Bing Su

Bing Su
Kunming Institute of Zoology CAS · State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution

PhD

About

317
Publications
77,439
Reads
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9,856
Citations
Introduction
1.Primate comparative genomics and genetic mechanism of origin of humans. 2. Genetic variations in human populations for reconstructing prehistory of modern humans and for understanding the role of natural selection in shaping up human genetic makeup.
Additional affiliations
September 2001 - present
April 2001 - August 2005
University of Cincinnati
August 1997 - April 2001
Education
September 1991 - July 1996
Kunming Institute of Zoology CAS
Field of study
  • Evolutionary Genetics
September 1985 - July 1989
Wuhan University
Field of study
  • Cell Biology

Publications

Publications (317)
Article
Full-text available
Strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation at high altitude imposes a serious selective pressure, which may induce skin pigmentation adaptation of indigenous populations. We conducted skin pigmentation phenotyping and genome-wide analysis of Tibetans in order to understand the underlying mechanism of adaptation to UV radiation. We observe that Tibetans have...
Preprint
Full-text available
Systems genetics holds the promise to decipher complex traits by interpreting their associated SNPs through gene regulatory networks derived from comprehensive multi-omics data of cell types, tissues, and organs. Here, we propose SpecVar to integrate paired chromatin accessibility and gene expression data into context-specific regulatory network at...
Article
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Southern East Asia is the dispersal center regarding the prehistoric settlement and migrations of modern humans in Asia-Pacific regions. However, the settlement pattern and population structure of paleolithic humans in this region remain elusive, and ancient DNA can provide direct information. Here, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene hom...
Article
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Birth weight (BW) is a key determinant of infant mortality. Previous studies have reported seasonal fluctuation of BW. However, the responsible environmental factors remain disputable. High-altitude environment provides a great opportunity to test the current hypotheses due to its distinctive climate conditions. We collected BW data of ~ 9000 Tibet...
Article
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Southeast Asian aborigines, the hunter-gatherer populations living in the tropical rainforests, exhibit distinct morphological phenotypes including short stature, dark skin, curly hair and wide and snub nose. The underlying genetic architecture and evolutionary mechanism of these phenotypes remain a long-term mystery. Here we conducted whole genome...
Article
Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of human brain evolution is essential to understanding human cognition and mental disorders. We generated multi-omics profiles and constructed a high-resolution map of 3D genome architecture of rhesus macaque during corticogenesis. By comparing the 3D genomes of human, macaque, and mouse brains, we identified m...
Article
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Local wild bovids have been determined to be important prey on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP), where hunting game was a major subsistence strategy until the late Neolithic, when farming lifestyles dominated in the neighboring Loess Plateau. However, the species affiliation and population ecology of these prehistoric wild bovids in the preh...
Article
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Significance We undertook an ancient genomic DNA investigation of large animal remains dated ∼5,200 y B.P. from the Tibetan Plateau. We provide compelling evidence that the present-day low-latitude tropical inhabitants Bos gaurus and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis once roamed as far north as the margin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP) during th...
Article
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High-altitude adaptation of Tibetans represents a remarkable case of natural selection during recent human evolution. Previous genome-wide scans found many non-coding variants under selection, suggesting a pressing need to understand the functional role of non-coding regulatory elements (REs). Here, we generate time courses of paired ATAC-seq and R...
Article
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Hanging Coffin is a unique and ancient burial custom which had been practiced in southern China, Southeast Asia and near Oceania regions for more than 3,000 years. Here, we conducted mitochondrial whole genome analyses of 41 human remains sampled from 13 Hanging Coffin sites in southern China and northern Thailand, which were dated between ∼2,500 t...
Article
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Structural variants (SVs) may play important roles in human adaptation to extreme environments such as high altitude but have been under-investigated. Here, combining long-read sequencing with multiple scaffolding techniques, we assembled a high-quality Tibetan genome (ZF1), with a contig N50 length of 24.57 mega-base pairs (Mb) and a scaffold N50...
Article
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CRISPR-Cas9 is a widely-used genome editing tool, but its off-target effect and on-target complex mutations remain a concern, especially in view of future clinical applications. Non-human primates (NHPs) share close genetic and physiological similarities with humans, making them an ideal preclinical model for developing Cas9-based therapies. Howeve...
Article
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We present a high-quality de novo genome assembly (rheMacS) of the Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) using long-read sequencing and multiplatform scaffolding approaches. Compared to the current Indian rhesus macaque reference genome (rheMac8), rheMacS increases sequence contiguity 75-fold, closing 21,940 of the remaining assembly gaps (60.8 M...
