Bertrand Lefloch

Bertrand Lefloch
Université Grenoble Alpes · IPAG

PhD

About

335
Publications
19,943
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9,017
Citations
Citations since 2016
159 Research Items
5911 Citations
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (335)
Article
The study of reactions involving phosphorus bearing species (PBS) in star forming regions as well as in circumstellar envelopes are important to elucidate the mechanisms in which this element is formed and destroyed, and perhaps, lead to important prebiotic molecules. Phosphorus nitride (PN) is the most easily detected PBS in the interstellar mediu...
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The Large Program “Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM” (ASAI) investigates the emergence of molecular complexity along the different stages of the solar-type star formation process, by carrying out unbiased line surveys of a sample of ten template sources in the range 80-272 GHz with the IRAM 30m telescope. We present here an overview of the main result...
Article
Aims. Methanol is a ubiquitous species commonly found in the molecular interstellar medium. It is also a crucial seed species for the build-up of chemical complexity in star forming regions. Thus, understanding how its abundance evolves during the star formation process and whether it enriches the emerging planetary system is of paramount importanc...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Large Program "Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM" (ASAI) investigates the emergence of molecular complexity along the different stages of the solar-type star formation process, by carrying out unbiased line surveys of a sample of ten template sources in the range 80-272 GHz with the IRAM 30m telescope. We present here an overview of the main result...
Article
Full-text available
To understand the origin of the diversity observed in exoplanetary systems, it is crucial to characterize the early stages of their formation, represented by solar-type protostars. Likely, the gaseous chemical content of these objects directly depends on the composition of the dust-grain mantles formed before the collapse. Directly retrieving the i...
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Context. Hot cores are signposts of the protostellar activity of dense cores in star-forming regions. W43-MM1 is a young region that is very rich in terms of high-mass star formation, which is highlighted by the presence of large numbers of high-mass cores and outflows. Aims. We aim to systematically identify the massive cores in W43-MM1 that conta...
Preprint
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W43-MM1 is a young region, very rich in terms of high-mass star formation. We aim to systematically identify the massive cores which contain a hot core and compare their molecular composition. We used ALMA high-spatial resolution (2500 au) data of W43-MM1 to identify line-rich protostellar cores and make a comparative study of their temperature and...
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The chemical diversity of low-mass protostellar sources has so far been recognized, and environmental effects are invoked as its origin. In this context, observations of isolated protostellar sources without the influence of nearby objects are of particular importance. Here, we report the chemical and physical structures of the low-mass Class 0 pro...
Article
The ALMA interferometer, with its unprecedented combination of high-sensitivity and high-angular resolution, allows for (sub-)mm wavelength mapping of protostellar systems at Solar System scales. Astrochemistry has benefited from imaging interstellar complex organic molecules in these jet-disk systems. Here we report the first detection of methanol...
Preprint
The ALMA interferometer, with its unprecedented combination of high-sensitivity and high-angular resolution, allows for (sub-)mm wavelength mapping of protostellar systems at Solar System scales. Astrochemistry has benefited from imaging interstellar complex organic molecules in these jet-disk systems. Here we report the first detection of methanol...
Preprint
Planetary systems such as our own are formed after a long process where matter condenses from diffuse clouds to stars, planets, asteroids, comets and residual dust, undergoing dramatic changes in physical and chemical state in less than a few million years. Several studies have shown that the chemical composition during the early formation of a Sol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methanol is a ubiquitous species commonly found in the molecular interstellar medium. It is also a crucial seed species for the building-up of the chemical complexity in star forming regions. Thus, understanding how its abundance evolves during the star formation process and whether it enriches the emerging planetary system is of paramount importan...
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Full-text available
Context. Protostellar jets are an important agent of star formation feedback, tightly connected with the mass-accretion process. The history of jet formation and mass ejection provides constraints on the mass accretion history and on the nature of the driving source. Aims. We characterize the time-variability of the mass-ejection phenomena at work...
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Is there life beyond Earth? An ideal research program would first ascertain how life on Earth began and then use this as a blueprint for its existence elsewhere. But the origin of life on Earth is still not understood, what then could be the way forward? Upcoming observations of terrestrial exoplanets provide a unique opportunity for answering this...
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Full-text available
Context. Deuteration is a precious tool for investigating the origin and formation routes of interstellar complex organic molecules in the different stages of the star formation process. Methyl cyanide (CH 3 CN) is one of the most abundant interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs); it is of particular interest because it is among the very few...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protostellar jets are an important agent of star formation feedback, tightly connected with the mass-accretion process. The history of jet formation and mass-ejection provides constraints on the mass accretion history and the nature of the driving source. We want to characterize the time-variability of the mass-ejection phenomena at work in the Cla...
