Björn de Koning

Björn de Koning
Erasmus University Rotterdam | EUR · Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies

PhD

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69
Publications
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1,931
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Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Drawing bar diagrams has been shown to improve performance on mathematical word problems wherein the relational keyword is consistent with the required arithmetic operation. This study extends this by testing the effectiveness of bar diagram drawing for word problems with an inconsistent keyword-arithmetic operation mapping. Seventy-five fifth grad...
Article
Background: Research indicates that animations presenting procedural instructions lead to better learning if the animation displays the procedural task from a first-person perspective (over-the-shoulder) compared to a third-person perspective (face-to-face). Aims: This study extends view-perspective research by investigating whether the observat...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether finger pointing can be used as a cognitive load self‐management strategy when learning from split‐attention examples. We expected that pointing would reduce cognitive load and enhance learning performance. In a guided self‐management phase, 122 university students studied a split‐attention example under three pointing condit...
Article
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Researchers of cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning have identified several strategies to optimize instructional materials. In this review article we focus on five of these strategies or solutions to problematic instructional designs in multimedia learning: (a) the multimedia principle (use visualizations and drawin...
Article
There is increasing evidence that learning of manual tasks from dynamic visualizations (e.g., origami folding) is facilitated when human hands are shown or gestures can be observed in the visualizations. This study examined whether observing and making gestures improves learning about non-human biological movements (i.e., fish locomotion) and wheth...
Article
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In order to think and talk about time, people often use the ego- or time-moving representation. In the ego-moving representation, the self travels through a temporal landscape, leaving past events behind and approaching future events; in the time-moving representation, the self is stationary and temporal events pass by. Several studies contest to t...
Article
Online learning environments demand learners to self-regulate their learning but many learners are poor at self-regulated learning (SRL). In this paper, two studies were conducted to examine the effect of two SRL supports, i.e., guiding goal setting and planning using an approach known as mental contrasting and implementation intentions (MCII) and...
Article
Full-text available
Research on grit indicates that perseverance positively predicts academic achievement. Yet, the mechanisms through which perseverance might lead to academic success remain less explored, particularly in cross-cultural research. The current study investigated such mechanisms by examining possible mediating effects of students’ use of self-regulated...
Article
Spatial abilities and thus mental rotation skills predict achievement in STEM domains. Thus, a wide range of studies investigated the possibilities and trainings of mental rotation skills. One prominent approach is using different digital tools and representation formats to foster spatial abilities. Thereby numerous studies analyzed effects of stat...
Article
La pandémie de COVID-19 a eu d’importantes répercussions sur les populations du monde entier. L’une des mesures les plus importantes pour prévenir la dissémination du virus est la bonne hygiène des mains. Nous voyons la mise en œuvre d’incitations douces (nudge), technique empruntée à l’économie comportementale, comme une façon d’accroître l’hygièn...
Article
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The limited instructional support in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) inherently demands learners to self-regulate their learning. MOOC research shows that learners are more successful when they engage in self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors such as planning what to study and reviewing study materials. However, many learners struggle with SRL...
Article
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Nudging is one of the strategies from behavioral economics that aims to influence behavior by changing the environment. We propose that it could also be a valuable means to influence behavior in educational contexts. However, implementation of nudging in education is yet sparse. We describe the relevant issues to consider when applying nudging in e...
Article
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Many large scale, school-based interventions have attempted to improve academic performance through promoting students' growth mindset, defined as the belief that one's intellectual ability can increase with practice and time. However, most have shown weak to no effects. Thus, it is important to examine how growth mindset might affect retention and...
Article
Cognitive load theory is a leading instructional theory in research about the effectiveness of multimedia and computer-based learning. The theory is continually updating itself with new experimental findings, such as those in the six empirical papers of this special issue. Specifically, the focus of this special issue is on novel cognitive load the...
