Bertrand Thirion

Bertrand Thirion
National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control | INRIA · Parietal

About

301
Publications
88,813
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
54,369
Citations

Publications

Publications (301)
Preprint
Full-text available
Individual brains vary in both anatomy and functional organization, even within a given species. Inter-individual variability is a major impediment when trying to draw generalizable conclusions from neuroimaging data collected on groups of subjects. Current co-registration procedures rely on limited data, and thus lead to very coarse inter-subject...
Preprint
Identifying the relevant variables for a classification model with correct confidence levels is a central but difficult task in high-dimension. Despite the core role of sparse logistic regression in statistics and machine learning, it still lacks a good solution for accurate inference in the regime where the number of features $p$ is as large as or...
Article
Full-text available
Associating brain systems with mental processes requires statistical analysis of brain activity across many cognitive processes. These analyses typically face a difficult compromise between scope—from domain-specific to system-level analysis—and accuracy. Using all the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) statistical maps of the largest dat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cluster-level inference procedures are widely used for brain mapping. These methods compare the size of clusters obtained by thresholding brain maps to an upper bound under the global null hypothesis, computed using Random Field Theory or permutations. However, the guarantees obtained by this type of inference - i.e. at least one voxel is truly act...
Article
Full-text available
Background With increasing data sizes and more easily available computational methods, neurosciences rely more and more on predictive modeling with machine learning, e.g., to extract disease biomarkers. Yet, a successful prediction may capture a confounding effect correlated with the outcome instead of brain features specific to the outcome of inte...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently considered a safe imaging technique because, unlike computed tomography, MRI does not expose patients to ionising radiation. However, conflicting literature reports possible genotoxic effects of MRI. We herein examine the chromosomal effects of repeated MRI scans by performing a longitudina...
Preprint
We consider shared response modeling, a multi-view learning problem where one wants to identify common components from multiple datasets or views. We introduce Shared Independent Component Analysis (ShICA) that models each view as a linear transform of shared independent components contaminated by additive Gaussian noise. We show that this model is...
Article
Full-text available
Background Biological aging is revealed by physical measures, e.g., DNA probes or brain scans. In contrast, individual differences in mental function are explained by psychological constructs, e.g., intelligence or neuroticism. These constructs are typically assessed by tailored neuropsychological tests that build on expert judgement and require ca...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-individual variability in the functional organization of the brain presents a major obstacle to identifying generalizable neural coding principles. Functional alignment—a class of methods that matches subjects’ neural signals based on their functional similarity—is a promising strategy for addressing this variability. To date, however, a rang...
Chapter
Advances in computational cognitive neuroimaging research are related to the availability of large amounts of labeled brain imaging data, but such data are scarce and expensive to generate. While powerful data generation mechanisms, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), have been designed in the last decade for computer vision, such impro...
Article
How can neuroimaging inform us about the function of brain structures? This simple question immediately brings out two pertinent issues: Firstly, an inference problem, namely the fact that the function of a region can only be asserted after observing a large array of experimental conditions or contrasts; and second, the fact that the identity of a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Advances in computational cognitive neuroimaging research are related to the availability of large amounts of labeled brain imaging data, but such data are scarce and expensive to generate. While powerful data generation mechanisms, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), have been designed in the last decade for computer vision, such impro...
Preprint
Full-text available
We consider the inference problem for high-dimensional linear models, when covariates have an underlying spatial organization reflected in their correlation. A typical example of such a setting is high-resolution imaging, in which neighboring pixels are usually very similar. Accurate point and confidence intervals estimation is not possible in this...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive brain imaging is accumulating datasets about the neural substrate of many different mental processes. Yet, most studies are based on few subjects and have low statistical power. Analyzing data across studies could bring more statistical power; yet the current brain-imaging analytic framework cannot be used at scale as it requires casting...
