Bill Kapralos

Bill Kapralos
Ontario Tech University | UOIT · Faculty of Business and Information Technology

BSc (Hons), MSc, PhD

About

271
Publications
70,974
Reads
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2,548
Citations
Citations since 2016
116 Research Items
1713 Citations
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Introduction
Bill Kapralos is an Associate Professor within the maxSIMhealth Laboratory at Ontario Tech University, an Honourable Guest Professor at Shizuoka University, and the Technical Lead of the Collaborative Human Immersive Interaction Laboratory (CHISIL), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto. His current research interests include: immersive technologies, serious gaming, multi-modal virtual environments/simulation/reality, the perception of auditory events, and 3D sound.

Publications

Publications (271)
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the mental health of healthcare workers, increasing the rates of moral distress (MD) and moral injury (MI) in this population. OBJECTIVE This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a virtual reality (VR) scenario to examine MD among healthcare workers during COVID-19, and to use our mobi...
Article
Dementia is considered a global health priority with projections of the disease set to increase dramatically across the world. Current support for persons living with dementia (PLWD) relies on long-term care and local service centers to provide education and support. Augmented reality-based programs continue to gain momentum across health sectors,...
Article
In a centralized model of simulation-based education (Ce-SBE), the trainees practice clinical skills in simulated laboratories based on physical models, while in a decentralized model (De-SBE), the trainees practice these skills outside of these laboratories. Attention to De-SBE has drastically shifted to virtual learning environments (VLEs), serio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stress, anxiety, distress, and depression are high among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, and they have reported acting in ways that are contrary to their moral values and professional commitments that degrade their integrity. This creates moral distress and injury due to constraints they have encountered, such as limit...
Chapter
Full-text available
Affective computing aims to design and develop natural human-user interfaces that respond to the emotional needs of the user, bridging the gap between humans and technology. With the continuing technological advancements affective computing technologies are now available at the consumer level and are revolutionizing the ways in which we interact wi...
Chapter
With vaping becoming a bigger issue amongst youth aged 12–17 in Ontario, there is a need for more innovative teaching methods when it comes to educating youth regarding the physical and psychological effects of vaping, and on how peer pressure and marketing techniques employed by the industry can affect their choices. In collaboration with the Simc...
Chapter
Auditory and haptic cues play an important role in medical simulation for developing cognitive and motor skills. For example, medical training whereby trainees practice drilling-related surgeries requires the use of force feedback haptic devices in conjunction with computer-based simulations that provide audiovisual cues. Traditionally, this practi...
Article
Full-text available
Hand-sewn bowel anastomosis (HSBA) is an essential skill for surgical residents to learn, as it is used in numerous surgical procedures. However, the opportunities to practice this skill before attempting it on patients are limited. Practice on simulators can help improve this technique, but there is a paucity of realistic, cost-efficient simulator...
Article
Healthcare professionals must be able to work in multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). The purpose of this editorial is to explain how healthcare professionals (can) contribute to the effectiveness of MDT, through the use of activity theory (collective work activity shared by others who are motivated by a purpose mediated by tools in order to achieve a s...
Research
Full-text available
Entry published in the Scholarly Community Encyclopedia. Definition: Olfactory displays are defined as human-computer interfaces that generate and diffuse or transmit one or more odors to a user for a purpose. Computer-generated odors, in conjunction with other sensory information, have been proposed and used in education and training settings over...
Article
Full-text available
Direct ophthalmoscopy (DO) is a medical procedure whereby a health professional, using a direct ophthalmoscope, examines the eye fundus. DO skills are in decline due to the use of interactive diagnostic equipment and insufficient practice with the direct ophthalmoscope. To address the loss of DO skills, physical and computer-based simulators have b...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an overview of olfactory displays (human–computer interfaces that generate and diffuse an odor to a user to stimulate their sense of smell) that have been proposed and researched for supporting education and training. Past research has shown that olfaction (the sense of smell) can support memorization of information, stimulate...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Stress, anxiety, distress and depression are high among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic and they have reported acting in ways that are contrary to their moral values, integrity, and professional commitments that degrade their integrity. This creates moral distress and injury as a result of constraints they have encountere...
Article
The rise of the digital revolution has disrupted entire industries and job markets, leading individuals to either upgrade or transfer their skills in order to continue within their designated fields or transition to new workplace contexts. Employers expect their employees to apply their knowledge to real-world settings, analyze and solve problems,...