Article
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Co-speech gestures have been proposed to strengthen sensorimotor knowledge related to objects’ weight and manipulability. This pre-registered study (https://osf.io/9uh6q/) was designed to explore how gestures affect memory for sensorimotor information through the application of the visual-haptic size-weight illusion (i.e., objects weigh the same bu...
Article
Full-text available
Language comprehenders have been arguing to mentally represent the implied orientation of objects. However, compared to the effects of shape, size, and color, the effect of orientation is rather small. We examined a potential explanation for the relatively low magnitude of the orientation effect: Object size moderates the orientation effect. Theore...
Article
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Learning from spatially separated text and pictures is improved when learners are instructed to use a physical or mental integration strategy. This study investigated whether varying the spatial distance between text and pictures affects the effectiveness of physical and mental integration strategies. We hypothesized that a larger spatial distance...
Article
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Learners learn more from spatially separated text and pictures after they have been instructed to physically integrate these sources than without such an instruction. We investigated whether instructing learners to mentally integrate textual and pictorial information would yield similar results. Eighty-seven participants studied a picture with acco...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to deduce implicit information about relations in a text (i.e., inferencing) is essential to understanding that text. Hence, there is increasing attention for supporting inferencing skills among children in early literacy programs including shared book reading interventions. This study investigated whether embedding scripted inferencing...
Article
The split-attention effect seems a robust finding in the literature and shows that complex learning materials consisting of text and pictures lead to better learning when they are spatially integrated instead of spatially separated. In the current study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distance and signaling on the spli...
Article
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This study investigated whether presenting a picture before reading can encourage situation-model construction. We compared two conditions (n = 30) which differed in whether a picture of the initial situation described in a narrative text was presented before reading (i.e. pictorial-support condition) or not (i.e. no-picture condition). Situation-m...
Article
Research shows that animations yield higher learning outcomes than static graphics when learning hand-manipulative tasks such as knot tying. This study investigated whether this superiority of animations is related to observation of the hands in the visualizations. Additionally, it was investigated whether participants' spatial ability influences l...
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulated learning (SRL) refers to how learners steer their own learning. Supporting SRL has been shown to enhance the use of SRL strategies and learning performance in computer-based learning environments. However, little is known about supporting SRL in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In this study, weekly SRL prompts were embedded as v...
Article
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Pronouns encouraging a second‐person perspective (e.g., ‘you/your’) affect peoples’ mental representations constructed while reading and improve learning. The present study applied these insights to a domain in which such pronoun effects have yet been unexplored: mathematical word problem solving. Specifically, we encouraged a second‐person perspec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on grit indicates that perseverance positively predicts academic achievement. Yet, the mechanisms through which perseverance might lead to academic success remain less explored, particularly in cross-cultural research. The current study investigated such mechanisms by examining the possible mediating effects of self-regulated learning stra...
Article
Research reveals that the ego- and time-moving representations, two divergent ways to talk and think about time, are psychologically meaningful: They are, for example, linked to agency. This research has, however, mainly been correlational in nature and only been conducted amongst English speakers, even though cross-linguistic differences are readi...
Article
Full-text available
The split-attention effect entails that learning from spatially separated, but mutually referring information sources (e.g., text and picture) is less effective than learning from the equivalent spatially integrated sources. According to cognitive load theory, impaired learning is caused by the working memory load imposed by the need to distribute...
Preprint
The split-attention effect entails that learning from spatially separated, but mutually referring information sources (e.g., text and picture) is less effective than learning from the equivalent spatially integrated sources. According to cognitive load theory, impaired learning is caused by the working memory load imposed by the need to distribute...
Chapter
Full-text available
The study of learning is grounded in theories and research. Since learning is complex and not directly observable, it is often inferred by collecting and analysing data based on the things learners do or say. By virtue, theories are developed from the analyses of data collected. With the proliferation of technology, large amounts of data are genera...