Chapter
Lesion-behaviour mapping aims at predicting individual behavioural deficits, given a certain pattern of brain lesions. It also brings fundamental insights on brain organization, as lesions can be understood as interventions on normal brain function. We focus here on the case of stroke. The most standard approach to lesion-behaviour mapping is mass-...
Article
Full-text available
In brain imaging, decoding is widely used to infer relationships between brain and cognition, or to craft brain-imaging biomarkers of pathologies. Yet, standard decoding procedures do not come with statistical guarantees, and thus do not give confidence bounds to interpret the pattern maps that they produce. Indeed, in whole-brain decoding settings...
Preprint
Full-text available
We consider a multi-view learning problem known as group independent component analysis (group ICA), where the goal is to recover shared independent sources from many views. The statistical modeling of this problem requires to take noise into account. When the model includes additive noise on the observations, the likelihood is intractable. By cont...
Article
Full-text available
A key goal in neuroscience is to understand brain mechanisms of cognitive functions. An emerging approach is “brain decoding”, which consists of inferring a set of experimental conditions performed by a participant, using pattern classification of brain activity. Few works so far have attempted to train a brain decoding model that would generalize...
Article
Full-text available
Functional neuroimaging provides the unique opportunity to characterize brain regions based on their response to tasks or ongoing activity. As such, it holds the premise to capture brain spatial organization. Yet, the conceptual framework to describe this organization has remained elusive: on the one hand, parcellations build implicitly on a piecew...
Article
Full-text available
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has opened the possibility to investigate how brain activity is modulated by behavior. Most studies so far are bound to one single task, in which functional responses to a handful of contrasts are analyzed and reported as a group average brain map. Contrariwise, recent data‐collection efforts have starte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Inter-individual variability in the functional organization of the brain presents a major obstacle to identifying generalizable neural coding principles. Functional alignment—a class of methods that matches subjects’ neural signals based on their functional similarity—is a promising strategy for addressing this variability. At present, however, a r...
Article
Full-text available
We present an extension of the Individual Brain Charting dataset –a high spatial-resolution, multi-task, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging dataset, intended to support the investigation on the functional principles governing cognition in the human brain. The concomitant data acquisition from the same 12 participants, in the same environment, al...
Article
Full-text available
In the 20th century, many advances in biological knowledge and evidence-based medicine were supported by p values and accompanying methods. In the early 21st century, ambitions toward precision medicine place a premium on detailed predictions for single individuals. The shift causes tension between traditional regression methods used to infer stati...
Preprint
Detecting where and when brain regions activate in a cognitive task or in a given clinical condition is the promise of non-invasive techniques like magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). This problem, referred to as source localization, or source imaging, poses however a high-dimensional statistical inference challenge. While...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Biological aging is revealed by physical measures, e . g ., DNA probes or brain scans. Instead, individual differences in mental function are explained by psychological constructs, e.g., intelligence or neuroticism. These constructs are typically assessed by tailored neuropsychological tests that build on expert judgement and require car...
Article
Full-text available
We simultaneously revisited the ADI-R and ADOS with a comprehensive data-analytics strategy. Here, the combination of pattern analysis algorithms and an extensive data resources (n=266 patients aged 7 to 49 years) allowed identifying coherent clinical constellations in and across ADI-R and ADOS assessments widespread in clinical practice. Our clust...
Article
Full-text available
Population imaging markedly increased the size of functional-imaging datasets, shedding new light on the neural basis of inter-individual differences. Analyzing these large data entails new scalability challenges, computational and statistical. For this reason, brain images are typically summarized in a few signals, for instance reducing voxel-leve...
