Birgitt Schuele

Birgitt Schuele
Stanford Medicine | Stanford · Department of Pathology

MD

About

139
Publications
25,945
Reads
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Introduction
The Schuele lab works on gene discovery and novel stem cell technologies to generate stem cell models from patients with Parkinson’s disease and related disorders to understand the underlying causes of neurodegeneration and to discover biomarkers and to develop new therapies for Parkinson’s disease. For more information, please visit our website: https://theschuelelab.weebly.com/
Additional affiliations
February 2019 - present
Stanford Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2013 - January 2019
Parkinson’s Institute
Position
  • Managing Director
October 2005 - September 2013
Parkinson’s Institute
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
January 2003 - October 2005
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Genetics and MGTP/Clinical Molecular Genetics
July 2001 - December 2002
Universität zu Lübeck
Field of study
  • Internship (Neurology, Internal Medicine, General and Pediatric Surgery)
September 1999 - June 2001
Universität zu Lübeck
Field of study
  • Human Medicine, continued

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
Background: Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models have been hailed as a breakthrough for understanding disease and developing new therapeutics. The major advantage of iPSC-derived neurons is that they carry the genetic background of the donor, and as such could be more predictive for clinical translation. However, the development of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by an expanded pentanucleotide repeat in the ATXN10 gene. This repeat expansion, when fully penetrant, has a size of 850 to 4500 repeats. It has been shown that the repeat composition can be a modifier of disease, e.g., seizures. Here, we describe a Hispanic kindred in...
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Alpha-synuclein overexpression and aggregation are critical factors in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical cases with alpha-synuclein (SNCA) multiplications or deletions indicate that gene expression levels are essential for neurodegeneration and neurodevelopment. Here, we developed an isogenic SNCA gene dosage model using CRISPR...
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Leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), is highly expressed in monocytes and macrophages and may play a role in the regulation of inflammatory pathways. To determine how LRRK2 protein levels and/or its activity modulate inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels in human immune...
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We describe the clinical and neuropathologic features of patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD) carrying a nonsense variant, c.604C>T; p.R202X, in the glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA) gene. While this GBA variant is causative for Gaucher’s disease, the pathogenic role of this mutation in LBSD is unclear. Detailed neuropathologic evaluation was...
Preprint
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CO-Detection by indEXing (CODEX) is a powerful technique to complement 'omics' technologies for in-depth phenotype analysis. CODEX allows the detection of 40+ targets in situ at single-cell resolution. This protocol describes the optimization of fixation and primary antibody staining of the human iPSC-derived neuronal cell cultures for CODEX. We sh...
Preprint
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Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a powerful tool for studying development and disease. However, different iPSC lines show considerable phenotypic variation. The lack of common well-characterised cell lines that are used widely frustrates efforts to integrate data across research groups or replicate key findings. Inspired by model or...
Article
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technologies have a critical role in regenerative strategies for personalized medicine. Both share the ability to differentiate into almost any cell type of the human body. The study of their properties and clinical applications requires the development of robust and r...
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Introduction There have been no specific guidelines regarding which genes should be tested in the clinical setting for PD or parkinsonism. We evaluated the types of clinical genetic testing offered for Parkinson’s disease (PD) as the first step of our gene curation. Methods The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) was...
Preprint
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra results in a clinically heterogeneous group with variable motor and non-motor symptoms with a degree of misdiagnosis. Only 3-5% of sporadic Parkinson’s patients present with genetic abnormalities, thus environmental, metabol...
Article
PurposeCardiac autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifests as reduced heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we explored the deceleration capacity of heart rate (DC) in patients with idiopathic PD, an advanced HRV marker that has proven clinical utility.Methods Standard and advanced HRV measures derived from...
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Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to search for genes/variants that modify the effect of LRRK2 mutations in terms of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease. // Methods: We performed the first genomewide association study of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 mutation carriers (776 cases and 1,103 non-cases at...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to search for genes/variants that modify the effect of LRRK2 mutations in terms of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease. Methods: We performed the first genome-wide association study of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 mutation carriers (776 cases and 1,103 non-cases a...
Article
Full-text available
