Bernhard Ebbinghaus

Bernhard Ebbinghaus
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Social Policy and Intervention

PhD (EUI 1993)

About

140
Publications
48,218
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,979
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • https://www.spi.ox.ac.uk/
February 2008 - January 2011
October 2004 - present
Universität Mannheim
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Our analysis asks whether the pandemic situation affects welfare state support in Germany. The pandemic has increased the health and income risks calling for welfare state intervention. While increased needs, more deservingness, and higher state responsibility during such a crisis would suggest augmented support generally and among those at risk, t...
Article
This comparative study analyzes the impact of the Great Recession on household non-employment across Europe since 2008. We use the EU-SILC (2007–2014) for a shift-share analysis that decomposes annual variations in household non-employment in 30 European countries. Investigating whether job loss is absorbed by or accumulated in households, we break...
Preprint
This comparative study analyses the impact of the Great Recession on household non-employment across Europe since 2008. We use the EU-SILC (2007 to 2014) for a shift-share analysis that de-composes annual variations in household non-employment in 30 European countries. Investigating whether job-loss is absorbed or accumulated by households, we brea...
Chapter
The Great Recession, following the financial market crash of 2008, has been a major challenge not only to governments dealing with the crisis but also for state-society relations between government and social partners across Europe. This chapter addresses the question of why some governments engage in tripartite social concertation between governme...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the context of COVID-19, numerous organisations have produced policy trackers and datasets to allow policy-makers and researchers to follow and evaluate policy changes across the world. To address information overload, this project has created a Supertracker that gives immediate access to existing policy trackers, novel datasets and surveys. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
While the financial sustainability of pension systems has been high on reform agendas, the adequacy of retirement incomes has only recently come into focus. This chapter analyses old-age poverty from a comparative and longitudinal perspective using repeated waves of cross-sectional micro-level income data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). We...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pension reforms over the last two decades cut back public pension benefits, gradually extended the official retirement age, and fostered privately funded pensions. This marketization and privatization of income responsibility in old age has already important social consequence today and in the future. Moreover, the trend toward more flexible, if no...
Article
Recent reforms have responded to demographic ageing and fiscal challenges by shifting toward the multipillarisation of pensions to achieve financial sustainability. Reforms towards privatization and marketization of retirement income provision occurred in Britain and Germany with different pension system legacies. While public opinion supports larg...
Chapter
Inwiefern haben gesellschaftliche Interessengruppen einen Einfluss auf Politik und Wirtschaft? In modernen Industriegesellschaften stellt sich die Frage, welche politischen und gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen der Interessenkonflikt zwischen Arbeit und Kapital hat. Die Machtressourcentheorie untersucht die politischen und außerparlamentarischen Einf...
Chapter
Full-text available
The status quo defence of organized interests and the reform unwillingness of public opinion are seen as the main reasons why welfare states persist. Building upon these two perspectives, this introduction develops an analytical approach to systematically study the role of organized interests and public opinion in the political economy of welfare s...
Chapter
This chapter explores to what degree public opinion, particularly specific social groups including social classes, retirees, members of trade unions, and supporters of political parties, defend the status quo or are willing to support reforms. It distinguishes two major dimensions of pension-specific attitudes, retrenchment and redistribution. Usin...
Chapter
The concluding chapter of this edited volume summarizes the key findings across policy areas and countries. Drawing on the analytical approach to study the role of organized interests and public opinion in the political economy of welfare state reform, the conclusion discusses the main findings. First, it scrutinizes the claim that welfare states a...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comparative analysis of the long-term development of public attitudes towards pension and unemployment policies in Great Britain and Germany (1985–2013). The British and German welfare states are still rather popular. Public support for government responsibility for the elderly is stronger than for the unemployed. Moreover,...
Book
Studying the political economy of welfare state reform, this edited collection focuses on the role of public opinion and organized interests in respect to policy change. It highlights that welfare states are hard pressed to reform in order to cope with ongoing socio-economic and demographic challenges. While public opinion is commonly seen to oppos...
Book
This book – based on a research project carried out by the Observatoire Social Européen asbl, with the financial support of the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) – looks at the most recent developments in pension policy and politics in Europe and advances our understanding of the field in three respects: firstly, it contributes to improve our k...
