terms of being neither poor nor rich in the developed world. China's global middle class has grown rapidly and has been catching up with the middle class in d...
Article
Full-text available
Many European high-income countries face a rapid increase in the number of immigrants from low- and middle-income countries reaching the normal pension age. Thus, it is increasingly relevant to ask: how are older migrants from such countries faring? Here we study poverty rates and determinants of poverty among natives and persons born in Bosnia, Ir...
Article
This study contributes to the literature on inequality of opportunity (IOp) in China by covering a longer and more recent span of time, employing better measures of given characteristics, and analyzing IOp for household income per capita with comparisons to individual income. Furthermore, it analyzes how IOp differs between the rural- and urban-bor...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of working for earnings beyond the normal pension age of 55 for females and 60 for males in urban China and Russia is investigated using micro-data for 2002, 2013, and 2018. Estimated logit models indicate that, in both countries, the probability of working after normal retirement age is positively related to living with a spouse only...
Book
Full-text available
This book analyses the behaviour of ethnic minority groups in China using the first comprehensive national dataset dedicated to capturing the socio-economic profile of ethnic minorities: the China Household Ethnicity Survey (CHES). Managing ethnic diversity in China has become an increasingly important subject, especially against the backdrop of t...
Chapter
This chapter describes the immigrant population and discusses how immigrants to the Swedish labour market are faring. It reports that as a category, immigrants are nowadays not employed to the same extent as native-born persons. We discuss several consequences of this situation. In addition, the chapter discusses factors explaining the weak employm...
Chapter
This chapter examines China’s middle class by using CHIP data for 2002, 2007, and 2013. “Middle class” is defined as having income high enough not to be regarded as poor but not so high as to be regarded as rich if living in a high-income country. Based on this definition, China’s middle class was extremely small in 2002; grew but was still less th...
Chapter
This chapter uses data from the urban household CHIP surveys for the years 1995, 2002, 2007, and 2013 to provide consistent estimates of the gender wage gap in urban China and it investigate those factors that have contributed to this gap. The gender wage gap widened substantially and progressively from 1995 to 2007, but from 2007 to 2013 the gende...
Chapter
This chapter investigates inequality and poverty among formal urban residents in China by using CHIP data from 1988 through 2013, with a focus on the period from 2007 to 2013. It begins with an overview of changes in the urban economy and relevant public policies. Analysis of the data reveals a slowdown but still fairly rapid growth of urban househ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the evolution of wage levels, wage inequality, and wage determinants among urban residents in China using China Household Income Project data from 1988, 1995, 2002, 2007, and 2013. Average wage grew impressively between each pair of years. Wage inequality had long been on the increase, but between 2007 and 2013 no clear changes occur...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents several arguments for applying a relative poverty line to urban China. For example between 2002 and 2013 urban residents in China changed their assessment of how much money that is necessary. Data from the China Household Income Project indicate that while, assessed against an absolute poverty line, poverty among Chinese urban r...
Article
Full-text available
Following publication of the original article (Gustafsson et al., 2017), the authors reported a list of errors.
Article
en Using large samples of persons born in 1985, we investigate the relationship between characteristics of the neighborhood where young people lived as adolescents and the probability that they will receive social assistance when aged 19, 20, and 21, for the three Swedish metropolitan regions—Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö. We estimated logistic...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents new research on income-based child indicators for immigrant children from 17 different national backgrounds and children of parents born in Sweden observed during the 3-year periods 1983–85, 1995–97 and 2008–10. This research examines mean household income, representation at the top of the income distribution and relative pove...
Article
This paper examines immigrant poverty at an older age in Sweden with an emphasis on late-in-life immigrants. We analyse tax data for the entire Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born population. The poverty status of a household is assessed using two criteria. First, the disposable income of the household in which the person lived in 2007 must be below...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses how age at immigration to Sweden and getting a first foothold in the labor market is related. We estimate hazard rate models using registry data on all persons who arrived in each of the years 1990, 1994, 1998, and 2002. The results show that the number of years taken to get a foothold in the Swedish labor market increases rapid...
Article
This paper asks if economic growth and steps towards a market economy have affected earnings gaps between the Han and nine large urban ethnic minorities: Zhuang, Hui, Manchurian, Tujia, Uighur, Miao, Tibetan, Mongol and Korean. It also asks how earnings premiums and earnings penalties have changed for the nine ethnic minorities. For the analysis we...
Article
The number of private enterprises in China has grown rapidly, and donations from them are an important source of philanthropy in China today. This paper investigates donations made by private enterprises in 2011 using a survey of data covering all 31 provincial-level units of China. The data show that philanthropy practised by Chinese private enter...
