Bernhard A Huber

Bernhard A Huber
Research Museum Alexander Koenig | ZFMK · Arthropoda Department

About

159
Publications
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4,762
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2002 - present
Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig
December 2000 - December 2001
January 1998 - December 2000
American Museum of Natural History
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (159)
Article
Asymmetries are a pervading phenomenon in otherwise bilaterally symmetric organisms and recent studies have highlighted their potential impact on our understanding of fundamental evolutionary processes like the evolution of development and the selection for morphological novelties caused by behavioural changes. One character system that is particul...
Article
The renaissance of interest in sexual selection during the last decades has fuelled an extraordinary increase of scientific papers on the subject in spiders. Research has focused both on the process of sexual selection itself, for example on the signals and various modalities involved, and on the patterns, that is the outcome of mate choice and com...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Phacus Walckenaer and nine other pholcid genera are characterized by a simplified type of combhair on the fourth tarsi. This supposedly monophyleric group (Piraeus group of genera) is herein revised, with special emphasis on Pholcus, the largest genus in the family Pholcidae. The group is largely restricted to the Old World, with a few ex...
Article
Full-text available
Based on percentages of undescribed species collected during intensive recent sampling campaigns in South America, tropical Africa, and the Caribbean, the current global total number of pholcid species is estimated to range from about 4,000 to 5,000. With the current rate of descriptions at about 570 pholcid species per decade, this suggests that a...
Article
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Ratio-like approaches for estimating global species richness have been criticised for their unjustified extrapolation from regional to global patterns. Here we explore the use of cumulative percentages of ‘new’ (i.e., not formally described) species over large geographic areas (‘megatransects’) as a means to overcome this problem. In addition, we t...
Article
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Species traits are an essential currency in ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology. However, trait databases are unavailable for most organisms, especially those living in difficult-to- access habitats such as caves and other subterranean ecosystems. We compiled an expert-curated trait database for subterranean spiders in Europe...
Article
The genera Holocnemus Simon, 1873 and Crossopriza Simon, 1893 are revised. Together with Stygopholcus Kratochvíl, 1932 (revised recently) and the newly described genus Maghreba gen. nov., they constitute the spotted-leg clade within the northern clade of Smeringopinae. Males and females in this group are characterized by dark marks on the leg femor...
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This study explores the potential use of photos for extracting basic data on spider eggs and presents a first rough but comprehensive overview of egg sizes, egg numbers per egg sac, and egg sac shapes in 468 species of pholcid spiders representing 73 genera. Egg diameters ranged 0.29–1.73 mm; egg numbers ranged 3–110. Egg sacs were mostly round or...
Article
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New methods in taxonomy and systematics can influence the overall practice of formally naming and describing biodiversity. DNA barcoding has been controversial since its emergence, but now, large scale species descriptions exclusively based on barcodes have created what can be called a 'new quality of performance'. Its limitations are discussed fro...
Article
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The genus Stygopholcus Kratochvíl, 1932 is endemic to the Balkan Peninsula and includes only four nominal species: the epigean S. photophilus Senglet, 1971 in the south (Greece to Albania) and the ‘northern clade’ consisting of three troglophile species ranging from Croatia to Albania: S. absoloni (Kulczyński, 1914); S. skotophilus Kratochvíl, 1940...
Article
The genus Artema Walckenaer, 1837 includes some of the largest pholcid spiders and is geographically largely restricted to Central Asia, the Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and the eastern Mediterranean. One species has previously been known from West Africa. The first known Moroccan species, A. martensi sp. n., extends the known distribution o...
Preprint
Full-text available
New methods in taxonomy and systematics can influence the overall practice of formally nam-ing and describing biodiversity. DNA barcoding has been controversial since its emergence, but now, large scale species descriptions exclusively based on barcodes have created what can be called a "new quality of performance". Its limitations are discussed fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Species are the fundamental units of life and their recognition is essential for science and society. DNA barcoding, the use of a single and often mitochondrial gene, has been increasingly employed as a universal approach for the identification of animal species. However, this approach faces several challenges. Here, we demonstrate with empirical d...
Article
Full-text available
Background:Despite progress in genomic analysis of spiders, their chromosome evolution is not satisfactorily understood. Most information on spider chromosomes concerns the most diversified clade, entelegyne araneo-morphs. Other clades are far less studied. Our study focused on haplogyne araneomorphs, which are remarkable for their unusual sex chro...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite progress in genomic analysis of spiders, their chromosome evolution is not satisfactorily understood. Most information on spider chromosomes concerns the most diversified clade, entelegyne araneomorphs. Other clades are far less studied. Our study focused on haplogyne araneomorphs, which are remarkable for their unusual sex chrom...
