Bernhard Ross

Bernhard Ross
Baycrest · Rotman Research Institute

Ph.D.

About

162
Publications
22,825
Reads
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8,638
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
2994 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - present
University of Toronto
October 2004 - present
Baycrest Centre
Position
  • Baycrest
November 1975 - October 2004
Universitätsklinikum Münster

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
The sensory evoked neuromagnetic response consists of superimposition of an immediately stimulus-driven component and induced changes in the autonomous brain activity, each having distinct functional relevance. Commonly, the strength of phase locking in neural activities has been used to differentiate the different responses. The steady-state respo...
Article
Coupling of thalamocortical networks through synchronous oscillations at gamma frequencies (30-80 Hz) has been suggested as a mechanism for binding of auditory sensory information into an object representation, which then becomes accessible for perception and cognition. This study investigated whether contralateral noise interferes with this step o...
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The ability to selectively attend to one sound and ignore other competing sounds is essential for auditory communication. Subjects in our study detected occasional changes in the frequency of amplitude modulation in sounds presented to one ear while ignoring sounds in the other ear. Neuromagnetic source analysis revealed attention-related activity...
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Acoustic-phonetic speech training mitigates confusion between consonants and improves phoneme identification in noise. A novel training paradigm addressed two principles of perceptual learning. First, training benefits are often specific to the trained material; therefore, stimulus variability was reduced by training small sets of phonetically simi...
Article
Changes in levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) may underlie aging‐related changes in brain function. GABA and co‐edited macromolecules (GABA+) can be measured with MEGA‐PRESS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The current study investigated how changes in the aging brain impact the interpretation of GABA+ measur...
Article
Previous research showed that repetitive sensory stimulation entrains neural oscillations at the stimulation rate, facilitates long-term potentiation like perceptual learning, and improves behavioural performance. For example, short-time repetitive tactile stimulation improved tactile acuity measured with two-point or spatial orientation discrimina...
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The presence of binaural low-level background noise has been shown to enhance the transient evoked N1 response at about 100 ms after sound onset. This increase in N1 amplitude is thought to reflect noise-mediated efferent feedback facilitation from the auditory cortex to lower auditory centers. To test this hypothesis, we recorded auditory-evoked f...
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Right-ear advantage refers to the observation that when two different speech stimuli are simultaneously presented to both ears, listeners report stimuli more correctly from the right ear than the left. It is assumed to result from prominent projection along the auditory pathways to the contralateral hemisphere and the dominance of the left auditory...
Article
Speech-in-noise (SIN) understanding in older age is affected by hearing loss, impaired central auditory processing, and cognitive deficits. SIN-tests measure these factors' compound effects by a speech reception threshold, defined as the signal-to-noise ratio required for 50% word understanding (SNR50). This study compared two standard SIN tests, Q...
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Speech-in-noise (SIN) understanding often becomes difficult for older adults because of impaired hearing and aging-related changes in central auditory processing. Central auditory processing depends on a fine balance between excitatory and inhibitory neural mechanisms, which may be upset in older age by a change in the level of the inhibitory neuro...
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We addressed how rhythm complexity influences auditory–motor synchronization in musically trained individuals who perceived and produced complex rhythms while EEG was recorded. Participants first listened to two-part auditory sequences (Listen condition). Each part featured a single pitch presented at a fixed rate; the integer ratio formed between...
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Auditory long-term memory has been shown to facilitate signal detection. However, the nature and timing of the cognitive processes supporting such benefits remain equivocal. We measured neuroelectric brain activity while young adults were presented with a contextual memory cue designed to assist with the detection of a faint pure tone target embedd...
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This study investigated whether binaural beat stimulation could accelerate the training outcome in an attentional blink (AB) task. The AB refers to the lapse in detecting a target T2 in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) after the identification of a preceding target T1. Binaural beats (BB) are assumed to entrain neural oscillations and suppor...
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Objective Stroke lesions in non-auditory areas may affect higher-order central auditory processing. We sought to characterize auditory functions in chronic stroke survivors with unilateral arm/hand impairment using auditory evoked responses (AERs) with lesion and perception metrics. Methods The AERs in 29 stroke survivors and 14 controls were reco...
Article
The frequency-following response with origin in the auditory brainstem represents the pitch contour of voice and can be recorded with electrodes from the scalp. MEG studies also revealed a cortical contribution to the high gamma oscillations at the fundamental frequency (f0) of a vowel stimulus. Therefore, studying the cortical component of the fre...