Article
Simone Scherger (ed.) (2015), Paid Work Beyond Pension Age: Comparative Perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, £65.00, pp. 320, hbk. - BERNHARD EBBINGHAUS
Chapter
Ageing is one of the long-term challenges for old age security in Europe, in particular for the intergenerational contract of pay-as-you go public pensions. The comparative macro-sociological analysis maps the demographic trends, political constraints, and social policy reform dynamics across Europe. Due to demographic ageing all European societies...
Article
Full-text available
Since the economic crisis of the 1970s, welfare state reform is on the political agenda of advanced welfare states facing multiple economic and sociodemographic challenges. The public debate and initial research (in particular, the new politics thesis) focused on the question why welfare retrenchment, the cutting back of public expenditure, has met...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Die demografische Alterung gilt als eine der langfristigen Herausforderungen für die Alterssicherung in Europa, insbesondere für den Generationenvertrag staatlicher Rentensysteme. In einer vergleichenden makro-soziologischen Analyse werden die demografische Entwicklung, politischen Restriktionen und sozialpolitischen Reformdynamiken...
Article
Given the efforts in raising the statutory pension age in an aging Europe, this cross-national analysis investigates constrained retirement from a comparative perspective. Based on a conceptualization of retirement transitions as a multi-faceted phenomenon, the study distinguishes objective (external) constraints and the subjective self-assessment...
Article
Karl Hinrichs and Matteo Jessoula (eds.) (2012), Labour Market Flexibility and Pension Reforms: Flexible Today, Secure Tomorrow?Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. £63.00, pp. 280, hbk. - Volume 44 Issue 2 - BERNHARD EBBINGHAUS
Chapter
Inwiefern haben gesellschaftliche Interessengruppen einen Einfluss auf Politik und Wirtschaft? In modernen Industriegesellschaften stellt sich die Frage, welche politischen und gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen der Interessenkonflikt zwischen Arbeit und Kapital hat. Die Machtressourcentheorie untersucht die politischen und außerparlamentarischen Einf...
Article
Full-text available
In response to the demographic challenges and fiscal constraints, many European welfare states have moved toward the privatization and marketization of pensions in order to improve their financial sustainability. The privatization of retirement income responsibility has led to a shift from dominantly public pensions to a multi-pillar architecture w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Early exit from work has been a major trend since the onset of mass unemployment during the 1970s, whereas the reversal of early retirement has been on the agenda of welfare state reform for about two decades. Most prominently, the European Union (EU) set the Lisbon 2010 target to achieve higher employment rates (above 50 per cent) among older work...
Chapter
Full-text available
Die deutschen Gewerkschaften kommen zunehmend unter existentiellen Druck: Der vereinigungsbedingte Boom von vier Millionen Mitgliedern im Osten ist innerhalb eines Jahrzehntes zerronnen und im Westen setzt sich die – seit den 1980er Jahren herrschende – Erosion der Mitgliederbasis fort. Heute sind weniger Arbeitnehmer gewerkschaftlich organisiert a...
Article
Full-text available
La vingtième siècle ouvrira l'ére de fédérations ou l'humanité recommençera un purgatoire de mille ans. The twentieth century will herald the age of federalism, or humanity will enter another thousand years of purgatory. (Pierre-Joseph Proudhon [1809-1865] 1863: 108) 1 Der tiefste Grund für den Aufstieg wie auch für die Gefährdung Europas liegt vie...
Article
Full-text available
Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, fi rms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit...
Article
Full-text available
Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, firms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit f...
Article
Full-text available
Pension systems have been, and continue to be, the largest part of social protection spending, not least due to demographic ageing. Given 'blame avoidance' strategies of politicians, there is not much opportunity for a 'new' welfare system with respect to the entrenched policy area of pensions. However, many changes have altered the welfare system...
Chapter
Full-text available
In diesem Beitrag geben wir einen knappen Überblick über die europäische Sozialpolitik und ihre Rahmenbedingungen, Instrumente und Grenzen und zeigen den entsprechenden Forschungsbedarf auf. Eine europäische Sozialpolitik muss in erheblichem Maße auf die Regulierung von Bildungs- und Beschäftigungspolitiken setzen, um den begrenzten Ressourcen Rech...
Article
Full-text available
A liberal paradigm shift from state to private responsibility in old age income protection has been a general development across Western Europe. The financial crisis sheds new light on the question of the public–private divide in pension policy. Applying convention theory, the analysis reviews how funded pensions are governed and how states use a r...
Data
Full-text available
In dem Memorandum wird die Entwicklung der Professuren in den Disziplinen beschrieben, die sich mit dem Thema sozialstaatliche Entwicklung befassen. Auf der Grundlage von Interviews mit vielen Kundigen im Feld wird der Vorschlag entwickelt, wie man mit einer "Förderinitiative Stiftungsprofessuren" markant neue Bewegung in die Universitätslandschaft...
Article
Full-text available
Trade unions played a substantial role in the ‘old politics’ of expanding pension systems in Europe; they are still active in the ‘new politics’ of pension reforms. Given the electoral impact and political veto points, governments may seek to overcome reform blockage in political decision-making and implementation by seeking social consensus with t...
Article
Full-text available
Union density still varies considerably across Europe. This cross-national diversity has inspired multiple explanations ranging from institutional to workplace or socio-demographic factors. In this comparative multilevel analysis, we combine personal, workplace and macro-institutional explanations of union membership using the European Social Surve...
Chapter
Full-text available
This comparative chapter by Ebbinghaus and Wiß analyses the governance of supplementary pensions in ten European countries and the scope for state intervention or collective regulation by employers and trade unions. Private occupational and personal pensions combine different features in terms of coverage, benefits, funding rules, supervision, and...
Article
Full-text available
The chapter first reviews the emergence and change of the public-private pension mix in Germany, emphasizing the path-dependent but recent path-departing developments from the Bismarckian social insurance tradition. The politically contentious pension reforms of the 1990s and subsequent reforms in the 2000s followed a strategy of institutional laye...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter by Ebbinghaus and Gronwald provides a comparative historical analysis mapping the cross-national institutional diversity in the evolution of pension systems in ten European countries. Analysing the long-term development, it describes the way in which institutional arrangements in private pensions evolved over time and interact with pub...
Article
Full-text available
The introductory chapter discusses the need for studying the changing public-private pension mix and the governance and regulation of private (occupational and personal) pensions. Public pension systems with pay-as-you-go financing have not only come under pressure due to demographic and socio-economic changes but also the recent financial crisis h...
Article
Full-text available
This comparative chapter by Ebbinghaus and Neugschwender discusses the institutional differences in the public-private mix, distinguishing mature from emerging multipillar systems and hybrid from dominantly public pension systems. It focuses on exploring the interaction between income inequalities in working life and pension system features for old...
Book
Full-text available
The ongoing privatization of pensions-the shift from state to private responsibility for old age retirement income-raises fundamental issues of social and participatory rights. While pay-as-you-go-financed public pension systems face sustainability problems due to an ageing society, the recent financial crisis reveals the problematic nature of fund...
Article
Full-text available
The recent financial crisis has led to major losses among many pension funds across Europe, showing the problems in shifting responsibility for old-age income to private actors without sufficient regulation. The impact of the crisis on pension funds and future retirement benefits depends on good governance and effective regulation. There is a large...
Chapter
Der Titel des Buches von Wolfgang Knöbl (2007), „Die Kontingenz der Moderne“,spielt auf die Sonderstellung der westlichen transatlantischen Entwicklung an. Der Autor vertritt nämlich darin die These, „dass sich die Entstehung der europäischen bzw. US-amerikanischen Modeme, insbesondere die Industrialisierung, kontingenten Umständen verdankt.“ (ebd....
Chapter
Full-text available
In den letzten Jahren ist in der vergleichenden sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung eine wichtige angloamerikanische Debatte über epistemologische und methodologische Fragen entstanden, zu der bekannte Soziologen (Goldthorpe, Lieberson, Ragin, Skocpol) wie vergleichende Politikwissenschaftler (Collier, King, Przeworski) beigetragen haben. Vertreter...
Chapter
Full-text available
Der Vergleich gilt als „die“ sozial wissenschaftliche Methode, die besonders der vergleichende Politikwissenschaft (comparative politics) ihre Bestimmung gibt. Bereits bei den Klassikern der Politischen Soziologie, Tocqueville, Marx und Weber, nimmt der Vergleich unterschiedlicher politischer Regime, Gesellschaftssysteme und Kulturkreise eine wicht...
Article
Full-text available
Die europäischen Gewerkschaftsbewegungen sehen sich heute mit einem stetigen Schwinden ihrer Mitgliederbasis konfrontiert. Dieser Abwärtstrend vollzieht sich in den Ländern Europas jedoch nicht in gleicher Weise, vielmehr variiert der gewerkschaftliche Organisationsgrad im historischen und europäischen Vergleich beträchtlich.