Article
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Human genetic adaptation to high altitudes (>2500 m) has been extensively studied over the last few years, but few functional adaptive genetic variants have been identified, largely owing to the lack of deep-genome sequencing data available to previous studies. Here, we build a list of putative adaptive variants, including 63 missense, 7 loss-of-fu...
Article
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We present a method that jointly analyzes the polymorphism and divergence sites in genomic sequences of multiple species to identify the genes under natural selection and pinpoint the occurrence time of selection to a specific lineage of the species phylogeny. This method integrates population genetics models using a Bayesian Poisson random field f...
Preprint
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Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is a widely-studied nonhuman primate. Here we present a high-quality de novo genome assembly of the Chinese rhesus macaque (rheMacS) using long-read sequencing and multiplatform scaffolding approaches. Compared to the current Indian rhesus macaque reference genome (rheMac8), the rheMacS genome assembly improves seque...
Article
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Why humans have large brains with higher cognitive abilities is a question long asked by scientists. However, much remains unknown, especially the underlying genetic mechanisms. With the use of a transgenic monkey model, we showed that human-specific sequence changes of a key brain development gene (primary microcephaly1, MCPH1) could result in det...
Article
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Brain size and cognitive skills are the most dramatically changed traits in humans during evolution and yet the genetic mechanisms underlying these human-specific changes remain elusive. Here, we successfully generated 11 transgenic rhesus monkeys (8 first-generation and 3 second-generation) carrying human copies of MCPH1 , an important gene for br...
Article
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Yak is one of the largest native mammalian species at the Himalayas, the highest plateau area in the world with an average elevation of >4,000 m above the sea level. Yak is well adapted to high altitude environment with a set of physiological features for a more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. Yet, the genetic mech...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a method that jointly analyzes the polymorphism and divergence sites in genomic sequences of multiple species to identify the genes under positive or negative selection and pinpoints the occurrence time of selection to a specific lineage of the species phylogeny. This method integrates population genetics models using the Bayesian Poisso...
Article
Full-text available
Human skin color diversity is considered an adaptation to environmental conditions such as UV radiation. Investigations into the genetic bases of such adaptation have identified a group of pigmentation genes contributing to skin color diversity in African and non-African populations. Here we present a population analysis of the pigmentation gene KI...
Preprint
CRISPR-Cas9 is a widely-used genome editing tool, but its off-target effect remains a concern, especially in view of future clinical applications. Non-human primates (NHPs) share close genetic and physiological similarities with humans, making them an ideal preclinical model for developing Cas9-based therapies. However, no comprehensive in vivo off...
Article
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder with high heritability. Genetic studies (especially recent genome-wide association studies) have identified many risk genes for schizophrenia. However, the physical interactions among the proteins encoded by schizophrenia risk genes remain elusive and it is not known whether the identified risk genes...
Article
Full-text available
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule for vasomotor tone, and elevated NO signaling was previously hypothesized as a unique and adaptive physiological change in highland Tibetans. However, there has been lack of NO data from Tibetans living at low altitude and lowlander immigrants living at high altitude, which is crucial to test this hypothes...
Article
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The von Economo neurons (VENs) are specialized large bipolar projection neurons with restricted distribution in the human brain, and they are far more abundant in humans than in non-human primates. However, VEN functions remain elusive due to the difficulty of isolating VENs and dissecting their connections in the brain. Here, we combined laser-cap...
Article
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Background Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color) in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Methods We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index) in...
Data
Distribution of skin pigmentation, expressed as M-index values, in the East Asian sample
Data
Genome-wide significant and suggestive signals observed in the genome-wide association study of skin pigmentation (M-index) and iris color (L*, a*, b* and delta values) All the regions indicated in the file have more than one genome-wide significant or suggestive marker with good imputation scores (info score >0.8).
Data
Regional plots for suggestive regions (p-value <10−5) identified in the GWAs of iris color (L* values) All these regions harbour multiple markers showing suggestive significance and good imputation.
Data
Regional plots for suggestive regions (p-value <10−5) identified in the GWAs of iris color (a* values) All these regions harbour multiple markers showing suggestive significance and good imputation scores (e.g., score info > 0.8).
Data