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Full-text available
We report a study of the low-mass Class 0 multiple system VLA 1623AB in the Ophiuchus star-forming region, using H ¹³ CO ⁺ ( J = 3–2), CS ( J = 5–4), and CCH ( N = 3–2) lines as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. The analysis of the velocity fields revealed the rotation motion in the envelope and the velocity gradients in the outflows (about 200...
Preprint
We studied the line emission from CH3CN and its deuterated isotopologue CH$_2$DCN towards the prototypical Class I object SVS13-A, where the deuteration of a large number of species has already been reported. Our goal is to measure the CH$_3$CN deuteration in a Class I protostar, for the first time, in order to constrain the CH$_3$CN formation path...
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Full-text available
We report a study of the low-mass Class-0 multiple system VLA 1623AB in the Ophiuchus star-forming region, using H$^{13}$CO$^+$ ($J=3-2$), CS ($J=5-4$), and CCH ($N=3-2$) lines as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. The analysis of the velocity fields revealed the rotation motion in the envelope and the velocity gradients in the outflows (about 2...
Article
There is evidence that the star formation process is linked to the intricate net of filaments in molecular clouds, which may be also due to gas compression from external triggers. We studied the southern region of the Perseus NGC 1333 molecular cloud, known to be heavily shaped by similar external triggers, to shed light on the process that perturb...
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Full-text available
Massive stars disrupt their natal molecular cloud material through radiative and mechanical feedback processes. These processes have profound effects on the evolution of interstellar matter in our Galaxy and throughout the Universe, from the era of vigorous star formation at redshifts of 1-3 to the present day. The dominant feedback processes can b...
Preprint
There is evidence that the star formation process is linked to the intricate net of filaments in molecular clouds, which may be also due to gas compression from external triggers. We studied the southern region of the Perseus NGC 1333 molecular cloud, known to be heavily shaped by similar external triggers, to shed light on the process that perturb...
Preprint
The ALMA-IMF Large Program imaged a total noncontiguous area of 53pc2, covering 15 extreme, nearby protoclusters of the Milky Way. They were selected to span relevant early protocluster evolutionary stages. Our 1.3mm and 3mm observations provide continuum images that are homogeneously sensitive to point-like cores with masses of 0.2 and 0.6Msun, re...
Article
Context. Recent results in astrochemistry have revealed that some molecules, such as interstellar complex organic species and deuterated species, can serve as valuable tools in the investigation of star-forming regions. Sulphuretted species can also be used to follow the chemical evolution of the early stages of a Sun-like star formation process. A...
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Context. The relationship between young stellar clusters and their respective parental molecular clouds remains an open issue. Recent inquiries consider the similarities between substructures of clouds and clusters and whether they are a coincidence or, rather, an indication of a physical relationship. To address these issues, we studied the CMa OB...
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Aims: The goal is to obtain a census of S-bearing species using interferometric images, towards SVS13-A, a Class I object associated with a hot corino rich in interstellar complex organic molecules. Methods: We used data at 3mm and 1.4mm obtained with IRAM-NOEMA in the framework of the Large Program SOLIS. Results: We imaged the spatial distributio...
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The relationship between young stellar clusters and respective parental molecular clouds is still an open issue: for instance, are the similarities between substructures of clouds and clusters just a coincidence? Or would they be the indication of a physical relationship? In order to address these issues, we have studied the CMa OB1/R1 region that...
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Full-text available
HCN and its isomer HNC play an important role in molecular cloud chemistry and the formation of more complex molecules. We investigate here the impact of protostellar shocks on the HCN and HNC abundances from high-sensitivity IRAM 30m observations of the prototypical shock region L1157-B1 and the envelope of the associated Class 0 protostar, as a p...
Preprint
Full-text available
HCN and its isomer HNC play an important role in molecular cloud chemistry and the formation of more complex molecules. We investigate here the impact of protostellar shocks on the HCN and HNC abundances from high-sensitivity IRAM 30m observations of the prototypical shock region L1157-B1 and the envelope of the associated Class 0 protostar, as a p...
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Full-text available
The Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293$-$2422 Source A is known to be a binary system (A1 and A2) or even a multiple system, which processes a complex outflow structure. We have observed this source in the C$^{34}$S, SO, and OCS lines at 3.1 mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). A substructure of this source is traced by our hi...
