Bettina Callary

Bettina Callary
Cape Breton University | CBU · Experiential studies in community and sport

PhD

About

90
Publications
25,949
Reads
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635
Citations
Introduction
Current research interests: coach education and coach development, instructional strategies for coach development, coaches of Masters Athletes, women coaches, psychosocial aspects of strength and conditioning coaching
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - present
Cape Breton University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2012 - June 2017
Cape Breton University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
Much work addresses coaches’ contributions to younger athletes; however, the psycho-social coaching needs of adult Masters athletes remain unexamined. This study explored the lived experiences of 10 Masters swimmers (5 male, 5 female; age range = 45-65 years) through interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis delved into benefits that swi...
Article
Full-text available
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is a qualitative research methodology used to understand participants’ subjective realities through personal interpretations of their lived experiences and the meanings they attach to these experiences (Smith, 2011). IPA has been used predominantly in health psychology, with rising interest within the...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2020) provides researchers with a self-report tool to measure the frequency of use of adult-oriented coaching practices. Studies involving the AOSCS have reported several types of validity and reliability (Motz et al., in press; Rathwell et al., 2020), yet the psychometric invariance...
Article
Indigenous coaches play an essential role in educating Indigenous youth about the value of sport and facilitate strong relationships between sport and culture. Unfortunately, across all levels of sport and coaching in Canada, Indigenous sport participation is hindered by a lack of Indigenous coaches. Using a narrative analysis, the following study...
Article
This study explored the coaching approaches of Mi’kmaw First Nation coaches in Canada. Eight coaches from across six Mi’kmaw First Nation communities in Nova Scotia, Canada, participated in a semi-structured interview to discuss what it means to be an Indigenous coach. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were generated...
Article
https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/WHDS92ERJ2FW7CW6FWK7/full?target=10.1080/1612197X.2022.2043927 ---- The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2020) reliably assesses coaching practices tailored to Masters athletes (MAs). It recognizes the uniqueness of coaching adults (Callary et al., 2021) and has good face validity and...
Presentation
Full-text available
https://www.scapps.org/jems/index.php/1/article/view/2610 -- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_FdhDYwyn0 --- Adult-oriented coaching practices have been described qualitatively by Masters athletes (MAs) as a preferred method to receive coaching (Callary et al., 2017) and to foster hallmarks of Quality Masters Sport Experiences (QMSE; Young et al.,...
Poster
Full-text available
https://www.scapps.org/jems/index.php/1/article/view/2611 -- Recent qualitative evidence (Callary et al., 2017) suggests that adult-oriented coaching practices may enhance Masters athletes' (MAs) sport experiences. Most cognitively mediated coaching models posit that when athletes' preferences for coaching practices align with the coaching practice...
Article
Full-text available
Coach-athlete relationships are an important factor influencing sport experiences. Research has focused on understanding relational approaches to coaching Masters athletes primarily as they are applied to individual-sport athletes. This study explored relational coaching strategies within a Masters all-women team context, the nature of dyadic relat...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative investigation explored the lived meaningful experiences of adult women in a coached Masters synchronized ice-skating team and the role of the coach in these experiences. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 11 team members (mean age = 39) and their 32 year-old female coach, over multiple time points in their seas...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the context, details, and outcomes of a consultation and review of the International Council for Coaching Excellence’s interactions and engagements with, and service provision to, the international sport coaching research community. The consultation and review were undertaken by the International Council for Coa...
Article
Throughout the last decades, many researchers have devoted their time to understanding how sport can foster positive psychosocial attributes, such as life skills development and transfer in various youth sport settings. In this paper, we conduct a narrative review focused on coaches’ contributions to athletes’ psychosocial development across HP and...
Article
Coach developers often design and deliver professional development (PD) courses for coaches that are research-based, personally tailored, and effectively taught in asynchronous online platforms. However, not all of these endeavours are successful in developing coaches. This is a confessional tale of what went wrong and why in an online PD course fo...
Article
Full-text available
Life skills development across developmental stages has been considered a complex endeavor. Research is needed to understand how family environments may influence athletes’ life skills development through sport experiences. Nonetheless, we are not aware of any studies to date that have explored how shared family environment of twins influence their...
Article
Full-text available
This review article advances the long-standing need to address psychosocial issues within strength and conditioning (S&C) that have renewed significance with the National Strength and Conditioning Association's entry into accreditation. First, a brief history is presented on the omission of psychosocial issues within S&C and the education of S&C pr...
Article
Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the vali...
