Bernhard Rappenglück

Bernhard Rappenglück
University of Houston | U of H, UH · Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Professor

About

213
Publications
20,107
Reads
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5,430
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - present
University of Houston
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2004 - August 2016
University of Houston
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 2001 - August 2004
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (213)
Article
Full-text available
We studied the seasonal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Houston metropolitan area in the summertime and wintertime of 2018. The analysis of hourly measurements obtained from the automated gas chromatograph (auto-GC) network showed the total VOC average concentrations of 28.68 ppbC in the summertime and 33.81 ppbC in the winte...
Article
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height plays a major role in air quality and weather forecast studies. However, it cannot be directly measured as it can only be determined from the measured profiles of atmospheric parameters such as., temperature, moisture, and aerosol backscatter based on different retrieval mechanisms. This paper presents the...
Article
Full-text available
A commixture of gasphase compounds including carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and trace metals were collected at a site located at the urban/industrial interface in Houston, Texas. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis yielded nine factors: gas/crude oil (21.3±5.5%), isoprene emission (17.0±7.1%)...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (ASOA), formed from anthropogenic emissions of organic compounds, constitutes a substantial fraction of the mass of submicron aerosol in populated areas around the world and contributes to poor air quality and premature mortality. However, the precursor sources of ASOA are poorly understood, and there are lar...
Preprint
Full-text available
The seasonal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied in the Houston metropolitan area in the summertime and wintertime of 2018. The analysis of hourly measurements obtained from the automated gas chromatograph (auto-GC) network showed the total VOC average concentrations of 28.68 ppbC in the summertime and 33.92 ppbC in the wint...
Article
Full-text available
Total OH reactivity was measured during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change field campaign at the Pasadena ground site using a turbulent flow tube reactor with laser‐induced fluorescence detection of the OH radical. Collocated measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic species, and meteorological...
Article
There has been an alarming increase in the frequency of major flooding events along the Gulf Coast over the last three decades, primarily due to events of unprecedented, or extreme, rainfall. Using data from 63 rain gauges maintained by the Harris County Flood Control District's Flood Warning System (HCFCD FWS), this study examines the changes in d...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality policies based on scientific and technical information are effective for controlling air pollution and protecting public health. Analysis of observations from periodic intensive field studies combined with updated emission inventories, air quality monitoring and numerical modelling can be used to address the causes that trigger air poll...
Article
The diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is crucial to air quality studies as it impacts the exchange and distribution of pollutants close to the surface. This paper reports continuous detection of the daytime convective boundary layer height, the stable boundary layer height, and the residual layer height as estimated from the v...
Article
Despite the central role of reactive organic carbon (ROC) in the formation of secondary species that impact global air quality and climate, our assessment of ROC abundance and impacts is challenged by the diversity of species that contribute to it. We revisit measurements of ROC species made during two field campaigns in the United States: the 2013...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (ASOA), formed from anthropogenic emissions of organic compounds, constitutes a substantial fraction of the mass of submicron aerosol in populated areas around the world and contributes to poor air quality and premature mortality. However, the precursor sources of ASOA are poorly understood, and there are lar...
Article
Full-text available
The main emission source in Central and Southern Chilean cities is biomass combustion from residential heating and cooking due to old combustion technologies that are still widely utilized. In order to improve our understanding of biomass burning pollution and how it ages in the atmosphere, emissions from a pellet and wood stoves were studied with...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the sea/bay breeze in the planetary boundary layer evolution and air quality during a high ozone event day in the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER‐AQ) Texas 2013 campaign was examined. Data from surface air quality monitoring network stations, a...
Article
Full-text available
United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance on the use of photochemical models for assessing the efficacy of an emissions control strategy for ozone requires that modeling be used in a relative sense. Consequently, testing a modeling system's ability to predict changes in ozone resulting from emission changes is critical. We evaluate mod...
Article
In this study, we performed meteorological and chemical sensitivity studies employing two different Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations: one with the standard Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Yonsei scheme (YSU), and one with a modified YSU PBL scheme proposed in a previous work. The WRF-Chem results were comp...
Article
Full-text available
We implemented the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and WRF Large-Eddy Simulation (WRF–LES), focusing on calculations for the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and compared the results against a data set of a well-documented campaign, in the Houston–Galveston area, Texas, in summer 2006. A methodology using WRF in a mesoscale and LES was imp...
Article
This study investigated the causes behind the nighttime ozone biases in southeast Texas, including background ozone, the land use/land cover (LULC) change and the minimum nighttime eddy diffusivity coefficient (Kzmin) setting. It also tried to shed light on a historical issue of large ozone biases by tracing the history of Community Multiscale Air...
Article
We analyze an expanded data set of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) in air measured by several instruments at a surface site in Pasadena near Los Angeles during the NOAA California Nexus study in 2010. The contributions of emissions, chemical formation and removal are quantified for each OVOC using CO as a tracer of emissions and the O...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the well-known case of day 33 of the Wangara experiment is resimulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in an idealized single-column mode to assess the performance of a frequently used planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme, the Yonsei University PBL scheme. These results are compared with two large eddy...
Article
Full-text available
Three algorithms for estimating the boundary layer heights are assessed: an aerosol gradient method, a cluster analysis method, and a Haar wavelet method. Over 40 daytime clear-sky radiosonde profiles are used to compare aerosol backscatter boundary layer heights retrieved by a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Overall good agreement between radiosonde- and...
Article
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we us...
Article
Full-text available
Three algorithms for estimating the boundary layer heights are assessed: an aerosol gradient method, a cluster analysis method, and a Haar wavelet method. Over 40 daytime radiosonde profiles are used to compare aerosol backscatter boundary layer heights retrieved by a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Overall good agreement between radiosonde and aerosol de...
Article
Measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2*) radical concentrations were made at the Pasadena ground site during the CalNex-LA 2010 campaign using the Laser-Induced Fluorescence - Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique. The measured concentrations of OH and HO2* exhibited a distinct weekend effect, with higher radical conc...
Article
Unique in-situ measurements of CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, NOy, VOC, CN, and rBC were carried out with the German DLR-Falcon aircraft in Central U.S. thunderstorms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment in summer 2012. Fresh and aged anvil outflow (9-12 km) from supercells, mesoscale convective systems, mesoscale convective...
Article
Full-text available
Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the...
Article
Full-text available
Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 du...
Article
1,3-butadiene is an important pollutant in terms of public health and important driver for photochemical processes influencing ozone formation in the area of Houston. Ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) including the SAPRC99-extended mechanism and the results were compared to spatial...
Article
Full-text available
Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulatio...
Article
Full-text available
Four different parameterizations for the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region during the CalNex 2010 field campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle and gas-...
Article
In August 2013, the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), was the first to launch temporally highly resolved ozonesondes in the Middle East region. The data from 20 launches consistently show changes in meteorological parameters at about 5.5 km above the surface, which are more pronounced following a change in synoptic conditions...
Article
A WRF–SMOKE–CMAQ modeling system was used to simulate vertical profiles of ozone, temperature and wind as well as surface ozone and meteorology during the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) in May 2009. WRF and CMAQ sensitivity studies were conducted to define a proper combination of model configurations. With objective analysi...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality forecasting requires atmospheric weather models to generate accurate meteorological conditions, one of which is the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). An important contributor to the development of the PBL is the land–air exchange captured in the energy budget as well as turbulence parameters. Standard and surface energy...
Article
With over 6 million inhabitants the Houston metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in the United States. Ozone concentration in this southeast Texas region frequently exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). For this reason our study employed the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to quantify meteoro...
Article
Full-text available
Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June–July of 2010 during Cal...
Article
Because of the importance of HONO as a radical reservoir, consistent and accurate measurements of its concentration are needed. As part of SHARP (Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors), time series of HONO were obtained by six different measurement techniques on the roof of the Moody Tower (MT) at the University of Houston. Techniques use...
Chapter
Air quality model simulations are performed and evaluated for Houston using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simulations use two different emissions estimates: the EPA 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Emissions Inventory. A comparison of predictions with observed...
Article
Full-text available
During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River basin (UGRB), Wyoming, during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv – parts per billion by volume). Intensive operational periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed,...
Article
[1] A sensitive Mobile DOAS system with real-time evaluation capability and HCHO detection limit of 3 ppb over 100 m has been developed. The system was operated together with a Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) system for large-scale vertical flux measurements of HCHO, NO2, SO2 and VOCs in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area (HGB) during two studies, in...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality forecasting requires atmospheric weather models to generate accurate meteorological conditions, one of which is the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). An important contributor to the development of the PBL is the land-air exchange captured in the energy budget as well as turbulence parameters. Standard and surface energy...
Article
The Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was a field campaign developed by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC). SHARP capitalized on previous research associated with the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II) and the development of the State Implementati...
Article
[1] A mobile platform for flux measurements of VOCs (alkanes and alkenes), SO2 and NO2 emissions using the Solar Occultation Flux method and Mobile DOAS was used in four different studies to measure industrial emissions. The studies were carried out in several large conglomerates of oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Southeast and East...
Article
NOx emissions and O3 chemistry in the Los Angeles (L.A.) Basin during the CalNex-2010 field campaign (May-June 2010) have been evaluated by analyzing O3 and NOy (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN) observations using a regional air quality model (WRF-Chem). Model simulations were conducted at 4-km spatial resolution over the basin using the Carbon-Bond Mechanism v...
Article
Nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) are important precursors for radicals and are believed to favor ozone formation significantly. Traffic emission data for both compounds are scarce and mostly outdated. A better knowledge of today's HCHO and HONO emissions related to traffic is needed to refine air quality models. Here the authors report r...
Article
Air quality simulations were performed for the Houston‐Galveston‐Brazoria area for springtime conditions in May and June of 2009. Meteorological parameters predicted by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for which data assimilation with recursive objective analysis was performed, are well simulated most of the time. The Community Multisc...
Article
Ozone (O3) and secondary fine particles come from the atmospheric oxidation chemistry that involves the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), which are together called HOx. Radical precursors such as nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) significantly affect the HOx budget in urban environments. These chemical processes connec...
Article
Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the CalNex campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), and two types of oxygenated OA (OOA). The Pasadena OA elemental composition when plotted as H:C versus O:C follows a line less steep than...
Article
During the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May–June 2010, measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed in the Los Angeles (LA) basin onboard a NOAA research aircraft and at a ground site located in Pasadena. A weekday‐weekend effect in ozone, caused by lower NO x emissio...
Article
The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) have been employed to predict troposphere temperatures for atmospheric study and operational decision making with positive results. Temperature bias in MM5 and WRF has been noted in p...
Article
Full-text available
Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May-15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varyi...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last years elevated ozone values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming during wintertime. Here we will report results from the Upper Green Winter Ozone Study (UGWOS) 2011. This campaign included comprehensive in-situ measurements of O3, NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, HNO3, HONO, HCHO, CH4 and speciated VOC canister and...
Article
Full-text available
This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles, at a remote, high altitude mountain site, 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of the air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor mixing ratio (WMR), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur...