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Bessel A van der Kolk

Bessel A van der Kolk
Trauma Research Foundation

MD

About

233
Publications
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26,559
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January 1982 - present
Boston University
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (233)
Article
Full-text available
The current Russian war against Ukraine is of global concern. It builds on the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and subsequently the war in the Donbas region of Ukraine, and has become a large-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine from three directions, Crimea in the south, Russia in the east, and Belarus in the north. Despite the geopolitical background t...
Article
Objective: Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) is a childhood psychiatric syndrome designed to include sequelae of trauma exposure not fully captured by PTSD. This study aimed to determine whether assessment of DTD with an independent sample of children in mental health treatment will replicate results from an initial validation study. Methods:...
Book
Full-text available
Second Edition enriched with a Foreword written by Jakub Przybyła Frenis Zero publishing house, 2021, ISBN 978-88-97479-30-7 Presentation: The second edition of the book is foreworded by Jakub Przybyła who criticizes the idea of integrating neurobiology and psychotherapy based mainly on the study of psychoanalysis and neuropsychoanalysis. The autho...
Article
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Background: Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) has extensive comorbidity with internalizing and externalizing disorders distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To replicate findings of DTD comorbidity and to determine whether this comorbidity is distinct from, and extends beyond, comorbidities of PTSD. Method: DTD was assess...
Article
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents a major public health problem for which currently available treatments are modestly effective. We report the findings of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-site phase 3 clinical trial (NCT03537014) to test the efficacy and safety of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted t...
Article
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Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have both shared and unique traumatic antecedents. The present study was an independent replication, with the DTD Structured Interview and the Traumatic Events Screening Instrument administered to 271 children in mental health treatment in six U.S. sites...
Article
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Objective: Developmental trauma or chronic early childhood exposure to abuse and neglect by caregivers has been shown to have a long-lasting pervasive impact on mental and neural development, including problems with attention, impulse control, self-regulation, and executive functioning. Its long-term effects are arguably the costliest public healt...
Article
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Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed as clinical framework for the sequelae of complex trauma exposure in children. In this study, we investigated whether DTD is associated with different traumatic antecedents than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a multisite sample of 236 children referred from pediatric or mental health t...
Article
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RCT EMDR showing very significant effects for adult onset trauma, maintained over 6 mmonths
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Dissociative nature of traumatic memories
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Complex PTSD field trial for DSM IV
Article
Objective: The emergence of updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which includes modified criteria for young children, raises questions regarding the need for developmentally appropriate standalone psychiatric diagno...
Article
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Background: Oculomotor movements have been shown to aid in the retrieval of episodic memories, serving as sensory cues that engage frontoparietal brain regions to reconstruct visuospatial details of a memory. Frontoparietal brain regions not only are involved in oculomotion, but also mediate, in part, the retrieval of autobiographical episodic memo...
Article
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Background: Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed to describe the biopsychosocial sequelae of exposure to interpersonal victimization in childhood that extend beyond the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To characterize the psychopathology comorbid with DTD and to determine whether this comorbidity is dis...
Article
Background: Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed to describe the biopsychosocial sequelae of exposure to interpersonal victimization in childhood that extend beyond the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To characterize the psychopathology comorbid with DTD and to determine whether this comorbidity is dis...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed as clinical framework for the sequelae of complex trauma exposure in children. In this study, we investigated whether DTD is associated with different traumatic antecedents than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a multisite sample of 236 children referred from pediatric or mental health t...
Article
Objective: Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) is an integrative syndrome for assessing the biopsychosocial sequelae of early life traumatization and attachment disruption. The psychometrics of a DTD Semi-Structured Interview (DTD-SI) and the validity and structure of the DTD construct were tested. Methods: The DTD-SI was administered by researc...
Article
Objective: To determine trends over time regarding inclusion of post-operative cardiac surgery intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a clinical pathway (CP), and the association with clinical outcome. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: ICU of an academic hospital. Participants: All cardiac surgery patients operated between 2007 and...
Article
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Background: Yoga has been found to be an effective posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment for a variety of trauma survivors, including females with chronic PTSD. Aim/Purpose: The current study builds on extant research by examining an extended trauma-sensitive yoga treatment for women with chronic PTSD. The study sought to optimize the res...
Article
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Introduction Brain/Computer Interaction (BCI) devices are designed to alter neural signals and, thereby, mental activity. This study was a randomized, waitlist (TAU) controlled trial of a BCI, EEG neurofeedback training (NF), in patients with chronic PTSD to explore the capacity of NF to reduce PTSD symptoms and increase affect regulation capacitie...
Article
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EEG Biofeedback (also known as neurofeedback) has been in use as a clinical intervention for well over 30 years; however, it has made very little impact on clinical care. One reason for this has been the difficulty in designing research to measure clinical change in the real world. While substantial evidence exists for its efficacy in treating atte...
Article
Despite the numerous studies over the past 30 years that have clarified the devastating effects of child maltreatment on mental and physical health, the role of trauma within the caregiving system remains unrecognized both in our diagnostic systems and in our dominant treatment paradigms. Research of people with histories of caregiver abuse and neg...
Article
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Introduction: Yoga-the integrative practice of physical postures and movement, breath exercises, and mindfulness-may serve as a useful adjunctive component of trauma-focused treatment to build skills in tolerating and modulating physiologic and affective states that have become dysregulated by trauma exposure. A previous randomized controlled stud...
