Birga M Schumpe

Birga M Schumpe
University of Amsterdam | UVA · Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences

PhD

About

55
Publications
45,397
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577
Citations

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
The Need for Cognitive Closure (NCC, Kruglanski & Webster, 1996) is a motivational force describing a general tendency to form clear judgments and to reach firm decisions. Since individuals high in NCC have an intolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity, as well as a preference for predictability, we hypothesized that they would show more risk aversio...
Article
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The present research investigates the counterfinality effect, whereby the more a means is perceived as detrimental to an alternative goal, the more it is perceived as instrumental to its focal goal. The results from five studies supported this hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrated the counterfinality effect in an applied context: The more pain people ex...
Article
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Adventure and excitement have often been invoked to explain why people engage in political violence, yet empirical evidence on the topic has thus far been anecdotal. The present research sought to fill this gap in knowledge by examining the role of sensation seeking in political violence and integrating this concept with Significance Quest Theory (...
Article
We propose and demonstrate in 11 studies, including more than 4,700 observations, that the persuasiveness of a target message can be increased by the inclusion of a reactance decoy. A reactance decoy is a persuasive message presented before the target message and includes an attitude measurement toward the decoy object. The effect can be explained...
Preprint
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Quality and price expectations are a central issue for marketers and consumer psychologists alike. Seven experiments (N = 3626, with U.S. American, British, and French participants) show that consumers expect and perceive products to be of higher quality and price when made by well-paid workers, compared to both low-wage workers and to companies of...
Article
This research examines how the relationship between passion for an ideology and violent activism is magnified by the personal (vs. collective) loss of significance. In Study 1 (N = 238), the relationship between obsessive (but not harmonious) passion for the Republican Party and violent activism was moderated by personal (but not collective) loss o...
Article
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The present paper examines longitudinally how subjective perceptions about COVID-19, one’s community, and the government predict adherence to public health measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Using an international survey ( N = 3040), we test how infection risk perception, trust in the governmental response and communications about COVID-19...
Article
Food waste at the consumer level poses a global challenge for natural resources management and contributes to climate change. However, there is limited evidence regarding the best messaging strategies to fight household food waste. Here we experimentally test several food waste messages, aiming to identify the most effective strategies to promote i...
Article
Full-text available
Before vaccines for COVID-19 became available, a set of infection prevention behaviors constituted the primary means to mitigate the virus spread. Our study aimed to identify important predictors of this set of behaviors. Whereas social and health psychological theories suggest a limited set of predictors, machine learning analyses can identify cor...
Article
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Anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement has been associated with adverse health behaviors, such as unhealthy eating, smoking, and drinking. However, most studies have been limited by regional sampling, which precludes the examination of behavioral consequences associated with the pandemic at a global level. Further, few s...
Article
Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is important to inform policy decisions and plan vaccination campaigns. The aims of this research were to: (1) explore the individual- and country-level determinants of intentions to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and (2) examine worldwide variation in vaccination intentions. This cross-s...
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Tightening social norms is thought to be adaptive for dealing with collective threat yet it may have negative consequences for increasing prejudice. The present research investigated the role of desire for cultural tightness, triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, in increasing negative attitudes towards immigrants. We used participant-level data from...
Article
During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors dete...
Article
During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors dete...
Article
Full-text available
Attachment theory is an ethological approach to the development of durable, affective ties between humans. We propose that secure attachment is crucial for understanding climate change mitigation, because the latter is inherently a communal phenomenon resulting from joint action and requiring collective behavioral change. Here, we show that priming...
Article
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This paper makes a case for explaining diversity effects through cognitive factors as compared to demographic or other differences in backgrounds. We argue that studying perceived diversity in conjunction with diversity beliefs can explain positive and negative effects through a motivated opening or closing of the mind (Need for Cognitive Closure,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N = 25,435). The main predictors were (1) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (...
Article
Objective: This research examines the relationship between passion for a romantic partner and obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) which is defined as repeated and unwanted behaviors toward a partner that invade his/her personal privacy and cause fear for his/her safety. Method: Based on the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand, 2015), we predi...
Preprint
Determinants of quality and value perceptions are a central issue for marketers and consumer psychologists alike. Seven experiments (six preregistered; N = 3453, with U.S. American, British, and French participants) show that consumers expect and perceive products made by well-paid workers to be of higher quality. This increases consumers’ choice l...
Article
Full-text available
The psychological mechanisms that lead terrorists to make costly sacrifices for their ideological convictions are of great theoretical and practical importance. We investigate two key components of this process: (1) the feeling of admiration toward ingroup members making costly self-sacrifices for their ideological group, and (2) identity fusion wi...
Article
This research examines how social networks contribute to the process of radicalization, building on work showing that obsessive (vs. harmonious) passion for a cause is linked to greater support for political violence. Study 1 (N = 331) shows that obsessive (vs. harmonious) passion is related to affiliating with radical (vs. moderate) social network...
Preprint
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The Coronavirus is highly infectious and potentially deadly. In the absence of a cure or a vaccine, the infection prevention behaviors recommended by the World Health Organization constitute the only measure that is presently available to combat the pandemic. The unprecedented impact of this pandemic calls for swift identification of factors most i...
Preprint
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In this work, we study how social contacts and feelings of solidarity shape experiences of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown in early 2020. We draw on cross-national data, collected across four time points between mid-March until early May 2020. We situate our work within the public debate on these issues and discuss to what extent the public...