Article
Studies of central auditory processing underlying speech‐in‐noise recognition in aging have mainly concerned the degrading neural representation of speech sound in the auditory brainstem and cortex. Less attention has been paid to the aging‐related decline of inhibitory function, which reduces the ability to suppress distraction from irrelevant sen...
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Introduction Brain processes of working memory involve oscillatory activities at multiple frequencies in local and long‐range neural networks. The current study addressed the specific roles of alpha oscillations during memory encoding and retention, supporting the hypothesis that multiple functional mechanisms of alpha oscillations exist in paralle...
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Methods of functional connectivity are applied ubiquitously in studies involving non-invasive whole-brain signals, but may be not optimal for exploring the propagation of the steady-state responses, which are strong oscillatory patterns of neurodynamics evoked by periodic stimulation. In our study, we explore a functional network underlying the som...
Article
Interaural time and intensity differences (ITD and IID) are important cues in binaural hearing and allow for sound localization, improving speech understanding in noise and reverberation, and integrating sound sources in the auditory scene. Whereas previous research showed that the upper-frequency limit for ITD detection in the fine structure of so...
Article
Neuroplasticity accompanying learning is a key mediator of stroke rehabilitation. Training in playing music in healthy populations and patients with movement disorders requires resources within motor, sensory, cognitive, and affective systems, and coordination among these systems. We investigated effects of music-supported therapy (MST) in chronic...
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Biomarkers that represent the structural and functional integrity of the motor system enable us to better assess motor outcome post-stroke. The degree of overlap between the stroke lesion and corticospinal tract (CST Injury) is a measure of the structural integrity of the motor system, whereas the left-to-right motor cortex resting state connectivi...
Article
Movement is traditionally viewed as a process that involves motor brain regions. However, movement also implicates non-motor regions such as prefrontal and parietal cortex, regions whose integrity may thus be important for motor recovery after stroke. Importantly, focal brain damage can affect neural functioning within and between distinct brain ne...
Article
Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with aging, musical experts are less affected. The present study inves...
Article
This paper addresses the importance of steady state brain oscillation for brain connectivity and cognition. Given that a healthy brain maintains particular levels of oscillatory activity, it argues that disturbances or dysrhythmias of this oscillatory activity can be implicated in common health conditions including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s...
Article
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action–perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as talking and singing or playing a musical instr...
Article
Attentional blink (AB) refers to the phenomenon whereby the correct identification of a visual or auditory target impairs processing of a subsequent probe. Although it has been shown that knowing in advance, when the probe would be presented, reduces the attentional blink and increases the amplitude of event-related potential (ERP) elicited by the...
Article
Auditory object perception requires binding of elementary features of complex stimuli. Synchronization of high-frequency oscillation in neural networks has been proposed as an effective alternative to binding via hard-wired connections because binding in an oscillatory network can be dynamically adjusted to the ever-changing sensory environment. Pr...
Article
Background: Synchrony between neuroelectric oscillations in distant brain areas is currently used as an indicator of functional connectivity between the involved neural substrates. Coherence measures, which quantify synchrony, are affected by concurrent brain activities, commonly subsumed as noise. New method: Using Monte-Carlo simulation, we an...
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Unlabelled: Dancing to music involves synchronized movements, which can be at the basic beat level or higher hierarchical metrical levels, as in a march (groups of two basic beats, one-two-one-two …) or waltz (groups of three basic beats, one-two-three-one-two-three …). Our previous human magnetoencephalography studies revealed that the subjective...
Chapter
Now available in paperback, this updated new edition summarizes the latest developments in cognitive neuroscience related to rehabilitation, reviews the principles of successful interventions and synthesizes new findings about the rehabilitation of cognitive changes in a variety of populations. With greatly expanded sections on treatment and the ro...
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Musical rhythms are often perceived and interpreted within a metrical framework that integrates timing information hierarchically based on interval ratios. Endogenous timing processes facilitate this metrical integration and allow us using the sensory context for predicting when an expected sensory event will happen ("predictive timing"). Previousl...
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When two tones with slightly different frequencies are presented to both ears, they interact in the central auditory system and induce the sensation of a beating sound. At low difference frequencies, we perceive a single sound, which is moving across the head between the left and right ears. The percept changes to loudness fluctuation, roughness, a...
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Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impac...
Article
Short-time passive tactile stimulation at 20 Hz improves tactile discrimination acuity. We investigated whether sustained 20 Hz stimulation also modifies cortical responses and whether these changes are plastic as indicated by differences between subsequent recording sessions. Touch stimuli (20 Hz) were applied to the fingertip, and β and γ oscilla...
