Bill Retzlaff

Bill Retzlaff
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville | SIUE · Department of Biological Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

58
Publications
13,835
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816
Citations

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
Redesigning standard revetment or retaining walls to capture stormwater could increase the use of living walls and, thus, expand their beneficial impacts, including greening underutilized space. This study evaluated the potential stormwater retention and percent plant coverage of an experimental wall surface for six treatments (five vegetated Sedum...
Article
Full-text available
Since the year 2000, green roof and living architecture research has progressed significantly in North America. For future growth in the implementation of living architecture, there is still a great need for additional and expanded research on green roofs and as yet undefined innovative green infrastructure. This paper provides an overview of prior...
Poster
Full-text available
Initial results of hand weeding, mechanical weeding, and no weeding on green roof plant coverage and survival
Article
Full-text available
While much green roof research has been directed towards commercial and industrial buildings, less is known about the sloped roofs of residential buildings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pitched residential green roof system and determine its ability to retain stormwater runoff. In order to do this, 18 shingled roof models were constr...
Conference Paper
This study investigated the mass and concentration of nitrate in the runoff from black EPDM membrane (control) roofs, modular green roof units, and built-inplace (BIP) green roof models. Results for mass and concentration were similar. Results indicated that the mean nitrate mass in the runoff from the green roof systems was statistically higher th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods When road construction sites are to be inactive for several months, establishment of temporary vegetation cover is required to stabilize soils and prevent erosion. Currently the Illinois Department of Transportation prescribes seeding with a mixture of perennial rye (Lolium perenne) and oats (Avena sativa), regardless o...
Chapter
This study focuses on the water loss of green roof systems due to evapotranspiration, which is the combination of evaporation and transpiration processes. Water loss through evapotranspiration increases the capacity of a green roof to intercept additional stormwater during the following rain event and keep it out of the municipal stormwater system....
Article
Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the "nitrogen cascade"). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to...
Article
Full-text available
Green roofs are a technology used to control the quantity of the storm-water runoff and reduce energy consumption. Questions remain about their effect on water quality. Total suspended solids and turbidity are of the main parameters for water quality. This study investigated whether turbidity could produce a satisfactory estimation for total suspen...
Article
The contribution of green roofs to urban water quality is a subject of increasing interest. This study examined heavy metals in runoff from simulated green roof systems after 22-32 months in the field to assess source or sink behavior. The green roof systems were not sources of metals, except for one instance of elevated Cu in runoff. On some dates...
Article
Full-text available
The design of a green roof plays a significant role in performance. In a ground-level field study, 28 built-in-place green roof models, four modular units, and four roof decks with standard black membrane were arranged in a completely randomized design. Storm-water runoff quantity and quality were monitored from September 2005 through June 2008. Re...
Article
This paper presents a study on the use of furnace bottom ash (FBA) as a growth medium in green roof applications. Experimental tests were performed on three different green roof samples, involving FBA as the growth media and three sedum types (kamtchaticum, spurium, sexangulare) matched with it. Theoretical analysis was conducted for modeling the h...
Article
Full-text available
A simple binary mixing model is used to determine the isotopic ratios of lead (Pb) pollution sources to a lake located near a smelter closed because of excessive Pb aerosols (Horseshoe Lake Madison County, Illinois, USA). As a control, we also examine a relatively unpolluted lake in a rural area of Southern Illinois (Horseshoe Lake Alexander County...
Article
The contribution of green roofs to urban water quality, either as sinks or sources of pollutants, is an open question. This study examined leaching of Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn from simulated green roof systems that had been deployed under field conditions and naturally leached for 22 months. The objectives were to determine if Arkalyte (an expanded c...
Article
In this study, the simulation model TREGRO was parameterized from published phenology and allometry data to produce a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree following a 3-year model simulation. The simulated TREGRO sugar maple tree was calibrated so that (1) the modeled carbon (C) gain in each of the tree components (foliage, branch,...
Article
Full-text available
Green roof technology is used to reduce the quantity of stormwater runoff, but questions remain regarding its impact on quality. This study analyzed the total suspended solids (TSS) in and the turbidity of runoff from green roof growth media mixed with composted pine bark in an indoor pot study. The results showed that there were elevated levels of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present paper illustrates an experimental analysis on the comparative analysis of air-conditioning energy savings of different green roof applications based on experimental measurements. Tests were carried out on nine different green roof samples, involving three types of growth media (lava, arkalyte, pumice) matched with three sedum types (kam...