Article
Full-text available
We present a comprehensive revision of the pholcid spider collection of M.A. González- Sponga, who between 1998 and 2011 described 22 new genera and 51 new species of Pholcidae from Venezuela. In addition, we treat the pholcid material collected during three expeditions to Venezuela conducted between 2002 and 2020. Of González-Sponga’s pholcid taxa...
Article
Hoplopholcus Kulczyński, 1908 is a genus of relatively large pholcid spiders, ranging from eastern Central Europe to Crete, the Levant, and Georgia. Species in this genus are often difficult to distinguish from each other, and the reexamination of previously published material revealed many misidentifications. The present study provides redescripti...
Article
Representatives of the Southeast Asian pholcid spider genus Uthina Simon, 1893 have been thought to be very homogeneous in their ecology and morphology. The 14 previously known species all inhabit near-ground microhabitats and cave entrances, and range from pale to dark brown in colour. Even their genitalia are partly very similar, with some specie...
Article
This paper provides formal descriptions of some of the unnamed taxa that were included in the most recent molecular phylogeny of pholcid spiders (Eberle et al. 2018, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18, 141). The focus is on new genera and on species that belong to recently revised genera. Eight new genera and 25 new species are formally described. In Art...
Article
As part of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, Sri Lanka harbors a rich and diverse fauna, especially in the perhumid southwestern part of the island. However, many invertebrate groups such as spiders continue to be poorly studied. The present paper reviews our knowledge about Pholcidae, a family of spiders that is well represented in...
Article
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Four new species of the genus Idris Förster (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea), reared from the eggs of pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae) in southeast Asia are described on the basis of external morphology and the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene. The new species and their hosts are: I.badius Johnson & Chen, sp. n. (ex Nipisaphyllicola (...
Article
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Microhabitat changes are thought to be among the main drivers of diversification. However, this conclusion is mostly based on studies on vertebrates. Here, we investigate the influence of microhabitat on diversification rates in pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae). Diversification analyses were conducted in the framework of the largest molecular p...
Article
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With almost 600 species, the latest molecular phylogeny of pholcid spiders (Eberle et al. 2018, BMC Evolutionary Biology) more than triples the largest previously available molecular phylogeny of the family. At the level of genera, the coverage is high (86%, i.e., 75 of the 87 named genera), and at the level of subfamilies it is complete. The prese...
Article
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Many spectacular cases of biological diversity are associated with sexual selection, and structures under sexual selection often show positive static allometry: they are disproportionately large for the size of the animal’s body in larger individuals. Other sexually selected structures, however, show negative allometry or isometry. Theory fails to...
Article
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Pholcidae are ubiquitous spiders in tropical and subtropical caves around the globe, yet very little is known about cave-dwelling pholcids beyond what is provided in taxonomic descriptions and faunistic papers. This paper provides a review based on a literature survey and unpublished information, while pointing out potential biases and promising fu...
Article
The South American genera Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1998 and Carapoia González-Sponga, 1998 are among the most species-rich pholcid genera in the Neotropics. Representatives of both genera occupy a wide range of microhabitats from the leaf litter to high among the vegetation, resulting in a morphological and behavioral diversity that complicates...
Article
Full-text available
This is the first revision of Artema Walckenaer, 1837, a genus consisting of large and phylogenetically interesting species. Even though Artema is not species-rich (now eight nominal species), it has suffered from poor descriptions and synonymies. Our main goal was to gather all available material and to clarify species limits. Four species are eas...
Article
The Venezuelan genus Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998 is revised, with redescriptions of its three named species: S. parva González-Sponga, 1998 (type species); S. cuadrata González-Sponga, 2005; and S. pilosa (González-Sponga, 2005) n. comb. The latter species was originally described as Codazziella pilosa, and six years later again as Chichir...
Article
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The pholcid spiders Modisimus culicinus (Simon, 1893) and Micropholcus fauroti (Simon, 1887) are pantropical species that have spread around the world at least several decades ago. Here we present numerous new records for both species, most of which fall into the expected latitudes, i.e. between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (93 % and 87 % of...
Article
The Southeast Asian pholcid genus Calapnita Simon, 1892 is revised, with descriptions of 17 new species, five of them in the phyllicola group (Borneo: C. lehi, C. kubah, C. bidayuh, C. bankirai; Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java: C. anai), 12 in the vermiformis group (Borneo: C. bario, C. bariengi, C. magaseng, C. dayak, C. lawangan, C. loksado; Sulaw...
Article
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The question whether taxonomic descriptions naming new animal species without type specimen(s) deposited in collections should be accepted for publication by scientific journals and allowed by the Code has already been discussed in Zootaxa (Dubois & Nemésio 2007; Donegan 2008, 2009; Nemésio 2009a–b; Dubois 2009; Gentile & Snell 2009; Minelli 2009;...