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Auditory perceptual learning persistently modifies neural networks in the central nervous system. Central auditory processing comprises a hierarchy of sound analysis and integration, which transforms an acoustical signal into a meaningful object for perception. Based on latencies and source locations of auditory evoked responses, we investigated wh...
Article
Extensive rehabilitation training can lead to functional improvement even years after a stroke. Although neuronal plasticity is considered as a main origin of such ameliorations, specific subtending mechanisms need further investigation. Our aim was to obtain objective neuromagnetic measures sensitive to brain reorganizations induced by a music-sup...
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Musical rhythm facilitates synchronized body movements and schema-based, predictive timing perception. Our previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) study demonstrated that beta-band (~20 Hz) activity in bilateral auditory cortices shows synchronized modulation that predicts the time point of the next beat (Fujioka et al. 2009, 2012). Furthermore, afte...
Article
Changing the interaural phase difference (IPD) between binaurally presented tones induces the sensation of a change of the sound source in space and elicits auditory brain responses specific for sound localization. We recorded neuromagnetic responses to IPD changes in young, middle-aged, and older listeners at various tonal frequencies. Young liste...
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Behavioral improvement within the first hour of training is commonly explained as procedural learning (i.e., strategy changes resulting from task familiarization). However, it may additionally reflect a rapid adjustment of the perceptual and/or attentional system in a goal-directed task. In support of this latter hypothesis, we show feature-specifi...
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Episodic memory and semantic memory produce very different subjective experiences yet rely on overlapping networks of brain regions for processing. Traditional approaches for characterizing functional brain networks emphasize static states of function and thus are blind to the dynamic information processing within and across brain regions. This stu...
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OBJECTIVE: In non-invasive somatotopic mapping based on neuromagnetic source analysis, the recording time can be shortened and accuracy improved by applying simultaneously vibrotactile stimuli at different frequencies to multiple body sites and recording multiple steady-state responses. This study compared the reliability of sensory evoked response...
Article
Amplitude fluctuations of natural sounds carry multiple types of information represented at different time scales, such as syllables and voice pitch in speech. However, it is not well understood how such amplitude fluctuations at different time scales are processed in the brain. In the present study we investigated the effect of the stimulus rate o...
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Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal time courses in functional magnetic resonance imaging are estimated within the framework of general linear modeling by convolving an input function, that represents neural activity, with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF). Here we investigate the performance of different neural input func...
Article
Precise timing of sound is crucial in music for both performing and listening. Indeed, listening to rhythmic sound sequences activates not only the auditory system but also the sensorimotor system. Previously, we showed the significance of neural beta-band oscillations (15-30 Hz) for the timing processing that involves such auditory-motor coordinat...
Article
influence of ITI had a very small impact on the overall strength of the IOI model, where the reduction in R-square values was only 0.07 when ITI was removed (R-squared change in Table 2c-1, p. 74). On the other hand, when IOI was removed from the ITI model the R-square values decreased by 0.40 (R-squared change in Table 2d-1, p. 74). Accordingly, a...
Article
The body surface is represented in somatotopically organized maps in the primary somatosensory cortex. Estimating the size of the hand area with neuromagnetic source analysis has been used as a metric for monitoring neuroplastic changes related to training, learning, and brain injury. Commonly, results were significant as group statistics only beca...
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Moving in synchrony with an auditory rhythm requires predictive action based on neurodynamic representation of temporal information. Although it is known that a regular auditory rhythm can facilitate rhythmic movement, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In this experiment using human magnetoencephalography, 1...
Article
WHEN FINGER TAPS ARE SYNCHRONIZED WITH AN ISOCHRONOUS click, it is known that tap-click asynchrony and its variability increase with the interonset interval (IOI). It remains unclear whether these results are due to the IOI or the intertap interval (ITI) duration. The present study examines how these two factors influence tapping performance by alt...
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In noisy social gatherings, listeners perceptually integrate sounds originating from one person's voice (e.g., fundamental frequency (f0) and harmonics) at a particular location and segregate these from concurrent sounds of other talkers. Though increasing the spectral or the spatial distance between talkers promotes speech segregation, synergetic...
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Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a neuroimaging modality with high temporal resolution for studying functional brain processes in relatively small neural assemblies on the time scale of <100 milliseconds and with synchrony and coherence in the recorded signals at high frequencies. Advanced MEG signal analysis gained importance for clinical applicati...