Table reporting allele frequencies and effect size estimates in the East Asian sample for markers known to be associated with light skin in European populations The table includes variants in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, which have very high frequencies in Europe and have been reported to have very strong effects on skin pigmentation in admixed g...
Data
Distribution of delta values (e.g., difference in color coordinates between the pupillary and ciliary regions of the iris) in the East Asian sample
Data
Regional plots for suggestive regions (p-value <10−5) identified in the GWAs of skin pigmentation All these regions harbour multiple markers showing suggestive significance and good imputation scores (e.g., score info > 0.8).
Data
QQ plots for L*, a* and b* iris color coordinates and delta values
Data
Regional plots for suggestive regions (p-value <10−5) identified in the GWAs of iris color (delta values) All these regions harbour multiple markers showing suggestive significance and good imputation scores (e.g., score info > 0.8).
Data
Scatterplots of a* and b* ( Fig. 2A), a* and L* (Fig. 2B) and b* and L* (Fig. 2C) CIELab iris color coordinates in the East Asian sample
Data
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) coordinates (axes 1 and 2) of the East Asian sample analyzed in the study, as well as the East Asian samples of the 1000 Genomes Project CDX, Chinese Dai in Xishuangbanna, KHV, Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, CHB, Han Chinese in Beijing, CHS, Han Chinese South and JPT, Japanese in Tokyo.
Data
QQ plot for skin pigmentation
Data
Regional plots for suggestive regions (p-value <10−5) identified in the GWAs of iris color (b* values) All these regions harbour multiple markers showing suggestive significance and good imputation scores (e.g., score info > 0.8).
Article
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is informative in identifying hidden disease risk genes that tend to interact with known risk genes usually working together in the same disease module. With the use of an integrated approach combining PPI information with pathway and expression analysis as well as genome-wide association study (GWAS), we intended...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The genetic relationships reported by recent studies between Sherpas and Tibetans are controversial. To gain insights into the population history and the genetic basis of high-altitude adaptation of the two groups, we analyzed genome-wide data in 111 Sherpas (Tibet and Nepal) and 177 Tibetans (Tibet and Qinghai), together with available...
Article
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Tibetans are well adapted to high-altitude hypoxia. Previous genome-wide scans have reported many candidate genes for this adaptation, but only a few have been studied. Here we report on a hypoxia gene (GCH1, GTP-cyclohydrolase I), involved in maintaining nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) function and normal blood pressure, that harbors many potentiall...
Article
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The genetic adaptation of Tibetans to high altitude hypoxia likely involves a group of genes in the hypoxic pathway, as suggested by earlier studies. To test the adaptive role of the previously reported candidate gene EP300 (histone acetyltransferase p300), we conducted resequencing of a 108.9 kb gene region of EP300 in 80 unrelated Tibetans. The a...
Article
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Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conduc...
Article
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Tibetans are well adapted to the hypoxic environments at high altitude, yet the molecular mechanism of this adaptation remains elusive. We reported comprehensive genetic and functional analyses of EPAS1, a gene encoding hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) with the strongest signal of selection in previous genome-wide scans of Tibetans. We showed t...
Article
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Tibetans are well adapted to high-altitude environments. Among the adaptive traits in Tibetans, the relatively low hemoglobin level is considered a blunted erythropoietic response to hypoxic challenge. Previously, EPAS1 and EGLN1, the major upstream regulators in the hypoxic pathway, were reportedly involved in the hemoglobin regulation in Tibetans...
Article
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Background Sherpas, a highlander population living in Khumbu region of Nepal, are well known for their superior climbing ability in Himalayas. However, the genetic basis of their adaptation to high‐altitude environments remains elusive. Methods We collected DNA samples of 582 Sherpas from Nepal and Tibetan Autonomous Region of China, and we measur...
Article
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Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on...
Article
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How do epigenetic modifications change across species and how do these modifications affect evolution? These are fundamental questions at the forefront of our evolutionary epigenomic understanding. Our previous work investigated human and chimpanzee brain methylomes, but it was limited by the lack of outgroup data which is critical for comparative...
Article
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The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan highlanders and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and un...
Article
In the past three years, RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome editing in many model and non-model animals. However, its application in nonhuman primates is still at the early stage, though in view of the simi...
Article
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk variants for samples of European and East Asian descent, but most of the identified susceptibility variants are population-specific to either Europeans or East Asians. This strong genetic heterogeneity suggests that differential population histories may play a...