Article
Full-text available
High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although there seems to be a growing consensus on the restrict...
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the fundamental policy problems of contemporary welfare states, particularly in Continental Europe, has been the extensive use of early retirement as a labor-shedding and passive labor market policy since the mid-1970s. Early exit from work — that is, before the age of 65 — has not only played a major role in lowering the overall employment...
Article
The crisis of old-age pension schemes in the modern welfare state has manifold causes: a demographic development that challenges cost sharing procedures, problems and changes in the job market, generous early retirement options, and insufficient hedging of pension funds against capital market risks. The degree to which these factors have had an eff...
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides an overview of institutional provisions and reforms regarding employment protection, active and passive labor market policies in Germany as well as of actors' responsibilities in these areas. It covers the period between the early 1990s and the most recent Hartz reforms. Empirical data on labor market outcomes with respect to the...
Book
Full-text available
Since the 1970s early exit from work has become a major challenge in modern welfare states. Governments, employers, and unions alike once thought of early retirement as a peaceful solution to the economic problems of mass unemployment and industrial restructuring. Today governments and international organizations advocate the postponement of retire...
Article
Full-text available
Die vergleichende Forschung europäischer Gesellschaften steht vor einigen methodologischen Herausforderungen. Der Artikel diskutiert die Debatte zwischen quantitativen und qualitativen Untersuchungsansätzen. Einerseits ist die Inferenzstatistik problematisch, da die Länderfälle weder zufällig ausgewählt noch homogen sind. Andererseits wählen qualit...
Chapter
This article reviews the main theoretical perspectives on the development of welfare states that more or less explicitly conceptualize the interests of particular social groups in retirement-income systems. The main capital-labour cleavage between the interests of employers and labour movements in such systems is juxtaposed. Then, several intra-cla...
Chapter
Full-text available
"In allen OECD-Ländern wurde ein Reformprozess der Alterssicherungssysteme eingeleitet, der seit den 1990er Jahren auch Deutschland erfasst hat. Die aktuell drängenden Fragen der Finanzierbarkeit und Tragbarkeit der Altersversorgung angesichts der demografischen Veränderungen und wirtschaftlichen Probleme haben die Erwägung der langfristigen sozial...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of case selection is a crucial but often overlooked issue in comparative cross-national research. The article discusses methodological shortcomings and potential solutions in selecting cases. All comparative research of social entities, whether quantitative or qualitative, faces the problem of contingency, the fact that the potential po...
Article
Full-text available
According to the unified theory, higher unemployment in Europe as compared to the United States is caused by higher wage rigidity, which, in turn, results from more “inflexible” labor market institutions. Focusing on wage coordination, the empirical analysis shows that the variety of bargaining patterns across European countries and during the peri...
Article
Full-text available
Path dependence as a concept in institutional theories has become increasingly popular in economics and other social sciences. The key idea is that in a sequence of events, the latter events are not (completely) independent from those that occurred in the past. Yet, common usage of the concept often subsumes two markedly different models and approa...
Article
Full-text available
Unions in Western Europe have tended to merge in larger organisations, straddling across traditional bargaining demarcations. Despite the trend towards union concentration, cross-national differences remain in the degree of fragmentation and the balance across private and public sectors. In the past years, wage moderation was common to nearly all b...
Article
Full-text available
Unions have responded to current membership decline and other organisational problems by restructuring via mergers, increasing union concentration within and across union confederations. A particular noted feature are amalgamations to form ‘super-unions’. These conglomerate unions threaten to undermine the role played by confederations in respect o...
Article
Full-text available
Die deutschen Gewerkschaften kommen zunehmend unter existentiellen Druck: Der vereinigungsbedingte Boom von 4 Millionen Mitgliedern im Osten ist innerhalb eines Jahrzehntes zerronnen, und im Westen setzt sich die — seit den 80er-Jahren herrschende — Erosion der Mitgliederbasis fort. Heute sind weniger Arbeitnehmer gewerkschaftlich organisiert als j...
Article
Full-text available
Der Mitgliederschwund sollte die deutschen Gewerkschaften alarmieren: nur noch jeder fünfte Arbeitnehmer der noch nicht im (Vor-)Ruhestand ist, zahlt heute einen Mitgliedschaftsbeitrag, während die anderen als Trittbrettfahrer von der Arbeit der Tarifverbände profitieren, ohne hierzu beizutragen. Die Probleme der Mitgliederwerbung und -bindung deut...

Network