Article
Full-text available
Batch extraction and leaching studies were conducted with potential green roof substrates (e.g., Axis, Arklayte, coal bottom ash, Haydite, Lassenite, lava rock, and composted pine bark). The results indicated that these materials would not likely be sources of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Zn and that Lassenite would be considered a source of Mn if the leacha...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the energy savings, environmental benefits, and economic impact of green roof systems applied to a “micro” region in Western Turkey. This subdivision (Artur) in Karaaðaç, Izmir, consists of 1729 residential units, mostly used as summer homes. The units are in 45m2, 60m2, 90m2, and 105m2 sizes. Five different plant types were con...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal benefits of different green roof samples were analyzed and compared. Experimental data from ongoing green roof projects was used in a theoretical analysis of airconditioning energy savings with different green roof applications. Thermal data was collected from a typical non-reflective (EPDM) roof membrane and model green roof systems with t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During establishment and periodically throughout their life, green roof systems require some minimal maintenance. This maintenance may include plant replacement, biomass removal, weeding, irrigation, and fertilizer applications. Just like at-grade landscape systems, planted rooftop landscapes have fertility requirements-at least initially. We have...
Article
Biological volatilization of selenium (Se) in contaminated areas represents an environmentally friendly phytoremediation approach. Implementation of phytovolatilization technology for the remediation of Se-contaminated soils or sediments is oftentimes limited by its low remediation efficiency under field conditions. This greenhouse study determined...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Although green roofs have been utilized in Europe for many years, the technology is relatively new to the Midwestern United States. Forests and grasslands are rapidly being replaced with impervious surfaces as urbanization increases. This increase in impervious surface area can cause an increase in storm water runoff and the urban heat isl...
Article
Full-text available
Southeastern Missouri has been a major Pb mining region since 1720 AD. Missouri mines produce a Pb ore that has a distinctive elevated 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratio (>1.30) that is easily recognized in Pb-contaminated sediments. Five 210Pb dated sediment cores from Horseshoe Lake, Madison County, Illinois were examined to reconstruct Pb-contamination...
Article
We simulated forest dynamics of the regional ponderosa pine–white fir conifer forest of the San Bernadino and Sierra Nevada mountains of California to determine the effects of high ozone concentrations over the next century and to compare the responses to our similar study for loblolly pine forests of the southeast. As in the earlier study, we link...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Industrial development over the last 110 years has contaminated many parts of the American Bottoms, an extensive floodplain of the Mississippi River just east of St. Louis, MO. Water resources in this region have been severely impacted by long-term mismanagement of hazardous waste disposal by local industries. A record of metal contamination exists...
Article
Full-text available
Industrial development over the last 110 years has contaminated many parts of the American Bottoms, an extensive floodplain of the Mississippi River just east of St. Louis, MO. Water resources in this region have been severely impacted by long-term misman- agement of hazardous waste disposal by local industries. Toxic refuse from metal smelt- ing,...
Article
In highly polluted sites, stomatal behavior is sluggish with respect to light, vapor pressure deficit, and internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and poorly described by existing models. Statistical models were developed to estimate stomatal conductance (gs) of 40-year-old ponderosa pine at three sites differing in pollutant exposure for the purpose of ca...
Article
To simulate the long-term effects of ozone on forests in the US, we linked TREGRO, a mechanistic model of an individual tree, to ZELIG, a forest stand model, to examine the response of forests to five ozone exposure regimes (0 to ∼100 ppm h SUM06 per year) in 100-year simulations. TREGRO and ZELIG were parameterized using biological and meteorologi...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the contribution of belowground biomass allocation towards total carbon (C) allocation of two prove- nances of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), we examined the total biomass allocation of a fast- and slow-growing family from each provenance. Since planting on a xeric, infertile site in Scotland County, N.C., U.S.A., trees in this study hav...
Article
Full-text available
Plant physiological models are generally parameterized from many different sources of data, including chamber experiments and plantations, from seedlings to mature trees. We obtained a comprehensive data set for a natural stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and used these data to parameterize the physiologically based model, TREGRO. Rep...
Article
Source water utilized by four families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was assessed by comparing the H isotope composition (δD) of xylem sap and of soil water from four depths (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, 1.2 m, and 2.1 m) across 1 year. Soil water δD values varied with soil moisture content in the well-drained, sandy site and at each of the four soil dep...