Article
Purpose Very little effort has been dedicated to the teaching of serious game design and development. At the post-secondary level, very few courses dedicated to serious game design and development exist. At the K-12 level, although (entertainment) game design and programming instruction are becoming more widespread, serious game design and developm...
Conference Paper
The real world is multisensory and our experiences in this world are constructed by the stimulation of all our senses including visual, auditory, touch, olfactory, and taste. However, virtual environments including virtual simulations and serious games, and the human-computer interface more generally, have focused on the visual and auditory senses....
Chapter
Book link: https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZfRNEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&ots=KvImUNi961&sig=40HuC2lumwM6Ns0SMtVEja-W38g&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false The real world is multisensory and our experiences in this world are constructed by the stimulation of all our senses including visual, auditory, touch, olfactory, and taste. However, virtu...
Article
Full-text available
The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has shifted traditional educational approaches in health professions education (HPE) from in-person to remote learning. Although pedagogical strategies have been developed and implemented rapidly to support cognitive and affective domains of learning in HPE, less progress has occurred in psychomot...
Chapter
Eye fundus examination requires extensive practice to enable the adequate interpretation of the anatomy observed as a flat image seen through the ophthalmoscope, which is a handheld device that allows for the non-invasive examination of the back of the eye. Mastering eye examination with an ophthalmoscope is difficult due to the intricate volumetri...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of novel game interaction design using brain computer interface (BCI), electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking.Our main goal is to highlight particular applications of these novel interfaces in digital games and accessible computing technology. We also investigate commercial offerings within these areas, such...
Chapter
Traditional board games have risen back in popularity in recent years, with the activity bringing many positive contributions to its participants. Despite the resurgence of this genre, the act of playing such games remains highly inaccessible to persons with visual impairment, since they often employ visuals alone to communicate gameplay informatio...
Poster
Performing an epidural is a very complex and demanding task for an anesthetist to learn. Virtual reality (VR) and haptic simulators have the potential to provide cost-effective learning opportunities to improve epidural expertise, increase patient safety, and success rates. Here, we present the Unity Simulator for Epidural Insertion Training (USEIT...
Article
We have recently developed the Unity Simulator for Epidural Insertion Training (USEIT) system that provides an innovative and relatively inexpensive virtual simulation approach for epidural training. This report describes the design and development process to produce the USEIT system.
Book
In a time of ongoing pandemic when well-being is a priority this volume presents latest works across disciplines associated to Virtual Patients, Gamification and Simulation. Chapters herein present international perspectives with authors from around the globe contributing to this impactful third edition to the series following a 2014 Springer book...
Chapter
Currently, virtual reality and makerspace consumables are being adopted in education for creating engaging simulation learning experiences. Traditional user input devices can break immersion and may not be suitable for developing psychomotor skills due to the differences with real medical equipment. In this paper, we present the development of a st...
Article
Full-text available
The interactive and engaging nature of serious games (i.e., video games designed for educational purposes) enables deeper learning and facilitates behavior change; however, most do not specifically support the dissemination of national dietary guidelines, and there are limited data on their impact on child nutrition knowledge. The Foodbot Factory s...
Chapter
Online collaborative learning has been used since the 1980s, and although the evolution of the Internet and mobile computing has caused its mass adoption, e-learning remains a relevant field of study. Taking advantage of e-learning has driven the development of numerous tools, frameworks, and best practices to overcome the challenges faced by learn...
Chapter
Given their ability to motivate and engage users, digital media, and games in particular, are being adopted on a mass scale in a wide area of applications including education, training, health care, and therapy, amongst others. Traditional therapy for children diagnosed with autism comprises a set of activities aimed at improving behavioral traits...
Conference Paper
Despite advancements in AI for games in recent years, non-player characters (NPCs) still do not perceive the world in a realistic manner. NPC's sense of hearing has been limited or ignored. Building on our previous work that saw the development of GrAF, a graph-based spatial sound framework capable of modelling the propagation of sound through comp...
Article
Here we present the anesthesia crisis scenario builder (ACSB) framework \red{prototype} that allows for the development of (or modification of existing), anesthesia crisis resource management-based virtual simulations. The ACSB framework was developed specifically to allow medical educators, who may have a limited (if any) programming/software deve...
