Bill Addis

Bill Addis
Technische Universität München | TUM · Department of Architecture

PhD

About

60
Publications
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286
Citations
Introduction
Bill Addis was most recently a visiting Professor at the Technical University in Munich. He is now retired. Bill does research in the History of Building and Civil Engineering Science and Design, and History of Structural Engineering. The current projects are 'History of construction' 'History of Engineering Design' and 'The use of physical models in building and civil engineering'. For more details see https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-630X

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
Los modelos a escala reducida se han utilizado con muchos objetivos en la mayoría de las disciplinas de la ingeniería civil y de la construcción. Ayudaron a los maestros constructores a comunicar a los artesanos el diseño de complejas armaduras de cubierta, puentes y grandes estructuras de fábrica. Desde principios del siglo XVIII, los ingenieros t...
Article
Full-text available
The author presents new and rediscovered information about the use of physical models in design processes carried out by architectural and civil engineers. Over the last three centuries these have included mechanical models, form-finding models and measurement models. Measurement models especially were and are particularly important for innovative...
Book
The book traces the use of physical models by engineering designers from the eighteenth century, through their heyday in the 1950s-70s, to their current use alongside computer models. It argues that their use has been at least as important in the development of engineering as scientific theory has. A fuller outline of this book is available at: ht...
Chapter
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The first experiments to determine the force of the wind were undertaken in the eighteenth century by John Smeaton and his rules were used well into the twentieth century. The first attempts to measure such forces using models were in the 1890s, at the same time that wind tunnels were first used to study the lift and drag on flying machines. Early...
Chapter
The Britannia Bridge carrying the railway across the Menai Strait in north Wales was six times larger than any girder bridge previously constructed – the greatest increment in span during the entire history of bridge building. To provide sufficient confidence to undertake this remarkable achievement, William Fairbairn undertook several dozen tests...
Chapter
Photoelastic stress analysis uses models made of transparent materials such as Bakelite and Araldite. When loaded and viewed using polarised light, the differences between the orthogonal principal stresses are made visible. This allows the internal stress trajectories to be plotted and areas of stress concentration to be identified. The technique w...
Chapter
The earliest scientific studies of earthquakes in the late nineteenth century concentrated on capturing the precise movement that was experienced by an object in an earthquake; however, these did not include accelerations or forces. The first shaking table used to study the response of a brick column to repeated horizontal movements was made in Tok...
Chapter
Reduced‐scale physical models were first used in the 1870s to study the flow of free‐surface water. They were carried out to explain why the navigable channel of the River Garonne in south‐west France silted up and required regular and expensive dredging. The model was built at a scale (in plan) of 1:100 alongside the real river. A decade later, Os...
Chapter
Two techniques are necessary when using physical models to assist with structural design – being able to measure the deformation of the small model to sufficient accuracy, and being able to use these measurements to predict deflections and stresses in a full‐size structure, especially when structural phenomena such as buckling cannot be scaled up l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Finalizada la Primera Guerra Carlista (1833-1840) se abría un nuevo tiempo en el País Vasco, marcado por la amenaza nunca concretada de la modificación de los Fueros por parte del Gobierno de España. La incertidumbre política, sin embargo, no fue óbice para que en el País Vasco se iniciara una etapa caracterizada por un alto nivel de desarrollo. De...
Article
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This paper is a review of the civil engineering heritage of England, one of the series of national profiles being published by Engineering History and Heritage. It is presented under four headings: ‘England’s major civil engineering achievements’, ‘National and regional recognition of engineering heritage’, ‘Exemplar conservation of engineering str...
Chapter
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There is a strong temptation to assume that biomimetics is merely a matter of copying a structural idea that is found in nature. However, this overlooks the process of structural design which is much more than creating a certain structural form. It also involves using appropriately approximate mathematical models of material properties and the load...
Article
Full-text available
The Conservation Information Resource for Civil Engineers (Circe) is a new resource available on the Institution of Civil Engineers’ (ICE) website. It provides access to a wide range of information and guidance for civil and building engineers working on conservation, restoration and extension of the life of existing structures and is available to...