Article
The Atlantic Forest along the eastern South American coast is widely recognized as a hotspot with extreme levels of diversity, endemism, and threat. A megatransect study (2003–2015) focusing on pholcid spiders and covering 48 localities across a large part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest resulted in 132 morphospecies, of which 81% were new to scie...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the German Barcode of Life campaign, over 3500 arachnid specimens have been collected and analyzed: ca. 3300 Araneae and 200 Opiliones, belonging to almost 600 species (median: 4 individuals/species). This covers about 60% of the spider fauna and more than 70% of the harvestmen fauna recorded for Germany. The overwhelming majority of spe...
Data
Haplotype network of the species complex Xysticus audax and X. cristatus, along with their closest relatives. To guarantee unequivocal morphological determination, only males were included. Small black dots indicate hypothetical haplotypes. (TIF)
Data
Sequence data for the 3538 analyzed arachnid specimens. Includes the mite outgroup retrieved from BOLD: BOLDMSACA57112_OG_Acari. FASTA-formatted. See S1 Table for more details on specimens. (FAS)
Data
Maximum Likelihood tree with bootstrap values. The analysis was run for 1 million generations and includes 1000 bootstrap replicates. Apart from ID and species name, life stage, sex and coordinates of collecting locality are given. See S1 Table for more details on individual specimens in the tree. (PDF)
Data
Haplotype network of the species pair Tibellus maritimus and T. oblongus. Small black dots indicate hypothetical haplotypes. (TIF)
Data
Field data and IDs for all analyzed specimens. This table lists collecting date and location (incl. GPS coordinates), collector, taxonomy, identifier, preservation fluid, life stage and sex for the specimens analyzed. Sample IDs in this table correspond to those given in S1 Fig (NJ tree) and S2 Fig (ML tree), as well as in S4 Table ('splits') and S...
Data
List of closest species pairs and most distant congeneric species pairs for spiders. Statistics, individual by species, for three types of distance comparisons (intraspecific, closest interspecific, largest congeneric): minimal, maximal, mean and median intraspecific genetic distances; closest species (by distance) and minimal, maximal and median d...
Data
List of closest species pairs and most distant congeneric species pairs for harvestmen. Legend: see caption for S2 Table. (XLSX)
Data
Lowest interspecific distances, 'lumps'. This table contains the 731 pairwise comparisons with the lowest allospecific (but congeneric) p-distances in the dataset, ranging from 0 to 5%. 353 comparisons have values below 3%. Specimens are identified through species name and ID (see S1 Table for more details). (XLSX)
Data
Neighbor Joining tree. PDF can be searched for species names. Apart from ID and species name, life stage, sex and coordinates of collecting locality are given. See S1 Table for more details on individual specimens in the tree. (PDF)
Data
Haplotype network of three species of the Pardosa pullata group. Small black dots indicate hypothetical haplotypes. (TIF)
Data
Highest intraspecific distances, 'splits'. This table contains the 352 pairwise comparisons with the highest conspecific p-distances in the dataset, ranging from 10 to 3% (range 5 to 3% given in gray, denoting an 'uncertainty zone' for average species limits in this scenario). 164 comparisons have values above 4%. Specimens are identified through s...
Article
Full-text available
We revise the Southeast Asian Pholcus bicornutus group in which males are characterized by a unique pair of horns on their ocular area, each of which carries at its tip a brush of hairs. In two species, the two hair brushes are ‘glued’ or ‘waxed’ together by an unidentified substance into a very consistently curved and pointed single median tip. In...
Article
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We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata Huber sp. nov., P. uludong Huber sp. nov., and P. bukittimah Huber sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan Huber sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litte...
Article
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The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group is revised and re-delimited, based mainly on field observations (life color pattern, web design, position of egg-sac when carried by female, microhabitat) and ultrastructure (silk spigots, modifications of male cheliceral apophyses). The core group includes six leaf-dwelling species that have disti...
Article
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Two small, ground and litter-dwelling pholcid species from northern Borneo are described as representatives of a new genus, Hantu gen. nov.: H. kapit gen. et sp. nov. and H. niah gen. et sp. nov. Previous cladistic analyses suggested a closer relationship with the genera Savarna Huber, 2005 and Khorata Huber, 2005 (mainland Southeast Asia) than wit...
Article
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We revise the Panjange nigrifrons group in Borneo and document an unexpected diversity in western Sarawak forests. Five species occur within 80 km from Kuching, each species being known from its type locality only. Further species occur east until Niah, but the genus seems to be absent from Sabah. We contrast this with another pholcid genus (Aetana...
Article
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We describe several new species of the previously monotypic Panjange lanthana species group from the Philippines and document their extraordinary morphology. Some species show strong male genital asymmetry, a phenomenon that seems to be exceedingly rare in spiders. Males of most species have eye stalks, and in two species these eye stalks are among...
