Bilal Barakat

Bilal Barakat
Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW) | ÖAW · Vienna Institute of Demography

PhD

About

53
Publications
6,335
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
689
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - present
Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW)
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (53)
Preprint
Estimating school completion is crucial for monitoring SDG 4 on education, and unlike enrollmentindicators, relies on household surveys. Associated data challenges include gaps between waves, conflictingestimates, age misreporting, and delayed completion. Our Adjusted Bayesian Completion Rates (ABC)model overcomes these challenges to produce the fi...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report, which looks at social, economic, and cultural mechanisms that discriminate against disadvantaged children, youth, and adults, keeping them out of education or marginalized in it. Countries are expanding their vision of inclusion in education to put diversity at the co...
Article
Full-text available
The expansion of higher education enrollment and attainment is a key uncertainty in the education profile of future populations. Many studies have examined cross-national determinants of higher education expansion as well the understanding of expansion through the relationship between higher education and the labor market. Early work established a...
Book
The Role of Education in Enabling the Sustainable Development Agenda explores the relationship between education and other key sectors of development in the context of the new global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agenda. While it is widely understood that there is a positive relationship between education and other dimensions of development,...
Chapter
Education is an inherently long-term endeavour. Not only in the sense that formal schooling alone may last a significant part of a lifetime, but also because part of the reason for spending this time in school is the promise of benefits for decades to come. This is true at both the individual and societal levels. For the underlying educational syst...
Article
Full-text available
The age pattern of school entry reflects a complex social and empirical reality that is inadequately captured by a single number. Recognising these complexities in national and international research and policy discourse raises important but neglected questions around the identification of vulnerable groups, the relative value of pre-primary and pr...
Article
We propose the use of methods based on the Shapley value to assess the fact that private returns to lower levels of educational attainment should be credited with part of the returns from higher attainment levels, since achieving primary education is a necessary condition to enter secondary and tertiary educational levels. We apply the proposed adj...
Article
Current higher education policy debates in Europe are increasingly focusing on raising the share of private funding. To date, policy proposals have centred on a relatively small number of alternatives, namely full public funding, tuition fees, either up-front or delayed and income-contingent, or a surtax on graduate incomes. Here, I present an alte...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Parametric count distributions customarily used in demography - the Poisson and negative binomial models - do not offer satisfactory descriptions of empirical distributions of completed cohort parity. One reason is that they cannot model variance-to-mean ratios below unity, i.e., underdispersion, which is typical of low-fertility parity...
Chapter
India has experienced large changes, both relative and absolute, in the education of her population in recent decades. Literacy levels have been steadily rising. During the last decade alone, it is estimated that the number of out-of-school children has been reduced by as much as 17 million. However, not least due to sheer population size, India co...
Article
Here we show the extent to which the expected world population growth could be lowered by successfully implementing the recently agreed-upon Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs include specific quantitative targets on mortality, reproductive health, and education for all girls by 2030, measures that will directly and indirectly affect fu...
Chapter
As many European countries have to cope with a shrinking and aging labor force, one important goal of redistributing work is to increase female labor force participation. In some countries, however, this increase could come at the cost of a reduced fertility rate as childcare facilities might be rare or institutional settings and social support are...
Article
Full-text available
We hereby present a dataset produced at the Wittgenstein Centre (WIC) containing comprehensive time series on educational attainment and mean years of schooling (MYS). The dataset is split by 5-year age groups and sex for 171 countries and covers the period between 1970 and 2010. It also contains projections of educational attainment to 2060 based...
Article
Full-text available
When only whole years of age are recorded in survey data, children who experienced a birthday since the beginning of the school year may appear to be of school-age when they are not, or vice-versa. This creates an error in estimates of school participation indicators based on such data. This issue is well-known in education statistics, and several...
Article
There is a potential disconnect between adult literacy initiatives on the one hand and the indicators typically employed to operationalize their targets and measure their progress on the other. Specifically, the policy discourse is typically framed in terms of illiterate adults becoming literate, while changes in the main indicator, the overall adu...
Article