Article
Research into the Masters (or adult) sport context has revealed important socially mediated participatory motives for Masters athletes, including a strong connection between their learning in sport and the relationships they have with their coaches. The purpose of this insights article was to identify and describe links between relevant relational...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to identify narrative types that illuminate how strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches used video vignettes in a guided reflection process to support the development of effective coaching practices. At the beginning of each week, over a 4-week period, 11 elite S&C coaches were sent a short video vignette clip of an S&...
Article
The commentary brings together the perspectives of a group of coach developers from across the globe who form a community of practice (CoP) from their involvement as “Cohort 5” in the International Council for Coaching Excellence and Nippon Sport Science University Coach Developer Academy. The CoP includes people from three types of organizations:...
Article
Full-text available
This study is focused on how novice sport science practitioners can learn from the hindsight of more experienced practitioners, and how such information can be effectively disseminated. Initially, 13 expert, elite-level, strength and conditioning coaches wrote a reflective letter to their ‘younger selves’ offering advice in terms of things they had...
Article
Full-text available
Exploratory research suggests Masters athletes (MAs; adult athletes >35 years) derive benefits from the coached context. This study sought to compare groups of MAs with varying degrees of coaching for reports of psychological need satisfaction and frustration. A total of 561 individual sport MAs completed surveys assessing psychological need satisf...
Article
The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution and influence of Masters Player-Coaches (MPCs) in the Asociación de Futbolistas Adultos Mayores del Tolima (in English: Masters Athletes’ Football Association of Tolima in Colombia, South America), a football league for men aged 60–70+ years. Historical forces shape a cultural backdrop that p...
Chapter
While all athletes are aging, in this chapter we refer to Masters Athletes (MAs) as adults typically over 35 years of age, who are formally registered for sport, and who engage in training to prepare for competitions. While this cohort of athletes is the one of the fastest growing cohorts in sport, research is only beginning to uncover the nuances...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The effective tailoring of instructional approaches to adult learners is beneficial in educational domains. No tool exists to assess coaches' use of adult-tailored methods in Masters (>35+ years-old) sport. This study tested the content (face) and factorial (convergent, discriminant) validity of a self-report survey, derived from instru...
Article
Objectives The effective tailoring of instructional approaches to adult learners is beneficial in educational domains. No tool exists to assess coaches’ use of adult-tailored methods in Masters (>35+ years-old) sport. This study tested the content (face) and factorial (convergent, discriminant) validity of a self-report survey, derived from instruc...
Poster
Full-text available
Athletic identity (AI) is associated with increased motivation across a broad age range of exercisers. The study of AI and Masters athletes (MAs) has received less attention. The relationship between AI and motivation was tested with a large sample of MAs (n = 455; Mage = 51.97, SD = 11.51). MAs completed the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) a...
Poster
Full-text available
Qualitative studies highlight the use of adult-oriented coaching as an alternative to traditional pedagogical practices when coaching Masters athletes (MAs; Callary et al., 2017). Studies have yet to quantitatively assess associations between various adult-oriented coaching practices and MAs' psychosocial outcomes. Four-hundred-and two MAs (Mage =...
Presentation
Full-text available
Recent research has suggested that strength and conditioning (S&C) coach developers should consider constructivist learning theories as means to promote holistic coach development (Szedlak et al., 2018). In particular, reflective practice can encourage holistic learning through promoting an internal dialogue of the meaningfulness and relevance of a...
Article
As the editors of the special issue for coach developers, we have rounded out the research-based articles within this issue by seeking the perspectives of practitioners worldwide on what it means to be a coach developer in their respective countries. We ask three simple questions that are answered directly by active coach developers. Their answers...
Presentation
Full-text available
The author’s current research explored constructivist learning theory focusing on how narrative approaches (i.e., stories/vignettes) transfer knowledge into action and enhance the development of psychological and social S&C coaching behaviours. Furthermore, Chris’ research illuminates the efficacy of reflective practice to promote a holistic coachi...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that vignettes are useful in disseminating complex and applied information to practitioners with research mainly utilising written and audio vignettes to disseminate good practice. The current study examined the utility of a research-based vignette, presented in different formats (written, audio, video), to disseminate informatio...
Article
Full-text available
The art of teaching students has parallels with coaching athletes (Jones, 2007). Research has indicated that adult athletes, termed masters athletes (MAs), feel that coaches should orient their approaches differently when working with them as opposed to younger athletes (Callary, Rathwell, & Young, 2015; Ferrari, Bloom, Gilbert, & Caron, 2016)....
Article
Coaches may provide a positive development (PD) approach in which they focus on helping athletes develop personal and social skills needed in sport and other life domains. However, it is unclear how athletes perceive PD influences their development and their prospective entry into coaching after they have completed their athletic careers. The purpo...