Article
Full-text available
The previously poorly known Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana Huber, 2005 is revised. Fifteen species are newly described, and the first SEM data and a first phylogenetic analysis of the genus are presented. Four species groups are well supported, one restricted to Borneo, two restricted to the Philippines, and one ranging from the Philippines to...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Savarna Huber, 2005 was previously one of the most poorly known Pholcinae genera. Less than 20 specimens (representing four nominal species) were available worldwide; nothing was known about ultrastructure, natural history, or relationships. We present the first SEM data, supporting the position of the genus in Pholcinae outside the Pholc...
Article
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Abstract. Two undescribed species of the African pholcid spider genus Quamtana have been found in German greenhouses and plant markets since 2012. Both species seem to have established stable populations. This genus has not been previously recorded from Europe, except for a fossil specimen in Eocene amber from the Paris Basin that was tentatively a...
Article
In an ongoing mega-transect project that aims at analyzing pholcid spider diversity and distribution in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, many species appear restricted to small geographic ranges. Of the 84 species collected between 2003 and 2011 at 17 sites between Bahia and Santa Catarina, 51 species (61%) were found at only one locality. The presen...
Article
Full-text available
The generic placement of New World pholcids assigned to the genus Leptopholcus Simon, 1893 has long been questioned and recent molecular data have shown that Caribbean (Hispaniolan) representatives are more closely related to the Old World genus Micropholcus Deeleman-Reinhold & Prinsen, 1987 than to ‘true’ African Leptopholcus(Dimitrov, Astrin and...
Article
Full-text available
Between 1998 and 2011, the Venezuelan arachnologist Manuel Ángel González-Sponga (GS) published a series of taxonomic papers devoted to the Pholcidae of Venezuela. Of his 22 new genera, 20 were monotypic when described, suggesting a high percentage of synonyms. We studied his descriptions and as far as accessible his type specimens and propose the...
Article
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This paper summarizes current knowledge about Central African pholcids. Central Africa is here defined as the area between 10°N and 7°S and between 6°E and 18°E, including mainly the Lower Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and São Tomé and Príncipe, most of Cameroon and Cong...
Article
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This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, and Ben...
Article
The genus Smeringopina Kraus, 1957 is revised, with redescriptions of the nine previously known species and descriptions of 35 new species. Smeringopina is largely restricted to the tropical forests of West and Central Africa. It includes both large species that build their domed sheet-webs in protected spaces near the ground, and small (probably d...
Article
We analysed seven genetic markers sampled from 165 pholcids and 34 outgroups in order to test and improve the recently revised classification of the family. Our results are based on the largest and most comprehensive set of molecular data so far to study pholcid relationships. The data were analysed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian...
Article
We describe the previously unknown male of Litoporus iguassuensis Mello-Leitão, 1918 and document the exceptional biology of this species: (1) females and juveniles but not adult males construct camouflaged retreats; (2) there is a strong sexual dimorphism involving coloration, leg length, and behavior; (3) females at some localities are color poly...
Article
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This paper summarizes current knowledge about East African pholcids. East Africa is defined as the area from 12°S to 5°N and from 28° to 42°E, including all of Uganda, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanzania. An annotated list of the 15 genera and 87 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to...
Article
The genus Smeringopus Simon, 1890 is revised, with redescriptions of most previously known species and descriptions of 36 new species. With now 55 species, Smeringopus becomes the most species-rich pholcid genus in Africa. Smeringopus is largely restricted to central, southern, and eastern Africa, where it includes some of the largest and most cons...
Article
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For over 100 years, Eugène Simon's system of pholcid classification has been used with only minor modifications. Phylogenetic research over the last decade has shown that some fundamental changes are necessary if the formal system is to reflect putative evolutionary relationships. Based on cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular data and...
Article
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This study is based on an effort to collect all pholcid spider species at six localities in the Serra do Mar region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. All but one locality produced 11–15 species. This is compared with published and unpublished species counts worldwide, showing that only six other localities are known to contain more than 10 species....
Article
This study describes the remarkable radiation of Modisimus on Hispaniola. During two short trips to the island, more species have been collected than are known from any comparable area on the mainland. We redescribe three of the four previously known Hispaniolan species, and describe 22 new species. Most Haitian species are local endemics, either o...
Article
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The type specimens of Acari, Araneae, Scorpiones, Pantopoda, and Amphipoda housed in the Zoological Research Institute and Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, are listed. 113 names are recorded; of these, only 15 (13%) are represented by name bearing (i.e., primary) types. Specific and subspecific names are listed alphabetically, followed by the origina...
Article
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The genital organ of male spiders (the palpal bulb) differs profoundly from the genitalia of other animals in lacking muscles, sense organs, and nerves; nevertheless spider genitalia show the same trend to sustained, rapid divergent evolution that is typical of most animal genitalia. Much of this chapter explores possible consequences of this lack...