In the early 2000s, China’s Ministry of Education embarked on a program of school mapping restructure (SMR) that involved closing small rural schools and opening up larger centralized schools in towns and county seats.The stated aim of the policy was to improve educational resources and raise the human capital of rural students. Any progress that m...
Article
A popular notion asserts that closing the last primary school marks a community's demographic death. No young parents will remain, much less new ones move in. This notion is frequently voiced but rarely verified. Are school closures a cause or consequence of local decline? This study reviews existing research on school locations and peripheral popu...
Article
Background: Consanguinity - or marriage between close blood relatives, in particular first cousins - is widely practised and even socially encouraged in many countries. However, in the face of fertility transition where the number of cousins eligible to marry declines, how might such constraints on consanguinity develop in the future?. Objective: N...
Article
BACKGROUND Understanding the relationship of education to fertility requires the disentangling of the potentially confounding effect of social status, which ishighly correlated with education. OBJECTIVE We contribute to this aim by examiningeducational fertility differentials within occupational groups and industries across a broad swath of Central...
Article
Educational behaviour varies by age. One implication of this fact is that the value of aggregate education indicators such as enrolment ratios is influenced by the age structure of the population through a pure composition effect. This phenomenon is not generally acknowledged in educational statistics, much less accounted for. The scant treatment t...
Article
Age Compositional Adjustments for Educational Participation Indicators Educational behaviour varies by age. One implication of this fact is that the value of aggregate education indicators such as enrolment ratios is influenced by the age structure of the population through a pure composition effect. This phenomenon is not generally acknowledged in...
Article
The number of years a child of school-entry age can expect to remain in school is of great interest both as a measure of individual human capital and of the performance of an education system. An approximate indicator of this concept is the sum of age-specific enrolment rates. The relatively low data demands of this indicator that are feasible to m...
Article
The demographic shifts under way in parts of Europe represent significant challenges from a labor market and pension system point of view. This chapter takes a review of projections of the size and age profile of European populations as its starting point for an investigation of different scenarios of retirement arrangements. As important as numeri...
Article
Higher education is never free — the question is: who should pay for it? Current policy debates in Europe are increasingly focusing on raising the share of private funding. To date, policy discussions have centred on a relatively small number of alternatives, namely full public funding, tuition fees, either up-front or delayed and income-contingent...
Article
Full-text available
Using demographic multi-state, cohort-component methods, we produce projections for 120 countries (covering 93% of the world population in 2005) by five-year age groups, sex, and four levels of educational attainment for the years 2005-2050. Taking into account differentials in fertility and mortality by education level, we present the first system...
Article
At some level, the connection between education and demography is perfectly obvious: indeed, one conceivable definition is that "education is about what one generation believes to be worth passing on to the next". But how can we get from 'Education and Demography' to 'Educational Demography'? Or, indeed, to a 'Demography of Education', and are the...
Article
Full-text available
In summer 2007, the US subprime crisis emerged and economic growth in industrialised countries started to slow down. The situation deteriorated after the default of Lehman Brothers in September 2008 and despite massive government interventions, the United States and most European countries slid into recession. We investigate the influence of the re...
Chapter
One of the major obstacles facing the implementation of TVET programming in post-conflict situations is a lack of data on the needs and skills of the target population. In terms of a strict concentration on the ability of TVET programming to improve the skill-set and employability of participants, this lack of data poses the problem of leading to a...
Chapter
The effect a conflict has on local TVET need not be the same as its effect on other kinds of education. While this is almost tautological, it is worthwhile examining just how pronounced the difference can be and, by implication, how potentially misleading it would be in conflict and post-conflict settings to generalize from the state of the educati...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the developing world has experienced a decline in mortality, while fertility often has remained high. This has produced youthful populations in many countries, generally referred to as"youth bulges."Recent empirical research suggests that youth bulges may be associated with increased risks of political violence and conflict. This paper addr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Using demographic multi-state methods, this paper presents projections for the population of 120 countries (covering 93 percent of the world population in 2000) by age, sex and level of educational attainment for the years 2000 to 2050. The dataset produced gives the full educational attainment distributions for four categories (no education, prima...
Article
Much recent research has been directed at illuminating the role of education in major conflicts between ethnic groups. It is increasingly well understood that education does not necessarily have a positive, peace-supporting influence, but that the wrong kind of education can serve to reinforce divisions. However, in many conflicts there are multipl...

Network

Cited By