Preprint
Full-text available
According to health behavior theories, perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow these recommendations. Because the U.S. President Trump and U.S. conservative politicians downplayed the risk and seriousness of contracting COVID-19 and the effectiv...
Article
Full-text available
The PsyCorona collaboration is a research project to examine processes involved in the COVID-19 pandemic, such as behavior that curbs virus transmission, which may implicate social norms, cooperation, and self-regulation. The study also examines psychosocial consequences of physical distancing strategies and societal lockdown, such as frustration o...
Article
Political countermessages are communication strategies intended to discourage people from supporting violent political activism; however, it is unclear whether they are indeed effective. The purpose of this research was to address this gap by testing the influence of political countermessages on individuals with a passion for a cause. Four studies...
Preprint
Full-text available
Food waste at the consumer level poses a global challenge for natural resources management and contributes to climate change. However, there is limited evidence regarding the best messaging strategies to fight household food waste. Here we experimentally test several food waste messages, aiming to identify the most effective strategies to promote i...
Article
Full-text available
Mapping the Moods of COVID-19: Global Study Uses Data Visualization to Track Psychological Responses, Identify Targets for Intervention
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N=25,435). The main predictors were (i) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (ii...
Article
The psychological determinants of place attachment have thus far been explored only to a limited extent. We propose that the bonds humans develop with other humans (attachment styles) are consequential to understand the bonds individuals develop with places and spaces (place attachment). We examined this hypothesis in four studies. Study 1 (N = 101...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attachment is an ethological approach to the development of durable affective ties betweenhumans. We propose that secure attachment is crucial to understand climate change mitigationbecause the latter is inherently a communal phenomenon resulting from joint action, and requiring collective behavioral change. Here we show that secure (vs. insecure)...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to experimentally test whether counter-narratives are effective to reduce people's support and willingness to join Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Integrating psychological reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) and need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski, 2004), we predicted that exposing people to counter-narratives when...
Article
Study Objectives The present research examines the relationship between people’s frequent involvement in an activity they like and find important (i.e., a passion) and the quality of their sleep. Research on the dualistic model of passion1-2 has widely documented the relationship between individual's type of passion—harmonious vs. obsessive—and the...
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No consensus exists regarding which are the most effective mechanisms to promote household action on climate change. We present a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comprising 3,092,678 observations, which estimates the effects of behavioural interventions holding other factors constant. Here we show that behavioural interventions promot...
Article
We present a simple behavioral strategy based on Prospect Theory that maximizes the impact of financial incentives with no additional cost. We show how the partition of a single incentive into two smaller incentives of equivalent total amount produces substantial behavioral changes, here demonstrated in the context of colorectal cancer screening. I...
Article
Objective Four studies examined the relationship between motivational imbalance ― the degree to which a goal dominates other goals ― and political activism. Method Based on the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand, 2015) and recent theorizing on violent extremism (Kruglanski, Jasko, Chernikova, Dugas, & Webber, 2017), we predicted that obsessive...
Article
Objective People that pursue a passionate activity obsessively (vs. harmoniously) tend to neglect (vs. integrate) other important life domains, yet research has been silent on the psychological mechanism explaining these differences in self‐regulation. The purpose of this research was to address this gap by testing the role of alternative goal supp...
Article
The present research tested whether increasing people’s ability to effectively manage multiple goal-pursuits would facilitate the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs and, in turn, promote harmonious (vs. obsessive) passion for an activity. Studies 1 and 2 provided cross-sectional and experimental evidence for the proposed model, respect...
Article
The present research demonstrates how support for political violence can be reduced by providing peaceful alternatives to produce social change. In Study 1, participants watched a video documenting the activities of a violent activist group, and then either watched a video of a peaceful activist group supporting the same cause or a control video. P...
Article
This article examines how expectancy of goal achievement influences the perceived instrumentality of means to a focal goal, above and beyond the influence of goal commitment. Based on goal-systems theory (Kruglanski et al., 2002, 2013), the present research found that expectancy of goal achievement positively predicts the perceived instrumentality...
Article
Sadism was established as a moderator of the relationship between the severity of others' misfortunes and schadenfreude. In Study 1, we measured sadistic personality traits, and afterwards, participants were presented with a video clip of a cyclist's accident that was described as having resulted in minor (low misfortune condition) or severe (high...
Article
The present research examined the motivational underpinnings of self-sacrifice. Based on the quest for significance theory, we argue that individuals are propelled to self-sacrifice for a cause to achieve a sense of self-worth, particularly after experiencing a loss of significance. Results from 6 studies yielded support for this hypothesis. Using...
Article
Full-text available
The Need for Uniqueness (NfU) represents the extent to which an individual is motivated to appear special and different from others. NfU has been studied in various areas of interest to social psychology and neighboring disciplines, e.g., consumer behavior, social influence, as well as in the realm of cultural and individual differences. We adopted...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we will describe several means-goal configurations within goal systems theory: multifinality, equifinality, and counterfinality. In the multifinality configuration, one means serves several goals; in the equifinality configuration, one goal is served by several substitutable means; and in the counterfinality configuration, one goal...
Article
Full-text available
A defining force in the shaping of human identity is a person's need to feel special and different from others. Psychologists term this motivation Need for Uniqueness (NfU). There are manifold ways to establish feelings of uniqueness, e.g., by showing unusual consumption behaviour or by not conforming to majority views. The NfU can be seen as a sta...

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Project (1)
Project
The PsyCorona study is a multinational collaboration that aims to identify psychological and cultural factors that may be relevant to the virus spread and its imminent social and material consequences. The first survey includes brief measures to assess topic-relevant beliefs, fears and frustrations, subjective states, control and efficacy, values and needs, reasoning, and behavioral self-reports. The survey at https://psycorona.org has a built-in longitudinal component as well as a broader data science mission involving metadata. Pontus Leander and Jocelyn Belanger are PI.