Preprint
Group studies involving large cohorts of subjects are important to draw general conclusions about brain functional organization. However, the aggregation of data coming from multiple subjects is challenging, since it requires accounting for large variability in anatomy, functional topography and stimulus response across individuals. Data modeling i...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) are non-invasive modalities that measure the weak electromagnetic fields generated by neural activity. Estimating the location and magnitude of the current sources that generated these electromagnetic fields is an inverse problem. Although it can be cast as a linear regression, this problem...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key goal in neuroscience is to understand brain mechanisms of cognitive functions. An emerging approach is brain decoding, which consists of inferring a set of experimental conditions performed by a participant, using pattern classification of brain activity. Few works so far have attempted to train a brain decoding model that would generalize ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Population imaging markedly increased the size of functional-imaging datasets, shedding new light on the neural basis of inter-individual differences. Analyzing these large data entails new scalability challenges, computational and statistical. For this reason, brain images are typically summarized in a few signals, for instance reducing voxel-leve...
Article
Full-text available
Reaching a global view of brain organization requires assembling evidence on widely different mental processes and mechanisms. The variety of human neuroscience concepts and terminology poses a fundamental challenge to relating brain imaging results across the scientific literature. Existing meta-analysis methods perform statistical tests on sets o...
Article
Full-text available
Reaching a global view of brain organization requires assembling evidence on widely different mental processes and mechanisms. The variety of human neuroscience concepts and terminology poses a fundamental challenge to relating brain imaging results across the scientific literature. Existing meta-analysis methods perform statistical tests on sets o...
Article
Full-text available
Reaching a global view of brain organization requires assembling evidence on widely different mental processes and mechanisms. The variety of human neuroscience concepts and terminology poses a fundamental challenge to relating brain imaging results across the scientific literature. Existing meta-analysis methods perform statistical tests on sets o...
Article
Full-text available
Brain networks are increasingly characterized at different scales, including summary statistics, community connectivity, and individual edges. While research relating brain networks to behavioral measurements has yielded many insights into brain‐phenotype relationships, common analytical approaches only consider network information at a single scal...
Preprint
We develop an extension of the Knockoff Inference procedure, introduced by Barber and Candes (2015). This new method, called Aggregation of Multiple Knockoffs (AKO), addresses the instability inherent to the random nature of Knockoff-based inference. Specifically, AKO improves both the stability and power compared with the original Knockoff algorit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reaching a global view of brain organization requires assembling evidence on widely different mental processes and mechanisms. The variety of human neuroscience concepts and terminology poses a fundamental challenge to relating brain imaging results across the scientific literature. Existing meta-analysis methods perform statistical tests on sets o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) are non-invasive modalities that measure the weak electromagnetic fields generated by neural activity. Estimating the location and magnitude of the current sources that generated these electromagnetic fields is a challenging ill-posed regression problem known as \emph{source imaging}. When c...
Preprint
Full-text available
We simultaneously revisited the ADI-R and ADOS with a comprehensive data-analytics strategy. Here, the combination of pattern analysis algorithms and an extensive data resources (n=266 patients aged 7 to 49 years) allowed identifying coherent clinical constellations in and across ADI-R and ADOS assessments widespread in clinical practice. The colle...
Preprint
Full-text available
The shared response model provides a simple but effective framework toanalyse fMRI data of subjects exposed to naturalistic stimuli. However whenthe number of subjects or runs is large, fitting the model requires a large amountof memory and computational power, which limits its use in practice. In thiswork, we introduce the FastSRM algorithm that r...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: A calibration-free pulse design method is introduced to alleviate B 1 + artifacts in clinical routine with parallel transmission at high field, dealing with significant inter-subject variability, found for instance in the abdomen. Theory and methods: From a dual-transmit 3T scanner, a database of B 1 + and off-resonance abdominal...
Chapter
An important goal of cognitive brain imaging studies is to model the functional organization of the brain; yet there exists currently no functional brain atlas built from existing data. One of the main roadblocks to the creation of such an atlas is the functional variability that is observed in subjects performing the same task; this variability go...
Chapter
Continuous improvement in medical imaging techniques allows the acquisition of higher-resolution images. When these are used in a predictive setting, a greater number of explanatory variables are potentially related to the dependent variable (the response). Meanwhile, the number of acquisitions per experiment remains limited. In such high dimension...