Data
The 'Handbook of Body Psychotherapy & Somatic Psychology' edited by Gustl Marlock & Halko Weiss, with Courtenay Young & Michael Soth, is a massive tome, of about 950 pages, 500,000 words, in 94 chapters from over 60 authors. It was published in Dec 2015 by North Atlantic Books (ISBN: 978-1-58394-841-5) www.northatlanticbooks.com It started out as t...
Book
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EDITOR’S NOTE With this book the psychoanalytic publishing house “Frenis Zero” inaugurates the collection “Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience”. The very title wants to emphasize an area of research that the journal, initiated for publication on the internet, wanted to cover since its foundation: that of the dialogue of contemporary psychoanalysis wit...
Article
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ABSTRACT Background: More than a third of the approximately 10 million women with histories of interpersonal violence in the United States develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Currently available treatments for this population have a high rate of incomplete response, in part because problems in affect and impulse regulation are major obsta...
Article
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Background: More than a third of the approximately 10 million women with histories of interpersonal violence in the United States develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Currently available treatments for this population have a high rate of incomplete response, in part because problems in affect and impulse regulation are major obstacles to...
Article
Maltreatment, family violence, and disruption in primary caregiver attachment in childhood may constitute a developmental form of trauma that places children at risk for multiple psychiatric and medical diagnoses that often are refractory to well-established evidence-based mental health treatments. No integrative diagnosis exists to guide assessmen...
Article
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an integrative treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during which the patient is asked to hold in mind a disturbing image, an associated negative cognition, and bodily sensations associated with a traumatic memory, while tracking the clinician's moving finger in front of his or he...
Article
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Childhood exposure to victimization is prevalent and has been shown to contribute to significant immediate and long-term psychological distress and functional impairment. Children exposed to interpersonal victimization often meet criteria for psychiatric disorders other than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, this article summarizes r...
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This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replicability of positive program impacts when implemented by nonprogram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included a...
Article
This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replica-bility of positive program impacts when implemented by nonpro-gram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included...
Article
This chapter delineates the developmental trauma disorder (DTD) diagnosis proposed by the National Child Traumatic Stress DSM-V Taskforce. The numerous clinical expressions of the damage resulting from childhood interpersonal trauma are currently relegated to a whole variety of seemingly unrelated comorbidities, such as conduct disorder, attention-...
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Exposure to multiple traumas, particularly in childhood, has been proposed to result in a complex of symptoms that includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as a constrained, but variable group of symptoms that highlight self-regulatory disturbances. The relationship between accumulated exposure to different types of traumatic events an...
Article
Weniger als acht Jahre nach der Grundung des Nationalen Traumanetzwerks fur Kinder (National Child Traumatic Stress Network, NCTSN) 2001 wird deutlich, dass gegenwartige diagnostische Klassifikationen fur Zehntausende von traumatisierten Kindern inadaquat sind. Durch die Einfuhrung der PTBS in psychiatrische Klassifikationen wurden 1980 umfassende...
Article
Less than eight years after the establishment of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network in 2001 it has become evident that the current diagnostic classification system is inadequate for tens of thousands of traumatized children. While the inclusion of PTSD in the psychiatric classification system in 1980 led to extensive scientific studies of...
Article
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For over 100 years clinicians have observed and described the unusual nature of traumatic memories. It has been repeatedly and consistently observed that these memories are characterized by fragmentary and intense sensations and affects, often with little or no verbal narrative content. Yet, possibly because traumatic memories cannot be precipitate...
Article
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The study of traumatic memories is still an emerging field, both methodologically and theoretically. Previous questionnaire and interview methods for studying traumatic memories have been limited in their ability to evoke and assess remembrances with the characteristics long observed by clinicians. In this article, we introduce a new standardized m...
Article
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Studies of PTSD employing symptom provocation have seldom included self-report measures of the symptoms provoked. Doing so could benefit psychobiological research by improving diagnostic discrimination and capturing the heterogeneity of responses to script-driven imagery, and treatment research by complementing existing outcome measures. This paper...
Article
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Research suggests that responses to script-driven trauma imagery in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include reexperiencing and dissociative symptom subtypes. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employed a dimensional approach to characterizing script-driven imagery responses, using the Responses to Script-Driven Imagery Sca...
Article
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The relative short-term efficacy and long-term benefits of pharmacologic versus psychotherapeutic interventions have not been studied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study compared the efficacy of a selective serotonin reup-take inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, with a psychotherapeutic treatment, eye movement desensitization and reproce...
Article
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Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy, locu...
Article
Histories of childhood trauma are associated with a host of other psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence and adulthood. This chapter addresses the developmental impact of childhood trauma and argues that the explanatory adequacy of most animal models is constrained by the fact that it is impossible to model some of the uniquely human relational facto...
Article
basic principle of treatment / diagnosis and assessment / establishing a treatment plan / treatment of acute trauma / phase-oriented treatment of PTSD [stabilization: overcoming the fear of trauma-related emotions, deconditioning of traumatic memories and responses, restructuring of trauma-related cognitive schemes: overcoming the fear of life itse...
Article
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T he term complex trauma describes the dual prob-lem of children's exposure to multiple traumatic events and the impact of this exposure on immediate and long-term outcomes. Typically, complex trauma exposure results when a child is abused or neglected, but it can also be caused by other kinds of events such as witnessing domestic vio-lence, ethnic...