Article
We used an individual tree physiology model, TREGRO, and a stand succession model, ZELIG, to extrapolate from the direct response of leaf photosynthesis to ozone exposure in individual plants to an estimate of the possible future ozone effects on a forest located in the Twin Creeks region in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). This forest...
Article
Full-text available
A physiologically based, single-tree simulation model, TREGRO, was parameterized with existing phenological, allometric, and growth data and used to predict effects of ozone and drought on growth of a 53-year-old white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. exHildebr.) tree following a 3-year model simulation. Multiple experimental simulations...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple TREGRO simulations were conducted with meteorological data files containing different growing season peak ozone (O3) episodes at O3 exposures of 1.0 and 2.0 × ambient O3 to assess the relationship between O3 response and the phenology of mature yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees. Regardless...
Article
Dans cette etude, les auteurs ont defini les parametres du modele de simulation TREGRO en se servant de donnees allometriques et phenologiques deja publiees dans le but de produire un erable a sucre (Acer saccharum Marsh.) de 160 ans en effectuant une simulation pour une periode de 3 ans. L'erable a sucre simule par TREGRO a ete calibre de telle so...
Article
Full-text available
Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, am...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindel. 'Casselman') trees exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressure treatments were sprayed with a summer application of Volck Supreme oil (1% aqueous solution) to control an outbreak of spider mites (Tetranychus spp.). Phytotoxic effects were observed on the foliage of trees in the plots exposed to ambient...
Article
Full-text available
Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O3) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of three seasonal atmospheric ozone (0,) concentrations on fruit quality, internal breakdown, weight loss, cuticle structure, and ripening characteristics of plum fruit from 3-year-old 'Casselman' trees in the 1991 season. Trees were exposed to 12-hour daily mean O 3 concentrations of 0.034 [charcoal-filtered air (CFA)],...
Article
Full-text available
Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., `Casselman') was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Kearney Agricultural Center, Univ. of California, near Fresno. The trees were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989 and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal-filtered air, ambient air, and...
Article
Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, ev. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora) propagated on peach (P. domestiea L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (03) par- tial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation cham- bers on 19...
Article
Full-text available
Nursery stock of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. O'Henry), nectarine (P. persica L. Batsch, cv. Fantasia), plum (P. salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman), apricot (P. armeniaca L., cv. Tilton), almond (P. dulcis Mill., cv. Nonpareil), prune (P. domestica L., cv. Improved French), cherry (P. avium L., cv. Bing), oriental pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Rehd.,...
Article
During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in...
Article
Full-text available
Industrial development over the last 110 years has contaminated many parts of the American Bottoms, an extensive floodplain of the Mississippi just east of St. Louis. Groundwater resources have been especially severely impacted by long-term mismanagement of hazardous waste disposal by local industries. Toxic refuse from metal smelting, steel-making...
Article
Nursery stock of nine fruit and nut tree species were planted in open-top chambers on April 1, 1988 at the University of California's Kearney Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley. The trees were then exposed to three levels of atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air + ozone) from 1 Au...
Article
In 1988, an experimental orchard of Cassleman plum (Prunus salicina) was planted in open top fumigation chambers and exposed for 4 growing seasons to three ozone concentrations near Fresno, California. During the two years from orchard establishment to the first fruit bearing stage, mean 12-h ozone levels (1989) were 0.044 ppm in the charcoal filte...
Article
In 1988, an experimental orchard of Cassleman plum (Prunus salicina) was planted in open-top-fumigation chambers and exposed for 4 growing seasons to three ozone concentrations near Fresno, California. During the third year of the study, mean 12-h ozone levels (1991) were 0.034 ppm in the charcoal filtered chambers, 0.050 ppm in the ambient air cha...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of our project was to determine the effect of various growth medium depths on the establishment of Sedum immergrauch in a green roof system. The shallower the growth medium, the greater the physical demands on the green roof plants. Shallow medium depth may lead to root damage from heat and frost fluctuations (Boivin et. al, 2001). Furt...
Article
Full-text available
This study is on the theoretical and experimental analysis of thermal insulation properties of different green roof systems based on experimental measurements. Tests were carried out on 12 different green roof samples, involving four types of growth media (lava, arkalyte, pumice , haydite) matched with three sedum types (kamtchaticum, spurium, s ex...

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