Missense mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first identified as a pathogenic cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 2004. Soon thereafter, a founder mutation in LRRK2, p.G2019S (rs34637584), was described, and it is now estimated that there are approximately 100,000 people worldwide carrying this risk variant. While the clinical presentation of LRRK2 p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to search for genes/variants that modify the effect of LRRK2 mutations in terms of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease. Methods: We performed the first genome-wide association study of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 mutation carriers (776 cases and 1,103 non-cases at t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Missense mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first identified as a pathogenic cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 2004. Soon thereafter, a founder mutation in LRRK2, p.Gly2019Ser (rs34637584), was described, and it is now estimated that there are approximately 100,000 people worldwide that carry this risk variant. While the clinical presentation of L...
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Full-text available
In an unbiased genome-wide screen for copy number variants (CNVs) on a cohort of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, we identified in one patient a complex chromosomal rearrangement involving the nucleotide binding protein-like (NUBPL) gene on chromosome 14q12. We noted that mutations in the NUBPL gene had been reported as causing autosomal recessiv...
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Neurodevelopmental and late-onset neurodegenerative disorders present as separate entities that are clinically and neuropathologically quite distinct. However, recent evidence has highlighted surprising commonalities and converging features at the clinical, genomic, and molecular level between these two disease spectra. This is particularly strikin...
Article
Background The penetrance of leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 ) mutations is incomplete and may be influenced by environmental and/or other genetic factors. Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to reduce inflammation and may lower Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but their role in LRRK2 ‐associated PD is unknown. Objectives The...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neurodevelopmental and late-onset neurodegenerative disorders present as separate entities that are clinically and neuropathologically quite distinct. However, recent evidence has highlighted surprising commonalities and converging features at the clinical, genomic, and molecular level between these two disease spectra. This is particularly strikin...
Article
The cover image is based on the Original Article Exosome/Microvesicle Content is Altered in LRRK2 Mutant iPSCderived Neural Cells by Dennis A. Steindler, Kate M. Candelario, Johan Skog et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.24819.
Article
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Large expansions of microsatellite DNA cause several neurological diseases. In Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), the repeat interruptions change disease phenotype; an (ATTCC)n or a (ATCCT)n/(ATCCC)n interruption within the (ATTCT)n repeat is associated with the robust phenotype of ataxia and epilepsy while mostly pure (ATTCT)n may have reduce...
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Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is localized in cellular organelles of most neurons, but many of its physiological functions are only partially understood. α-syn accumulation is associated with Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy as well as other synucleinopathies; however, the exact pathomechanisms that underlie the...
Article
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and other microvesicles (EMVs), have been described as sensitive biomarkers that represent disease states and response to therapies. In light of recent reports of disease-mirroring EMV molecular signatures, the present study profiled 2 EMVs from different Parkinson's disease (PD) tissue sources: 1. neural...
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Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translate...
Article
Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translate...
Article
Roberts syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease. In this report, we report a Brazilian patient with a rare ESCO2 variant. The patient manifested a broad range of clinical findings including the significant, bilateral shortening of the extremities. He deteriorated and passed away at 20 days of age. High-resolution GTG-banded karyotype...
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Purpose Cardiac autonomic dysfunction manifests as reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), but no significant reduction has been found in PD patients who carry the LRRK2 mutation. Novel HRV features have not been investigated in these individuals. We aimed to assess cardiac autonomic modulation through standard...
Article
Full-text available
Progressive aggregation of the protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are key histopathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accruing evidence suggests that α-syn pathology can propagate through neuronal circuits in the brain, contributing to the progressive nature of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Progressive aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn) and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are key histopathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease (PD). Accruing evidence suggests that α-syn pathology can propagate through neuronal circuits in the brain, contributing to the progressive nature of the di...
Article
Background Leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and clinical trials of leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 inhibitors are in development. The objective of this study was to evaluate phosphorylation of a new leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 substrate, Rab10, for potential use as a target engag...
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The “Iowa kindred,” a large Iowan family with autosomal-dominant Parkinson’s disease, has been followed clinically since the 1920s at the Mayo Clinic. In 2003, the genetic cause was determined to be a 1.7 Mb triplication of the alpha-synuclein genomic locus. Affected individuals present with an early-onset, severe parkinsonism-dementia syndrome. He...