Article
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398−3359 at scales ranging from 50 to 1800 au, as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H_{2}CO, SO, and C^{18}O line emission, which extends from the source in a direction almost perpendicular to the known act...
Article
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398−3359 at scales ranging from 50 to 1800 au, as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H 2 CO, SO, and C ¹⁸ O line emission, which extends from the source in a direction almost perpendicular to the known activ...
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Full-text available
To date, about two dozen low-mass embedded protostars exhibit rich spectra with lines of complex organic molecules (COMs). These protostars seem to possess a different enrichment in COMs. However, the statistics of COM abundance in low-mass protostars are limited by the scarcity of observations. This study introduces the Perseus ALMA Chemistry Surv...
Article
Aims. As a part of the CALYPSO Large Program, we aim to constrain the properties of protostellar jets and outflows by searching for corresponding emission in a sample of 21 Class 0 protostars covering a broad range of internal luminosities ( L int from 0.035 L ⊙ to 47 L ⊙ ). Methods. We analyzed high angular (~0.′′5–1.′′0) resolution IRAM Plateau d...
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Full-text available
To date, about two dozen low-mass embedded protostars exhibit rich spectra with complex organic molecule (COM) lines. These protostars seem to possess different enrichment in COMs. However, the statistics of COM abundance in low-mass protostars are limited by the scarcity of observations. This study introduces the Perseus ALMA Chemistry Survey (PEA...
Preprint
Full-text available
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 at scales ranging from 50 au to 1800 au, as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H2CO, SO, and C18O line emission, which extends from the source along a direction almost perpendicular to the known active outflow. Molecular line emission fro...
Article
Using the Yebes 40m and IRAM 30m radiotelescopes, we detected two series of harmonically related lines in space that can be fitted to a symmetric rotor. The lines have been seen towards the cold dense cores TMC-1, L483, L1527, and L1544. High level of theory ab initio calculations indicate that the best possible candidate is the acetyl cation, CH3C...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using the Yebes 40m and IRAM 30m radiotelescopes, we detected two series of harmonically related lines in space that can be fitted to a symmetric rotor. The lines have been seen towards the cold dense cores TMC-1, L483, L1527, and L1544. High level of theory ab initio calculations indicate that the best possible candidate is the acetyl cation, CH3C...
Preprint
As a part of the CALYPSO large programme, we constrain the properties of protostellar jets and outflows in a sample of 21 Class 0 protostars with internal luminosities, Lint, from 0.035 to 47 Lsun. We analyse high angular resolution (~0.5"-1") IRAM PdBI observations in CO (2-1), SO ($5_6-4_5$), and SiO (5-4). CO (2-1), which probes outflowing gas,...
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Full-text available
Context. Previous numerical studies have shown that in protostellar outflows, the outflowing gas mass per unit velocity, or mass–velocity distribution m ( v ), can be well described by a broken power law ∝ v − γ . On the other hand, recent observations of a sample of outflows at various stages of evolution show that the CO intensity–velocity distri...
Article
Context. The isotopic ratio of nitrogen presents a wide range of values in the Solar System: from ~140 in meteorites and comets to 441 in the solar wind. In star-forming systems, we observe even a higher spread of ~150–1000. The origin of these differences is still unclear. Aims. Chemical reactions in the gas phase are one of the possible processes...
Preprint
The isotopic ratio of nitrogen presents a wide range of values in the Solar System and in star forming system whose origin is still unclear. Chemical reactions in the gas phase are one of the possible processes that could modify the $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N ratio. We aim at investigating if and how the passage of a shock wave in the interstellar medium, c...
Article
The study of hot corinos in solar-like protostars has been so far mostly limited to the Class 0 phase, hampering our understanding of their origin and evolution. In addition, recent evidence suggests that planet formation starts already during Class I phase, which therefore represents a crucial step in the future planetary system chemical compositi...
Preprint
The study of hot corinos in Solar-like protostars has been so far mostly limited to the Class 0 phase, hampering our understanding of their origin and evolution. In addition, recent evidence suggests that planet formation starts already during Class I phase, which, therefore, represents a crucial step in the future planetary system chemical composi...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs) are C-bearing molecules containing at least six atoms; two main proposals for their formation are suggested: a direct formation in the icy mantle of the dust grains and formation through the reaction in gas phase of released grain mantle species. The shocked gas along outflows driven by lo...