Article
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Like most engineers of his day, Francesco divided his time between military engineering and architecture, when the various city states were attacking or under attack, and civil projects when they were not. In his manuscript Trattato di architettura, ingegneria e arte militare Francesco demonstrates his approach to engineering design in the way he c...
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Small-scale physical models have been used to determine the most efficient form of pure compression and tensile structures since the 17th century - and to predict structural behaviour of some full-size structures since the mid-19th century. This paper traces the development of model testing in the design of building structures from its origins in t...
Article
The History of the Theory of Structures: From Arch Analysis to Computational MechanicsKurrerK-E.. Ernst & Sohn Verlag, Rotherstrasse 21, D-10245 Berlin, Germany. 2008. Distributed by John Wiley and Sons, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, UK. 848pp. Illustrated. £90. ISBN 978-3-433-01838-5. - Volume 112 Issue 1134 - Bill A...
Chapter
IntroductionThe ‘pre-history’ of modern concrete: up to the 1890sThe early days of reinforced concrete: from the 1890s to the First World WarBetween the wars: 1920–1945Post-war reconstruction and expansion: 1945 to the mid-1960sThe recent past: from the mid-1960s to 2001ReferencesFurther reading
Article
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Thomas Telford, the Institution of Civil Engineers' first president, was born 250 years ago this year His career spanned a half-century that saw some of the most remarkable changes in the way European engineers approached the design of buildings, bridges and machines. This paper reviews the development of engineering design, science and education d...
Book
From Egypt and Classical Greece and Rome through the building booms of the Gothic era and the Renaissance, and from the Industrial Revolution to the present era of digital modelling, Building: 3,000 Years of Design, Engineering, and Construction, charts centuries of innovations in engineering and building construction. This comprehensive and heavil...
Article
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Completed in 1851 to house the Exhibition of All Nations in London, the Crystal Palace was the first large public building that departed completely from traditional construction materials and methods. It was the first major building to be conceived by its design engineers, William Barlow and Charles Fox, as a rigid-jointed iron frame and one of the...
Article
Both architects and engineers are unconsciously drawn towards the two dimensional world - the ubiquity of the plan and elevation, and the ease of analysing 2-D structures. Yet the best architecture always exploits the three dimensional world, and the majority of structural problems and collapses occur when engineers have failed to think in the thir...
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Full-text available
Summary The consideration of the aesthetics of engineering structures has tended to remain locked in the narrow, nineteenth-century interpretation of the word `aesthetics', implying only the visual aspects of engineering artefacts. It is high time that the use of the word in engineering circles caught up to date with twentieth-century philosophy of...
Book
The importance of design has often been neglected in studies considering the history of structural and civil engineering. Yet design is a key aspect of all building and engineering work. This volume brings together a range of articles which focus on the role of design in engineering. It opens by considering the principles of design, then deals with...
Article
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The paper explores some often-conflicting aspects of the conception of structures - the origination of new structural schemes and the mathematical optimisation characteristic of detail design, divergent and convergent thinking, standard designs and designing from first principles (bespoke designs), and the architect's and engineer's different perce...
Book
Challenging the conventional view that engineering design has its roots in "theory" and consists in the application of theory in "practice", this book aims to increase awareness of the philosophy of engineering amongst practising engineers, academics and students. The author follows approaches well-established in the history and philosophy of scien...
Article
Full-text available
As a formal academic discipline within the higher education system, the state of construction history in Britain is not healthy. Indeed it is now in a worse state than one or two decades ago. There are no University Departments of Construction History and hardly any formal lecture courses in the subject at undergraduate or post-graduate level. Like...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This project aims to develop a better understanding of the nature of engineering design by studying the history of this subject and its current practice.
Project
To enhance the understanding of the role of physical models in the progress of civil and building engineering. To develop a history of this field of interest. To develop a bibliography in this field of interest.
Project
To enhance understanding the epistemology and development of structural engineering To establish construction history as a mainstream discipline