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Parkinson's disease-associated LRRK2 kinase phosphorylates multiple Rab GTPases, including Rab8A and Rab10. We show here that LRRK2 kinase interferes with primary cilia formation in cultured cells, human LRRK2 G2019S iPS cells and in the cortex of LRRK2 R1441C mice. Rab10 phosphorylation strengthens its intrinsic ability to block ciliogenesis by en...
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Full-text available
Alpha-synuclein (non A4 component of amyloid precursor, SNCA, NM_000345.3) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related Lewy body disorders such as Parkinson’s disease dementia, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. Since its discovery as a disease-causing gene in 1997, alpha-synuclein has been a centr...
Article
Background: Mutations in the leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are among the most common genetic causes of Lewy body Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 mutations can also lead to a variety of pathological phenotypes other than typical PD, including relatively pure nigrostriatal cell loss without alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies o...
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Full-text available
Large, non-coding pentanucleotide repeat expansions of ATTCT in intron 9 of the ATXN10 gene typically cause progressive spinocerebellar ataxia with or without seizures and present neuropathologically with Purkinje cell loss resulting in symmetrical cerebellar atrophy. These ATXN10 repeat expansions can be interrupted by sequence motifs which have b...
Article
Copy number mutations implicate excess production of α-synuclein as a possibly causative factor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using an unbiased screen targeting endogenous gene expression, we discovered that the β2-adrenoreceptor (β2AR) is a regulator of the α-synuclein gene (SNCA). β2AR ligands modulate SNCA transcription through histone 3 lysine 2...
Article
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are associated with increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously we found that LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers have increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and after zinc finger nuclease-mediated gene mutation correction, mtDNA damage was no longer detectable. While the mtDNA...
Article
Objectives The objective of this study was to determine phenotypic features that differentiate nonparkinsonian first‐degree relatives of PD leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S multiplex families, regardless of carrier status, from healthy controls because nonparkinsonian individuals in multiplex families seem to share a propensity to presen...
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Full-text available
Background: Penetrance estimates of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) p.G2019S mutation for PD vary widely (24%-100%). The p.G2019S penetrance in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry has been estimated as 25%, adjusted for multiple covariates. It is unknown whether penetrance varies among different ethnic groups. The objective of this s...
Article
Background and purpose: The presentation of Parkinson's disease patients with mutations in the LRRK2 gene (PDLRRK2 ) is highly variable, suggesting a strong influence of modifying factors. In this context, inflammation is a potential candidate inducing clinical subtypes. Methods: An extensive battery of peripheral inflammatory markers was measur...
Article
Full-text available
Even though great progress has been made in the clinical characterization of Parkinson's disease, several studies report that the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is not pathologically confirmed in up to 25% of clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease. Therefore, tissue collected from clinically diagnosed patients with idiopathic Parkinson's diseas...
Article
Background: Heart rate variability is reduced in idiopathic PD, indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction likely resulting from peripheral autonomic synucleinopathy. Little is known about heart rate variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated PD. Objectives: This study investigated heart rate variability in LRRK2-associated PD. Method...
Article
Mitochondrial movements are tightly controlled to maintain energy homeostasis and prevent oxidative stress. Miro is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that anchors mitochondria to microtubule motors and is removed to stop mitochondrial motility as an early step in the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria. Here, using human induced pluripote...
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Full-text available
Background There is evidence for a relevant role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most frequent genetic cause for autosomal dominant PD. LRRK2 is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia suggesting an involvement in inflammatory pathways. The objectives are to test (1) w...
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Full-text available
Mutations in the PARKIN gene (chromosome 6q25-27) were first described in 1998 in families with “juvenile” autosomal recessive parkinsonism. More than 180 causative variants in the PARKIN gene have been identified; point mutations and copy number variants (i.e., exon deletions or duplications) occur at nearly equal frequencies.1 PARKIN is one of th...
Article
Here we prioritize as multisystem Lewy body disease (MLBD) those genetic forms of Parkinson's disease that point the way toward a mechanistic understanding of the majority of sporadic disease. Pathological diagnosis of genetic subtypes offers the prospect of distinguishing different mechanistic trajectories with a common mutational etiology, differ...
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Full-text available
We have assessed the impact of α-synuclein overexpression on the differentiation potential and phenotypic signatures of two neural-committed induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient with a triplication of the human SNCA genomic locus. In parallel, comparative studies were performed on two control lines derived...