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There is mounting evidence that the composition and structure of planetary systems are intimately linked to their birth environments. During the past decade, several spectral surveys probed the chemistry of the earliest stages of star formation and of late planet-forming disks. However, very little is known about the chemistry of intermediate proto...
Preprint
Aims: A unique environment to study how interstellar Complex Organic Molecules (iCOMs) can be formed is the shocked gas along low-mass protostellar outflows, as the dust mantles composition is sputtered into the gas phase. The chemical richness in these environments has been so far studied only in the L1157 blue shifted outflow. Methods: To underst...
Article
We present observations of SO and SO2 lines toward the shocked regions along the L1157 chemically rich outflow, taken in the context of the Seeds of Life in Space IRAM Northern Extended Millimeter Array Large Program, and supported by data from the Submillimeter Array and IRAM-30 m telescope at 1.1–3.6 mm wavelengths. We simultaneously analyze, for...
Article
Full-text available
After almost 20 years of hunting, only about a dozen hot corinos, hot regions enriched in interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs), are known. Of them, many are binary systems with the two components showing drastically different molecular spectra. Two obvious questions arise. Why are hot corinos so difficult to find and why do their binary c...
Preprint
After almost 20 years of hunting, only about a dozen hot corinos, hot regions enriched in interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs), are known. Of them, many are binary systems with the two components showing drastically different molecular spectra. Two obvious questions arise. Why are hot corinos so difficult to find and why do their binary c...
Preprint
We present observations of SO and $\rm SO_2$ lines toward the shocked regions along the L1157 chemically rich outflow, taken in the context of the Seeds Of Life In Space IRAM-NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array Large Program, and supported by data from Submillimeter Array and IRAM-30 m telescope at 1.1--3.6 mm wavelengths. We simultaneously analyze,...
Article
Context: Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims: The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the...
Article
The potential energy surface for the Si + SH and Si + SH2 reactions is explored using the highly accurate explicit correlation multireference configuration interaction method. For atomic silicon colliding with SH, SiS + H is predicted to be the main reaction channel with no activation energy. The reaction Si + SH2 → SiS + H2 is found to be largely...
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Full-text available
Context. The accretion history of protostars remains widely mysterious, even though it represents one of the best ways to understand the protostellar collapse that leads to the formation of stars. Aims. Molecular outflows, which are easier to detect than the direct accretion onto the prostellar embryo, are here used to characterize the protostellar...
Article
Aims. The Seeds Of Life In Space IRAM/NOEMA large program aims at studying a set of crucial complex organic molecules in a sample of sources with a well-known physical structure that covers the various phases of solar-type star formation. One representative object of the transition from the prestellar core to the protostar phases has been observed...
Preprint
The SOLIS (Seeds Of Life In Space) IRAM/NOEMA Large Program aims at studying a set of crucial complex organic molecules in a sample of sources, with well-known physical structure, covering the various phases of Solar-type star formation. One representative object of the transition from the prestellar core to the protostar phases has been observed t...
Preprint
The accretion history of protostars remains widely mysterious even though it represents one of the best ways to understand the protostellar collapse that leads to the formation of stars. Molecular outflows are here used to characterize the protostellar accretion phase in W43-MM1. The W43-MM1 protocluster host a sufficient number of protostars to st...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been detected in a few Class 0 protostars but their origin is not well understood. While the usual picture of a hot corino explains their presence as resulting from the heating of the inner envelope by the nascent protostar, shocks in the outflow, disk wind, the presence of a flared disk, or the intera...
Preprint
Full-text available
Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been detected in a few Class 0 protostars but their origin is not well understood. Going beyond studies of individual objects, we want to investigate the origin of COMs in young protostars on a statistical basis. We use the CALYPSO survey performed with the IRAM PdBI to search for COMs at high angular resolutio...
Preprint
Aim: In the past, observations of protostellar shocks have been able to set constraints on the formation route of formamide (NH2CHO), exploiting its observed spatial distribution and comparison with astrochemical model predictions. In this work, we follow the same strategy to study the case of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). Method: To this end, we used the...
Article
Context. It is nowadays clear that a rich organic chemistry takes place in protostellar regions. However, the processes responsible for it, that is, the dominant formation routes to interstellar complex organic molecules, are still a source of debate. Two paradigms have been evoked: the formation of these molecules on interstellar dust mantles and...
Article
The chemical composition of protostellar jets and its origin are still badly understood. More observational constraints are needed to make progress. With that objective, we have carried out a systematic search for molecular species in the jet of Cep E-mm, a template for intermediate-mass Class 0 protostars, associated with a luminous, high-velocity...