Beverly Park Woolf

Beverly Park Woolf
University of Massachusetts Amherst | UMass Amherst · School of Computer Science

Ph.D.

About

250
Publications
67,540
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,665
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1984 - present
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (250)
Chapter
A major challenge for online learning systems is supporting students’ engagement. Online systems are sometimes boring, repetitive, and unappealing; external distractions often lead to off-task behavior, and a decline in learning. Student engagement and emotion are also tightly correlated with learning gains because emotion drives attention and atte...
Conference Paper
Abstract— In this work, we propose a video-based transfer learning approach for predicting problem outcomes of students working with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). By analyzing a student’s face and gestures, our method predicts the outcome of a student answering a problem in an ITS from a video feed. Our work is motivated by the reasoning th...
Chapter
Full-text available
While using online learning software, students demonstrate many reactions, various levels of engagement, and emotions (e.g. confusion, boredom, excitement). Having such information automatically accessible to teachers (or digital tutors) can aid in understanding how students are progressing, and suggest who and when needs further assistance. As par...
Chapter
Full-text available
While using online learning software, students demonstrate many reactions, various levels of engagement, and emotions (e.g. confusion, excitement, frustration). Having such information automatically accessible to teachers (or digital tutors) can aid in understanding how students progress and suggest when and who needs further assistance. We develop...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the context of building an intelligent tutoring system (ITS), which improves student learning outcomes by intervention, we set out to improve prediction of student problem outcome. In essence, we want to predict the outcome of a student answering a problem in an ITS from a video feed by analyzing their face and gestures. For this, we present a n...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Patient portals are becoming more common, and with them, the ability of patients to access their personal electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs, in particular the free-text EHR notes, often contain medical jargon and terms that are difficult for laypersons to understand. There are many Web-based resources for learning more about partic...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation describes why AI is needed in education and suggests some of the goals that AI in Education systems have addressed. The presentation was delivered in a Workshop in AIED 2015. The paper is also publicly available in Researchgate.
Chapter
We empirically investigate two methods for eliciting student emotion within an online instructional environment. Students may not fully express their emotions when asked to report on a single emotion. Furthermore, students’ usage of emotional terms may differ from that of researchers. To address these issues, we tested two alternative emotion self-...
Chapter
Full-text available
This research focuses on determining whether a student’s grit impacts their behavior within an intelligent tutoring system, towards developing better student models and feature sets that can help tutors predict student behavior and determine whether tutors might foster improvements in students’ grit, perseverance and recovery from failure. We use r...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many intelligent tutors are not designed with English language learners (ELL) in mind. As a result, Hispanic ELL students, a large and underserved population in U.S. classrooms, may experience difficulty accessing the relevant tutor content. This research investigates how Hispanic and ELL students perceive the utility of and relate to animated peda...
Article
Full-text available
The Publisher regrets a spelling error in the family name of the third author. “Winslow Burelson” should be “Winslow Burleson”.
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Patient portals are becoming more common, and with them, the ability of patients to access their personal electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs, in particular the free-text EHR notes, often contain medical jargon and terms that are difficult for laypersons to understand. There are many Web-based resources for learning more about particu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Patient portals are becoming more common, and with them, the ability of patients to access their personal electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs, in particular the free-text EHR notes, often contain medical jargon and terms that are difficult for laypersons to understand. There are many Web-based resources for learning more about parti...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Office of Naval Research (ONR) organized a STEM Challenge initiative to explore how intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) can be developed in a reasonable amount of time to help students learn STEM topics. This competitive initiative sponsored four teams that separately developed systems that covered topics in mathematics, electronics,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a new method for helping students improve their ability to develop proofs, a skill necessary for comprehending and appreciating the foundational topics of computer science. Our method transforms ordinary pen-and-paper homework problems into a puzzle-like game, where students connect dots to justify assertions, in a quest to rea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present results of a randomized controlled study that compared different types of affective messages delivered by pedagogical agents. We used animated characters that were empathic and emphasized the malleability of intelligence and the importance of effort. Results showed significant correlations between students who received more empathic mess...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prior research indicates that students often experience negative emotions while using online learning environments, and that most of these negative emotions can have a detrimental impact on their behavior and learning outcomes. We investigate the impact of a particular intervention, namely face-to-face collaboration with a neighboring student, on s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Office of Naval Research (ONR) organized a STEM challenge initiative to explore how intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) can be developed in a reasonable amount of time to help students learn STEM topics. This competitive initiative sponsored four teams that separately developed systems that covered topics in mathematics, electronics,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students self-reported not only their emotional state, but also the causal attributions of their emotions. After coding emotions with internal references to self, and external references to the environment or domain, we examined how sub-groups of students based on internal/external attributions and above or below median performance differ in terms...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work addresses students’ open responses on causal attributions of their self-reported affective states. We use qualitative thematic data analysis techniques to develop a coding scheme by identifying common themes in students’ self-reported attributions. We then applied this scheme to a larger set of student reports. Analysis shows that student...