Article
More than two decades of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human brain have succeeded to identify, with a growing level of precision, the neural basis of multiple cognitive skills within various domains (perception, sensorimotor processes, language, emotion and social cognition …). Progress has been made in the comprehension of th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are non-invasive modalities that measure the weak electromagnetic fields generated by neural activity. Inferring the location of the current sources that generated these magnetic fields is an ill-posed inverse problem known as source imaging. When considering a group study, a baseline ap...
Article
Functional connectomes reveal biomarkers of individual psychological or clinical traits. However, there is great variability in the analytic pipelines typically used to derive them from rest-fMRI cohorts. Here, we consider a specific type of studies, using predictive models on the edge weights of functional connectomes, for which we highlight the b...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating covariances from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at rest (r-fMRI) can quantify interactions between brain regions. Also known as brain functional connectivity, it reflects inter-subject variations in behavior and cognition, and characterizes neuropathologies. Yet, with noisy and short time-series, as in r-fMRI, covariance estimatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalogra-phy (EEG) are non-invasive modalities that measure the weak electromagnetic fields generated by neural activity. Inferring the location of the current sources that generated these magnetic fields is an ill-posed inverse problem known as source imaging. When considering a group study, a baseline a...
Data
Distribution of terms in our database. (PDF)
Data
Maps for consensus between forward and reverse. Left: maps for the different inferences on the “place” concept. Right: the overlaid inferences for this concept. The consensus singles out the PPA for the “place” concept. (TIFF)
Data
Prediction scores for different methods. AUC (area under the curve) of the ROC. OD: ontology decoding, LOG: logistic, NB: Naive Bayes. Left: leave-subject-out cross-validation, Right: leave-study-out cross-validation. (TIFF)
Data
Prediction scores for different methods. AUC (area under the curve) of the ROC curve. OD: ontology decoding, LOG: logistic regression, NB: Naive Bayes, NS: NeuroSynth. The OD (ontology decoding) method performs very well (chance is at .5), including when predicting to new studies. Leave-subject-out cross-validation scheme tend to display a higher p...
Data
Forward analysis: Ontology-based design across studies. (PDF)
Data
Reverse inference: Decoding with cognitive ontologies. (PDF)
Data
Terms correlations. Correlation matrix between terms across images. (TIFF)
Data
First-level classifiers used. We train three types of classifier to learn the hierarchy of terms: category classifiers (with a OvA approach), and terms classifiers (both with OvA and OvO approaches). The classifiers’ decision functions span an intermediate feature space tailored to our ontology, upon which we perform a standard OvA approach to pred...
Data
Terms and categories we use to characterize tasks associated with images in our database. We used CogPO categories for task-related description, and add necessary terms from Cognitive Atlas to describe higher-level cognitive aspect. Here we report only terms that were present in more than one study—aside from the “left foot”, which maps in the anal...
Data
Similarities of activations across the database. (PDF)
Data
Consensus between forward and reverse inference. (PDF)
Data
Evaluating prediction accuracy: Cross-validation. (PDF)
Data
Terms distribution in studies. Percentage of term occurrence in each study. (TIFF)
Data
Histograms of the distances between brain activity images. Pairwise distances across all the images of our 30-study database: comparing all images, images sharing a cognitive label, in the same study, or in the same exact contrast. (TIFF)
Data
Ontology contrasts for the “place” term. We contrast the “place” with other visual recognition tasks as defined in S4 Table: recognizing faces, objects, and scrambled images. The contrast is efficient at suppressing low-level visual areas, but does not completely remove mid-level visual areas. Indeed, mid-level features are probably not balanced ac...
Data
Studies in the database. The subject-level maps output by our preprocessing and first-level analysis have been uploaded to NeuroVault, for reproducibility of the analysis. These maps form the input of our analytic scheme. All the subject-level statistical maps that we computed as part of our preprocessing are available on http://neurovault.org/coll...
Data
Term distribution. The number of times a term appears in our database, per map, subject, or study. (TIFF)