Article
China's War against the Many Faces of Poverty: Towards a New Long March Jing Yang and Pundarik Mukhopadhaya London and New York: Routledge, 2016 xxi + 345 pp. £95.00 ISBN 978-1-138-81960-3 - Volume 228 - Björn Gustafsson
Article
Using longitudinal national register data, we investigated labor-market attachment during the years 1993–1995 in Sweden for persons aged 25–35 years who had been in out-of-home care before the age of 18 in Sweden during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. We consider whether an immigrant background has an additional influence on labor-market attachment. C...
Article
In high-income countries, not completing secondary school often entails a high risk of social exclusion. Using data on young adults born in 1985 who grew up in metropolitan Sweden, we study factors associated with not graduating from upper-secondary school at age 21. Our hypothesis is that if a young person sees examples of people who are not able...
Article
Vad har hänt med barnens inkomststandard under ett 90tal som i Sverige kännetecknas av först en kraftig arbetslöshetschock, nedskärningar i trygghetssystem och till sist återhämtning? Baserat på nya statistiska bearbetningar dras slutsatsen att nedgången i genomsnittlig inkomststandard var långvarig men inte unik för barnfamiljer.
Article
En invandrares ekonomiska situation i det nya landet förbättras som regel med tiden. Men sådan infasning i arbetslivet har kommit att gå allt sämre för dem som anlänt till Sverige. Vissa av 80-talets invandrare har kommit att lyckas dåligt på den svenska arbetsmarknaden.
Article
Under 90-talet har offentlig barnomsorg utsatts för en stor kostnadspress. Data för kommunala daghem i Göteborg visar på en kraftig produktivitetsökning åren 1992 och 1993. Utvecklingen kan värderas olika beroende på utifrån vems perspektiv den betraktas; skattebetalare, daghemspersonal eller småbarnsfamiljer med eller utan barn på daghem.
Article
Vad kan sägas om den ekonomiska fattigdomens utveckling i Sverige sedan mitten av 1970-talet och om fattigdomens struktur vid 90-talets början? Med utgångspunkt i modern forskning om dessa frågor presenteras nya skattningar som grundas på SCBs undersökning av hushållens inkomster (HINK). Under perioden ökade realinkomsterna trendmässigt, men result...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate to what degree young adults live in neighbourhoods that are similar, in terms of relative average household income, to the neighbourhoods in which they grew up. We use regression analysis on register data for all individuals who were born in 1974 and lived in metropolitan Sweden in both 1990 and 2006. During this perio...
Article
Full-text available
Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993-2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have povert...
Article
This study uses Chinas Inter-Census Survey 2005 to analyze the extent migration behavior among 14 large ethnic minority groups and the Han majority. Results show that the probability to migrate to all types of destinations varies by province of origin, decreases by age, and in most cases, by expected income at the origin. Furthermore, the probabili...
Article
Using a household sample survey for 2006, this article shows that the Hui population in the rural part of Ningxia Autonomous Region in China is disadvantaged compared to the Han majority as regards length of education and household per capita wealth. Yet, there is no gap in average disposable incomes between the two ethnic groups and poverty rates...
Article
Disparities in length of schooling between the largest Muslim minority in China, the Hui, and the Han majority are investigated. We use household data collected in Ningxia autonomous region in 2007. It is found that compared with Han persons of the same age and gender, Hui persons have shorter educations with the exception of young and middle-aged...
Article
This paper discusses data used in publishing statistics on earnings, the distribution of household income and poverty in China by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) which is widely used by policy makers, international agencies and researchers. Unlike many other countries, China until recently had a dual system of household surveys - one rural...
Article
Earnings inequality and earnings determination in urban China 2002 and Russia 2003 are compared using samples covering large parts of the two countries. The results from estimated earnings functions are put in perspective of the outcome from a similar comparison made at the end of the 1980s. We confirm that earnings inequality has increased rapidly...
Article
This article studies people born in rural China who now live in urban areas of China and possess a residence permit, an urban hukou; these are the hukou converters and they are examined using large datasets covering substantial parts of China in 2002. According to our estimates, there are 107 million hukou converters constituting 20% of the registe...
Article
This article compares social assistance in China and Sweden, and finds a number of similarities. In both countries, benefits are regulated by a national policy, while local governments are responsible for administration. The proportion of the population receiving social assistance is surprisingly similar in China and Sweden. Social assistance reduc...
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the issue of social assistance receipt among immigrants to Sweden and compare to receipt by natives. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper describes the institutional background, reports statistical information and surveys the literature on the immigrant-native disparity in social a...
Article
This chapter analyses political elites, economic elites, hybrid elite households, and non-elite households in rural China, using household data for 1995 and 2002. The probability of becoming an economic elite is linked to the age of the head of household and to the income level of the county, indicating that opportunities to become an economic elit...