Article
This special issue contains 7 empirical papers and 2 commentaries based on the EARLI SIG 6 (Instructional Design) and 7 (Technology-Enhanced Learning and Instruction) conference organized at the University of Burgundy, Dijon, France in 2016. All papers focus on learning with instructional video, a topic that continues to arouse an important interes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a type of online learning environment that has the potential to increase students' access to education. However, the low completion rates in MOOCs suggest that student engagement and progression in the courses are problematic. Following the increasing adoption of gamification in education, it is possible that...
Preprint
Full-text available
People have been argued to mentally represent the implied orientation of objects (Stanfield & Zwaan, 2001). However, the effect is rather small in a sentence-picture verification task compared to published effects of other visual dimensions, such as shape, size, and color. The present study examines whether object size moderates the orientation eff...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research shows that co-speech gestures can influence gesturers’ thought. This line of research suggests that the influence of gestures is so strong, that it can wash out and reverse an effect of learning. We argue that these findings need a more robust and ecologically valid test, which we provide in this article. Our results support the cla...
Preprint
Co-speech gestures have been proposed to strengthen sensorimotor knowledge related to objects’ weight and manipulability. In this pre-registered study (N =159) designed to provide a robust, direct, and detailed test of this proposal, participants practiced a problem-solving task with small and large objects that were designed to induce a size-weigh...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of a mental simulation training targeted at improving children’s reading comprehension. In a 4-week period, one group of third and fourth graders (n = 75) learned to draw upon their sensorimotor memories and experiences to mentally simulate text (experimental training group), whereas another group (n = 51) receiv...
Chapter
Learning from dynamic visualizations can pose distinct perceptual and cognitive processing challenges to learners that hinder those who lack relevant domain knowledge in making optimal choices about what information in the dynamic display should be attended to. Such learners therefore likely miss the essential information required for developing an...
Article
In the present study, we investigated how 116 fourth and fifth grade students’ monitoring skills were associated with restudy choices and explored whether drawing was a useful intervention to improve monitoring accuracy, restudy choice, and comprehension scores. During the first session, all students read a text, judged their learning of the inform...
Article
Full-text available
It is often assumed that students with a higher potential for excellence are less motivated to collaborate. So far, the question remains whether this is actually the case. This survey study investigated the influence of business students’ (N = 389) potential for excellence on their motivation to collaborate on a business-related task. Different asp...
Article
Full-text available
In the sentence–picture verification (SPV) task, people read sentences implying the shape/size/colour/orientation of objects. They then verify whether pictured objects, which either match or mismatch the implied visual information mentioned in the sentence. Faster verification times on matching trials (match advantage) are considered supportive to...
Article
In mathematical word problem solving, a relatively well-established finding is that more errors are made on word problems in which the relational keyword is inconsistent instead of consistent with the required arithmetic operation. This study aimed at reducing this consistency effect. Children solved a set of compare word problems before and after...
Article
Multimedia learning research has shown that presenting the same words as spoken text and as written text to accompany graphical information hinders learning (i.e., redundancy effect). However, recent work showed that a “condensed” form of written text (i.e., on-screen labels) that overlaps with the spoken text, and thus is only partially redundant,...
Article
Full-text available
Embodied theories of language comprehension propose that readers construct a mental simulation of described objects that contains perceptual characteristics of their real-world referents. The present study is the first to investigate directly whether implied object size is mentally simulated during sentence comprehension and to study the potential...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The redundancy principle states that presenting the same words in a narration and as on-screen text hinders learning. However, recent research shows that when redundant verbal information is presented to narrated multimedia presentations as on-screen labels, there is greater learning than when the complete verbally redundant text is presented. The...
Article
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Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memo...
Article
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that st...
Article
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This study aimed to enhance third and fourth graders’ text comprehension at the situation model level. Therefore, we tested a reading strategy training developed to target inference making skills, which are widely considered to be pivotal to situation model construction. The training was grounded in contemporary literature on situation model-based...
Article
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Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence is accumulating that the level of text comprehension is dependent on the situatedness and sensory richness of a child’s mental representation formed during reading. This study investigated whether these factors involved in text comprehension also serve a functional role in writing a narrative. Direct influences of situatedness and sensory...