Article
Full-text available
Computational instruction provides engaging material for learners, personalizes instruction, assesses individual effort, and measures students' needs for assistance. Such instruction makes learning available and accessible, and therefore actionable. This paper describes two promising approaches for using digital instruction to personalize teaching....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article describes efforts to offer automated assessment of students within an exploratory learning environment. We present a regression model that estimates student assessments in an ill-defined medical diagnosis tutor called Rashi. We were pleased to find that basic features of a student’s solution predicted expert assessment well, particular...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research highlights that many students experience negative emotions during learning activities, and these can have a detrimental impact on behaviors and outcomes. Here, we investigate the impact of a particular kind of affective intervention, namely a learning dashboard, on two deactivating emotions: boredom and lack of excitement. The data comes f...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes contributions that artificial intelligence (AI) has made and needs to continue to make towards long-term educational goals. The article articulates two challenges in education that require the use of AI: personalizing teaching and learning 21st century skills. This article first describes AI and some of its history and then s...
Article
Full-text available
We address empirical methods to assess the reliability and design of affective self-reports. Previous research has shown that students may have subjectively different understandings of the affective state they are reporting [18], particularly among younger students[10]. For example, what one student describes as "extremely frustrating" another migh...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes research results based on multiple years of experimentation and real-world experience with an adaptive tutoring system named Wayang Outpost. The system represents a novel adaptive learning technology that has shown successful outcomes with thousands of students, and provided teachers with valuable information about students’...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we study effective communication skills by analyzing the structure properties (e.g., degree, hub) of participants’ interactions in an online classroom discussion context. We perform a regularized canonical correlation analysis to explore the social network signatures of effective communication skills (e.g., perspective taking). Exper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We developed and evaluated tutoring software called CIRCE that supports students through introductory circuit analysis laboratories and provides immediate feedback and adaptive support. The software addresses many issues with laboratory-based learning, such as students receiving feedback a week or more after the lab. Tutoring help is available at “...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We developed and evaluated tutoring software called CIRCE that supports students through introductory circuit analysis laboratories and provides immediate feedback and adaptive support. The software addresses many issues with laboratory-based learning, such as students receiving feedback a week or more after the lab. Tutoring help is available at “...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We developed software that provides intelligent hands-on bench-top dynamic help to students as they study in laboratories for introductory circuit analysis. Tutoring help is available at “teachable moments” as opposed to students waiting days or weeks for traditional teacher-graded labs reports. Quantitative and qualitative studies show that using...
Book
For college students who are becoming teachers, developing 21st century technology skills requires a dynamic shift in the way they think about and make use of technology in schools. Learning how to use computer hardware and software is less and less the primary goal. Instead, teachers and students need 21st century learning mindsets in which they a...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we describe automatic systems for identifying whether participants demonstrate social deliberative behavior within their online conversations. We test 3 corpora containing 2617 annotated segments. With machine learning models using linguistic features, we identify social deliberative behavior with up to 68.09% in-domain accuracy (comp...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on contributions that AI can make to address longterm educational goals. Challenges are described that support: (1) mentors for every learner; (2) learning 21st century skills; (3) interaction data for learning; (4) universal access to global classrooms; and (5) lifelong and lifewide learning. A vision and brief research agenda...
Article
Full-text available
We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender’s learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students’ style...
Conference Paper
We investigate supporting higher quality deliberations in online contexts by supporting what we call "social deliberative skills," including perspective-taking, meta-dialog, and reflecting on one's biases. We report on an experiment with college students engaged in online dialogues about controversial topics, using discussion forum software with "r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have developed a methodology for constructing domain-level expert knowledge bases automatically through crowdsourcing. This approach involves collecting and analyzing the work of numerous students within an intelligent tutor and using an intelligent algorithm to coalesce data to construct the domain model. This evolving expert knowledge base (EE...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have created a generalized algorithm for automatically constructing domain level knowledge bases from student input. This method has demonstrated greater efficiencies than when knowledge is hand crafted by subject matter experts (SMEs). This paper presents two related methods for improving automated knowledge acquisition by leveraging the proper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a method for improving students’ help-seeking behavior by creating a teammate relationship between intelligent tutors and students. Help seeking in intelligent tutors involves student self-regulation as described in learning theory and can be explored from the perspective of social psychology. We describe an experiment in which...
Article
Full-text available
We report on two studies that suggest that showing reports of student progress at key moments of deactivating negative emotions (boredom or lack of excitement) can help improve students' affective state and learning behavior while using an adaptive math tutoring system. The studies involved 160 middle-school students in public schools in Arizona an...