Article
Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technology now provide a means of directly observing learning within the brain. Classical conditioning serves as an ideal starting point for examining the dynamic expression of learning within the human brain, since this paradigm is well characterized using multiple levels of analysis in a broad range of specie...
Article
Using the notion of complexity and synchrony, this study presents a data-driven pipeline of nonlinear analysis of neuromagnetic sources reconstructed from human magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data collected in reaction to vibrostimulation of the right index finger. The dynamics of MEG source activity was reconstructed with synthetic aperture magneto...
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Auditory training programs are being developed to remediate various types of communication disorders. Biological changes have been shown to coincide with improved perception following auditory training so there is interest in determining if these changes represent biologic markers of auditory learning. Here we examine the role of stimulus exposure...
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The capability of processing rapid fluctuations in the temporal envelope of sound declines with age and this contributes to older adults' difficulties in understanding speech. Although, changes in central auditory processing during aging have been proposed as cause for communication deficits, an open question remains which stage of processing is mo...
Article
The frontal-striatal circuits, the cerebellum, and motor cortices play crucial roles in processing timing information on second to millisecond scales. However, little is known about the physiological mechanism underlying human's preference to robustly encode a sequence of time intervals into a mental hierarchy of temporal units called meter. This i...
Article
The inter-play between changes in beta-band (14-30-Hz) cortical rhythms and attention during somatosensation informs us about where and when relevant processes occur in the brain. As such, we investigated the effects of attention on somatosensory evoked and induced responses using vibrotactile stimulation and magnetoencephalographic recording. Subj...
Article
The goal of the present study was to further our understanding of how attention directed to carrier frequency changes in amplitude-modulated tones (AM) affects the auditory steady-state response (ASSR). ASSR in the 40-Hz range were recorded in 15 adults using the frequency tagging method while subjects detected a carrier frequency change in amplitu...
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Memory often requires knowledge of the order of events. Previous findings about immediate judgments of relative order in short, subspan lists are variable regarding whether participants' strategy is to search memory in the forward direction, starting from the first list item and progressing toward the end item, or in the backward direction, startin...
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We examined beta- (approximately 20 Hz) and gamma- (approximately 40 Hz) band activity in auditory cortices by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) during passive listening to a regular musical beat with occasional omission of single tones. The beta activity decreased after each tone, followed by an increase, thus forming a periodic modulation syn...
Article
Speech perception depends strongly on precise encoding of the temporal structure of sound. Although behavioural studies suggest that communication problems experienced by older adults may entail deficits in temporal acuity, much is unknown about the effects of age on the neural mechanisms underlying the encoding of sound duration. In this study, we...
Article
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings reveal that the hippocampus is important for recognition memory. However, it is unclear when and whether the hippocampus contributes differentially to recognition of previously studied items (old) versus novel items (new), or contributes to a general processing requirement that is necessary for recogniti...
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Experiencing repeatedly presented auditory stimuli during magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording may affect how the sound is processed in the listener's brain and may modify auditory evoked responses over the time course of the experiment. Amplitudes of N1 and P2 responses have been proposed as indicators for the outcome of training and learning s...
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Auditory training alters neural activity in humans but it is unknown if these alterations are specific to the trained cue. The objective of this study was to determine if enhanced cortical activity was specific to the trained voice-onset-time (VOT) stimuli 'mba' and 'ba', or whether it generalized to the control stimulus 'a' that did not contain th...
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Oscillatory cortical activities in beta-band (13-20 Hz) are related to a somatomotor system, and gamma-bands (20 Hz) are involved with feature binding in perception. Previously gamma-band activity in electroencephalography was found to modulate with musical pulse with a two-beat metric accent. The present study examined beta- and gamma-band activit...
Article
Music perception and cognition involves multi-modal processing within a wide range of neural networks working in concert. Rhythmic brain activities, or neural oscillations, are thought to play an important role in such long-range communication. How are related networks established and dynamically reconfigured in order to adapt to the ever changing...
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Full-text available
Magnetoencephalographic responses to 40-Hz amplitude-modulated tones of 4-s duration were recorded in young, middle-aged, and older healthy participants. Interaural phase difference (IPD) in the sound carrier was changed during stimulus presentation from 0 to 180 degrees , resulting in perceptual change from focal to spacious sound. The stimulus mo...
Article
We utilized a novel analysis technique to identify brain areas that activate synchronously during the steady-state interval of responses to vibrotactile stimulation of the right index finger. The inter-trial coherence at the stimulation rate (23 Hz) was determined for whole-brain neural activity estimates based on a linearly-constrained minimum var...