Article
Spatial sound is an important component of realistic simulations in virtual environments. There have been shortcomings in existing spatial audio rendering systems, however, due to the computational cost of rendering realistic sound propagation. In this paper, we present a novel spatial sound rendering method using 3D graphs to simulate sound propag...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Early nutrition interventions to improve food knowledge and skills are critical in enhancing the diet quality of children and reducing the lifelong risk of chronic disease. Despite the rise of mobile health (mHealth) apps and their known effectiveness for improving health behaviors, few evidence-based apps exist to help engage children...
Article
MaxSIMhealth is a multidisciplinary network of manufacturing, design, and simulation labs at Ontario Tech University combining expertise in health sciences, business and information technology (IT), and engineering while building community partnerships to advance simulation training. It discovers existing simulation gaps, provides innovative soluti...
Chapter
Enhanced reality for immersive simulation (e-REAL®) is the merging of real and virtual worlds: a mixed reality environment for hybrid simulation where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time, in a real place and not within a headset. The first part of this chapter discusses e-REAL: an advanced simulation within a multisensor...
Article
Full-text available
When used in educational settings, simulations utilizing virtual reality (VR) technologies can reduce training costs while providing a safe and effective learning environment. Tasks can be easily modified to maximize learning objectives of different levels of trainees (e.g., novice, intermediate, expert), and can be repeated for the development of...
Article
Full-text available
With the rise of consumer-level virtual and augmented reality, there has been renewed interest in spatial sound. While this interest has been exciting for sound researchers, for newcomers to spatial sound the field can be fraught with technical terminology and a wide range of tools. This paper presents an introduction to spatial sound rendering in...
Article
Full-text available
The Collaborative Learning of Usability Experiences (CLUE) training program1 is an NSERC CREATE grant that trains Canada's leaders in HCI. We aim to improve our trainees' capabilities across the disciplinary boundaries (Information Technology, Psychology, Computer Science, and Design), through collaborative professional skills development, experien...
Conference Paper
Online collaborative learning has been used since the 1980s, and although the evolution of the Internet and mobile computing has caused its mass adoption, e-learning remains a relevant field of study. Taking advantage of e-learning has driven the development of numerous tools, frameworks, and best practices to overcome the challenges faced by learn...
Conference Paper
Given their ability to motivate and engage users, digital media, and games in particular, are being adopted on a mass scale in a wide area of applications including education, training, health care, and therapy, amongst others. Traditional therapy for children diagnosed with autism comprises a set of activities aimed at improving behavioral traits...
Article
This paper is an introduction to pseudo-haptics; that is, the use of touch-based illusions created by cross-modal perceptual interactions. Many studies have shown that it is possible to use visual or auditory stimuli to simulate the experience of touch, movement, and force. Pseudo-haptics isis useful in many applications, particularly where the use...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Early nutrition interventions to improve food literacy skills and diet quality are critical to enhancing the nutritional status of children and preventing the development of chronic disease later in life. Despite the rise of mobile technology and mHealth apps and their known effectiveness for improving health behaviours, few evidence-bas...
Chapter
The direct fundoscopy examination procedure involves interpreting the intricate anatomy of the eye when viewed through the lens of an ophthalmoscope. Mastering this procedure is difficult, and it requires extensive training that still employs instructional materials including pictures, illustrations, videos, and more recently, interactive computer-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Board games present accessibility barriers for players with visual impairment since they often employ visuals alone to communicate gameplay information. Our research focuses on board game accessibility for those with visual impairment. This paper describes a three-phase study conducted to develop board game accessibility adaptation guidelines. Thes...
Article
The paper presents an overview of the current state of research in intelligent avatars, with a particular focus on the detection and expression of emotions in virtual environments. Our interest lies particularly in the potential use of such tools for the development of medical (mental and physical health) training virtual environments, and virtual...
Article
Full-text available
Touch plays a fundamental role in our daily interactions, allowing us to interact with and perceive objects and their spatial properties. Despite its importance in the real-world, touch is often ignored in virtual environments. However, accurately simulating the sense of touch is difficult, requiring the use of high-fidelity haptic devices that are...
Conference Paper
Upper limb interactions play an important role in scenarios employing virtual, augmented, and mixed reality. Numerous sensors (e.g., optical, magnetic, mechanical, myography), have been employed to provide natural interactions, in some cases requiring additional hardware. Recently, virtual, augmented, and mixed reality headsets have started embeddi...