Conference Paper
We report on text processing and machine learning methods with the goal of building classifiers for social deliberative skill, i.e. the capacity to deal productively with heterogeneous goals, values, or perspectives. Our corpus includes online deliberative dialogue from three diverse domain contexts. We use the LIWC and CohMetrix linquistic analysi...
Conference Paper
The LT4D workshop aims to provide a forum for a discussion of cross-cultural differences regarding the immersion of AIED systems and the rational introduction of learning technologies in the developing world. Focus of the workshop is to explicitly explore the economic, social, political and cultural constraints that shape affordances for learning t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Touch is a new and significantly different method of interacting with a computer and it is being adapted at a rapidly increasing rate with the introduction of the tablet computer. We log the characteristics of a student's touch interaction while solving math problems on a tablet. By correlating this data to high and low effort problem solving condi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Expert knowledge bases are effective tools for providing a domain model from which intelligent, individualized support can be offered. This is even true for noisy data such as that gathered from activities involving ill-defined domains and collaboration. We attempt to automatically detect the subject of free-text collaborative input by matching stu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Novel and simplified methods for determining low-level states of student behavior and predicting affective states enable tutors to better respond to students. The Many Eyes Word Tree graphics is used to understand and analyze sequential patterns of student states, categorizing raw quantitative indicators into a limited number of discrete sates. Use...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We analyze the relationship between a variety of affective constructs that have been researched, as it is not clear what is the breadth of affecitve variables to model --- which constructs are equivalent, related, or unrelated.
Conference Paper
We describe a study in which we tested features of online dialogue software meant to scaffold "social deliberative skills." In addition to hand coding of the dialogue text we are exploring the use of automated text analysis tools (LIWC and Coh-Metrix) to identify relevant features, and to be used in a Facilitator Dashboard tool in development.
Article
This research seeks to identify online participants' disposition and skills. A prototype dashboard and annotation scheme were developed to support facilitators and several computational predictors were identified that show statistically significant correlations with dialogue skills as observed by human annotators Copyright © 2012, Association for t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper identifies constraints that shape the use of learning technologies in the developing world. It provides examples of existing hardware and software teaching environments, including some that personalize teaching material based on inferences about students' knowledge, wearable learning materials that teach within more informal environments...
Conference Paper
4-coach Mathematics Active Learning Intelligent Tutoring sYstem (4MALITY) is a web-based intelligent tutoring system for 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students who are learning math content from the state of Massachusetts (USA) required curriculum framework. The goal of 4MALITY is to personalize help for students by offering them problem-solving strategi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This qualitative study presented high school students' help-seeking behavior and how they interacted with hints while they solved math problems on an intelligent tutoring system for math.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many children's games have a universal, cross- cultural appeal and have been played for hundreds of years, suggesting a developmental need for them. This paper presents a framework for leveraging this appeal and longevity by developing cognitive games based on popular playground games. This framework employs technology to maintain the physicality a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an educational 3D game called Rashi Game, which instructs students via exploration using the inquiry teaching method. We first describe the Rashi Intelligent Tutoring System in its original form, and then describe the details and features of Rashi Game, the 3D game that we have developed. In particular, we argue that inquiry-learning env...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe how web service architectures can provide better performance to applications by offering fine- grained services. We define web service granularity in terms of the amount of data that can be retrieved from a service in a single request on average. This is important because developers cannot predict if students will be using state of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe an educational 3D game called Rashi Game. Rashi Game features a fully functional, and open-ended, 3D environment for students backed by a domain-independent inquiry-learning tutor. We present pilot work that directly compares Rashi's classic 2D interface against the 3D game environment. We compare both the student's work within the syst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on the reactions of males and female students to the presence of animated pedagogical agents that provided emotional and motivational support. One hundred high school students used agents embedded in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Mathematics and randomized controlled evaluations compared students with and without learning companions....
Chapter
Full-text available
Once a tutoring system is able to detect students’ emotions, it is not obvious how to change the tutor’s behavior to leverage this emotion detection for the benefit of the student. For instance, if students state that they are excited, then providing harder problems may be appropriate in one case, while providing actions to calm them down so that t...
Article
Full-text available
This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved perlormance and both addres...
Article
Full-text available
If computers are to interact naturally with humans, they should recognize students’ affect and express social competencies. Research has shown that learning is enhanced when empathy or support is provided and that improved personal relationships between teachers and students leads to increased student motivation.1-4 Therefore, if tutoring systems c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a data mining technique for the discovery of student behavior patterns while using a tutoring system. Student actions are logged during tutor sessions. The actions are categorized, binned and symbolized. The resulting symbols are arranged sequentially, and examined by a motif discovery algorithm to detect repetitive patterns, or motifs,...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the automatic recognition of and response to human emotion within intelligent tutors. Tutors can recognize student emotion with more than 80%accuracy compared to student self-reports, using wireless sensors that provide data about posture, movement, grip tension, facially expressed mental states and arousal. Pedagogical agent...