Article
Full-text available
Grounded within the situation model framework, this study investigated the effectiveness of a reading comprehension strategy training aimed at improving children’s comprehension monitoring strategies. Sixty-four third and fourth graders received a 4-week training targeted at situation model updating, evaluative and selfregulatory strategies, and me...
Article
In the Netherlands, university programs increasingly use the binding study advice (BSA) to select students after the first year. Students with insufficient progress after the first year and who therefore do not conform to pre-defined BSA norms have to quit their program. This study investigated whether the introduction of the BSA is associated with...
Article
This article provides a critical discussion of the current Dutch educational practice of reading comprehension instruction in primary education. Educational practice of reading comprehension instruction seems insufficiently attuned to cognitive, educational, and neuroscientific research and theoretical insights regarding reading comprehension on fo...
Article
Recent research on dynamic visualizations suggests that these visualizations are effective for learning human movements such as knot tying or paper folding. Using embodied theories of cognition, this study investigated whether learning non‐human movements from a dynamic visualization can also be enhanced by grounding these movements in the learner'...
Article
Visualizing the events described in a text is crucial for constructing a rich and coherent visuospatial mental representation (i.e., situation model) of the text. According to current reading comprehension theories, the construction of such a situation model likely involves all sensory modalities. However, at present these insights are hardly used...
Article
This study investigated the simultaneous impact of demographic, personality, intelligence, and (prior) study performance factors on students' academic achievement in a three-year academic problem-based psychology program. Information regarding students' gender, age, nationality, pre-university education, high school grades, Big Five personality tra...
Article
Learners studying mechanical or technical processes via dynamic visualizations often fail to build an accurate mental representation of the system’s movements. Based on embodied theories of cognition assuming that action, perception, and cognition are closely intertwined, this paper proposes that the learning effectiveness of dynamic visualizations...
Article
A major problem in learning from instructional animations is that the complex perceptual and cognitive processing exceeds the learner's limited processing capacities. Although attention cueing might help learners in focusing on essential parts of an animation, previous studies have shown that it does not necessarily improve learning performance. Th...
Article
Research has shown that guiding learners’ attention in animations by cueing does not necessarily improve conceptual understanding. This study investigated whether the number of elements that are presented per unit of time influences the effectiveness of cueing by showing a cued or an uncued animation about the cardiovascular system at a high or at...
Article
This study investigated whether learners construct more accurate mental representations from animations when instructional explanations are provided via narration than when learners attempt to infer functional relations from the animation through self-explaining. Also effects of attention guidance by means of cueing are investigated. Psychology stu...
Article
To examine how visual attentional resources are allocated when learning from a complex animation about the cardiovascular system, eye movements were registered in the absence and presence of visual cues. Cognitive processing was assessed using cued retrospective reporting, whereas comprehension and transfer tests measured the quality of the constru...
Article
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This paper examines the transferability of successful cueing approaches from text and static visualization research to animations. Theories of visual attention and learning as well as empirical evidence for the instructional effectiveness of attention cueing are reviewed and, based on Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning, a framework was developed...
Article
The question how animations should be designed so that learning is optimised, is still under discussion. Animations are often cognitively very demanding, resulting in decreased learning outcomes. In this study, we tried to prevent cognitive overload and foster learning by focusing the learners' attention to one element (i.e. process) of an animatio...
Article
Full-text available
In modern educational environments, dynamic visualizations such as animations are increasingly used for presenting change-related information. Due to their great appeal and acclaimed benefits to show dynamic processes in real-time, animations have quickly become one of the most popular instructional materials. However, much evidence indicates that...

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Project
The split-attention effect states that learning from spatially separated is less effective than learning from spatially integrated sources. According to cognitive load theory, impaired learning is caused by the working memory load imposed by the need to distribute attention between the information sources and mentally integrate them. In this project, we study the influence of spatial separation, distance between two sources of information, and signaling on the occurrence of the split-attention effect.