Chapter
This chapter addresses psycho-social and pedagogical research pertaining to adult sportspersons, or Masters athletes. Young and Callary specifically review three areas that may inform strategies on how to attract more interested adults to sport: promotional messaging, accommodating participatory motives in programming and tailoring curriculum to th...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that psychological characteristics and social behaviours contribute to the development of coaching expertise and as such should not be neglected by strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches. This review examines the current literature on the influence of psycho-social characteristics and behaviours of the S&C coach on elite athlete...
Article
Full-text available
In this expository essay, four faculty members co-reflect on the pedagogy used within one first-year course, Introduction to Community Studies (COMS 1100) at Cape Breton University (CBU). We discuss the responsibility of facilitating five process-based pedagogical approaches. These complex and interrelated processes include: i) self -directed learn...
Presentation
Full-text available
Research highlights that vignettes are useful in disseminating information to practitioners (e.g., Smith et al., 2015). Previous research has utilised written (e.g., Barter & Renold, 2000; Hughes, 1998) or audio vignettes (Smith et al., 2015) to disseminate good practice. We aimed to systematically examine the utility of a research-based vignette,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Paralleling the graying of the baby boomer generation, there has been remarkable growth in the number of Masters athletes (adult sport participants generally 35+ years old) and Seniors athletes (55+) worldwide. The phenomenon of the aging or older athlete is an opportunity to study the psychological conditions and considerations that distinguish ol...
Article
Masters Athletes (MAs; adult athletes typically over 35 years old who prepare in order to compete at levels ranging from very recreational competition to serious competition) want coaches to cater their approaches to working with adults. Using adult learning principles, we previously found that some coaches cater their approaches in ways to accommo...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored which strength and conditioning (S&C) coaching behaviors and characteristics are perceived as effective by elite athletes and how these influence the athletes. A secondary aim was to consider the development and usefulness of vignettes to elicit new knowledge. Ten elite athletes reflected on scenarios presented in vignettes. Res...
Article
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While traditional, coach-directed pedagogies have dominated youth sport coaching practice, little is known about how coaches orient their approaches to facilitate adult athletes’ learning. This study explored a group of Masters athletes’ and a group of youth athletes’ perspectives of their common canoe/kayak coach’s approaches, with an aim to under...
Presentation
Full-text available
Strength and conditioning (S&C) coaching contributes to the overall athletic development and performance of high performance athletes (UKSCA, 2016). Whilst coaching research indicates that coaches’ interpersonal knowledge is important in becoming an effective coach (Gilbert & Côté, 2013), studies specific to S&C coaching have focused on the technic...
Article
Full-text available
Coaches working with Masters Athletes (MAs) are tasked with facilitating learning and enhancing performance and quality of experience specifically for an adult cohort. In education, the Andragogy in Practice Model (APM) characterizes adult learners and provides teachers with principles for how to best facilitate learning (Knowles, Holton III, & Swa...
Article
Coaches working with Masters Athletes (MAs) are tasked with facilitating learning and enhancing performance and quality of experience specifically for an adult cohort. In education, the Andragogy in Practice Model (APM) characterizes adult learners and provides teachers with principles for how to best facilitate learning (Knowles, Holton III, & Swa...
Article
Full-text available
As the Coaching Association of Canada notes*, “Masters sport is booming, and more and more masters athletes are seeking coaching guidance as they strive to learn new skills, improve their performance, or compete successfully.” This boom is providing fresh and fertile ground for coaches to practise their profession. While exact numbers are unavailab...
Poster
Full-text available
Andragogy is an educational framework for understanding how adults learn (Knowles et al., 2012). Although it has yet to be applied in sport, work suggests it may suitably frame adult (Masters) athletes’ learning processes in coach-facilitated situations (Callary et al., 2015; Young & Callary, 2016). Using an instrumental case study design (Punch, 2...
Chapter
In this chapter we introduce readers to important philosophical, theoretical, and practical issues on qualitative research on women in sport coaching. We take the reader through a journey on the four major approaches or paradigms of doing qualitative research labeled: (post)-positivism, interpretivism, critical theory, and post-structuralism. Withi...
Book
Full-text available
Case studies are a valuable way for researchers and practitioners to synthesize and share knowledge with external audiences in a way that allows others to reflect, discuss and learn from approaches taken in other contexts. While ample case studies can be found in areas such as management, sustainability, and community development, there are far few...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the match between what a female Masters dragon boat racer wants and needs from a coach, and what a female dragon boat coach working with Masters athletes does with her team.