Article
Intergenerational income elasticities are estimated using samples for urban China (covering many cities) for the years 1995 and 2002 and compared with results from other studies. We find that the income relation between the pairs: sons and fathers, sons and mothers and daughters and mothers, are in 2002 all similar in magnitude. In contrast the rel...
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate rural people's perception of income adequacy in order to understand how it is affected by income in the county where the respondent lives, age of household members, as well as number of household members. The paper also aims to find out how poverty lines and poverty counts derived from people's...
Article
Full-text available
There are no age and gender specific time series of monthly wage earnings covering the period after World War II available for Sweden. In this paper we firstly draw up an age and gender specific time series for wages in Sweden in this period. The data series are based on renumeration of salesmen and saleswomen in wholesale and retail trade. Secondl...
Article
Full-text available
Social assistance receipt among immigrants in relation to receipt among natives in Sweden is investigated. A background of how the system is constructed is provided, statistical information reported, the literature surveyed and key results interpreted. Most out-payment for social assistance in Sweden refers to foreign born persons although the cate...
Article
This paper analyzes child poverty in Bangladesh and China during periods of rapid economic growth in both countries. It compares the extent as well as profile of child poverty in both countries. Comparisons on the extent of child poverty, over time and across countries, are made using a decomposition framework attributing child poverty differences...
Article
Since the second half of the 1990s, economic restructuring in urban China has led to widespread joblessness and income insecurity. The rapid expansion of the system of social assistance, Di Bao, can be understood from this perspective. Using a survey covering large parts of urban China in 2002, we investigate factors affecting receipt and how recei...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Before the economic transition, almost all urban women between the ages of sixteen and fifty (for manual workers) or fifty-five (for professional workers) and urban men between the ages of sixteen and sixty worked for an income. This situation changed when China modernized and moved toward a market economy. In this chapter we show that...
Article
Introduction The development of income inequality in urban China is a hot topic. There is agreement that income inequality has tended to increase over the years, but evidence indicates that the development has not been smooth. For example, previous studies based on the China Household Income Project (CHIP) have found that earnings inequality at the...
Article
Full-text available
Harmonised microdata show a Gini coefficient for per capita total income of 45.3% in China (2002) and 33.6% in Russia (2003). A much larger urban to rural income gap in combination with a much smaller proportion of people living in urban areas in China are important reasons for this cross-country difference in inequality. Wage is a more non-equalis...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the development of poverty in Sweden using micro data derived from tax files for the city of Göteborg for the years 1925, 1936, 1947 and 1958, as well as more recent (1983, 1994 and 2003) information. We define poverty as living in a household with a disposable income lower than a poverty line that represents a constant purc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper takes a fresh look at child poverty at the neighbourhood level in the three metropolitan regions of Sweden using unique data for 1990, 1996 and 2002. We find that the number of neighbourhoods with high child poverty rates is much larger in 2002 than in 1990, but also that most poor children in the three regions live outside poor neighbou...
Article
While some workers in China attain senior professional level and senior cadre level status (Chuzhang and above), others attain middle rank including middle rank of professional and cadre (Kezhang). This aspect of the Chinese labour force has attracted surprisingly little attention in the literature, a fact which this paper aims to rectify. We defin...
Article
Poverty among ethnic minorities and the majority in rural China for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 is investigated, taking a dynamic view and using a large sample covering 22 provinces. Based on the National Bureau of Statistics' low income line, almost one-third of the ethnic minorities experienced poverty during the three years studied while the c...
Article
This study analyses the development of the economic wellbeing of Swedes aged 65 years and older from 1990. This period was characterised by Sweden's deepest and most prolonged recession since the Great Depression, but was then followed by buoyant growth. In a series of interventions from 1991 through to 1998, pensions were cut and their full price...
Article
Full-text available
Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1993 to 2001 is investigated using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years investigated the increasing proportion of immigrant children with an origin in middle and low income countries...
Article
We used data from several national registers for ten entire birth cohorts (n > 1 million) to examine the representation of first generation immigrant children among first time entries into out-of-home care (foster or residential care) at ages 7–12 and 13–17. Logistic regression models were used to adjust results for socioeconomic background factors...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to throw light on the development of top incomes in Sweden as well as the causes for change. Using household income data we show that since the first half of the 1980s real income at the top of the distribution has developed more favourably than for other groups. This contrasts with the changes which occurred prior to the 1980s. Rea...
Article
Introduction: In recent decades China's economy has grown more rapidly and in a more sustained fashion than that of any other country worldwide. This growth has had many positive benefits, one of which is a substantial improvement in average standards of living. Most people in China have higher incomes, consume more and better goods, and live in be...
Article
Introduction: The health status of the population is of central importance to any country. At the beginning of the new millennium, China had a relatively healthy population. Life expectancy at birth in 2002 was 71 years, exceeding the world average by four years (World Bank 2006). This represents great improvement for a country that experienced a d...