Article
Full-text available
This work explores the adoption and implementation of Sport Canada’s long-term athlete development (LTAD) model by coaches and tries to understand the barriers to and enablers of these processes. LTAD adoption was studied in 14 coaches (5 female, 9 male) in seven sports while implementation was assessed among 10 different coaches (2 female, 8 male)...
Article
Full-text available
Much work addresses coaches’ contributions to younger athletes; however, the psycho-social coaching needs of adult Masters athletes remain unexamined. This study explored the lived experiences of 10 Masters swimmers (5 male, 5 female; age range = 45-65 years) through interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis delved into benefits that swi...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has described reflection as a process of thinking anew about already existing knowledge and experiences. More recently, reflection has also been referred to as a way of making sense of experience in complex situations. Research in coach learning has suggested that one of the ways coaches’ learn is by reflecting on their coaching pract...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing the psychosocial themes in a specific sport context allows us to understand athletes’ experiences and informs approaches of coaches (Côté et al., 1995) and sport programmers (Danish et al., 2005). Few qualitative studies focus on psychosocial conditions of adult athletes in coached sport settings. The purpose of this study was to capture im...
Article
Full-text available
High quality education programs across the globe could help coaching move forward as a profession. Although there have been suggestions to improve sports coaching education programs by integrating theory and practice through alternative learning approaches such as mentoring and critical reflection (Armour, 2010; Cushion, Armour, & Jones, 2003), it...
Article
Full-text available
In the new frontier of Masters-level sport, coaching approaches with adult athletes may prove to be quite different than with younger cohorts, and therefore demanding of novel and innovative considerations. This paper draws from emerging perspectives in research on Masters athletes (MAs) and interpretations of broader psycho-social and -pedagogical...
Article
Full-text available
After reviewing transcripts of interviews with Coach JoAnne Graf by researchers Brian Gearity and Melissa Murray, Bettina Callary was struck by her perseverance, love of coaching, and success. She decided to share Graf’s stories of hardship and triumph, as well as her advice, to empower and educate other women coaches. Despite Graf coaching all her...
Article
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It is important to reflect upon ethical issues in conducting narrative research beyond what may be considered in Research Ethics Board applications. Ethical issues were identified in a dissertation study that utilized a narrative research approach to explore the process of lifelong learning for five women coaches. Using journal reflections and part...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore former NCAA FBS National Champion football coach Phillip Fulmer's biography to understand how his knowledge and practices were learned from various sociocultural experiences. The participant, Phillip Fulmer, former head football coach of the University of Tennessee (UT; 1992–2008), participated in multiple s...
Article
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There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches’ values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this articl...
Article
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A Community of Practice (CoP) is a learning entity in which people are involved in ongoing interactions with others while they engage in their activities (Wenger, 1998). The purpose of this article is to explore, from the perspective of two coaching leaders within a figure skating club, how a CoP was created and sustained. Eight in-depth, open-ende...
Article
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The research on coach learning and development deals with the classification of the sources from which coaches learn, and more recently, with the identification of learning being an idiosyncratic process in which there are variations in coaches’ learning paths. From a constructivist view, learning may be seen as a process of becoming: a person enga...
Article
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The PhD experience is often a transition from student to future faculty member, which involves considerable learning and development (Glaze, 2002; Hockey, 2004). Using a lifelong learning perspective ( Jarvis, 2009), the purpose of this article is to explore, through a reflective self-study, my process of learning throughout the PhD degree. In this...
Article
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Women coaches who have pursued a number of certification courses might start thinking about becoming coach education program facilitators. Such a leadership position can be a way to develop skills and help other women coaches at the same time. In this article, I give examples of women coaches learning and developing as coaches and role models by be...
Article
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The Canadian Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model is athlete-centered and coach-driven with the support of administration, sport science, and sponsors. Due to scarcity of referred research conducted on the adoption of the LTAD model by Canadian coaches, this project investigates how the structure of three different crosscountry ski (XCS) club...
Article
Full-text available
Using Jarvis' (2006) psychosocial perspective of human learning, we explore how the career choices and the subsequent coaching approaches of five Canadian women coaches have been influenced by their primary and secondary socialization. A content analysis was performed to identify how coaches learned in their primary socialization with their family,...
Article
The National Coaching Certification Program (NCCP) in Canada, and its sport specific partner in alpine ski racing, the Canadian Ski Coaches Federation (CSCF), are both in the process of re-designing their coach education training programs to become more congruent with a lifelong learning perspective. In this article, the authors explore (a) how the...