Bernhard Bogerts

Bernhard Bogerts
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg | OvGU · Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

About

591
Publications
53,417
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
24,068
Citations

Publications

Publications (591)
Article
Full-text available
Background We recently reported increased levels of neutrophils, monocytes and C-reactive protein (CRP) correlated with symptom severity in acute schizophrenia. Here, we investigated if a similar pattern of innate immune system activation occurs in major depression (MD). Methods We assessed differential blood counts, CRP, depression symptoms (HAMD...
Article
Aggression can have a hedonistic aspect in predisposed individuals labeled as appetitive aggression. The present study investigates the neurobiological correlates of this appetitive type of aggression in non-clinical samples from community. Applying functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested whether 20 martial artists compared to 26 cont...
Chapter
The frequency and extent of individual and collective violence is subject to considerable fluctuations depending on the world region as well as the historical and social situation. A short description including some statistical data on the intensity of the worldwide problem of violence is presented in the following.
Chapter
Violence originates in the brain; that is, it is tied to the activity of certain centers in our brain, which in turn are subject to stimulating or inhibiting influences of surrounding brain circuits that depend on information from the social environment. The brain anatomical and brain-physiological preconditions for the development of violence are...
Chapter
Without alcohol and drugs, the problem of violence would not be eradicated, but it would be less present. What are the relationships between the abuse of addictive substances and violence?
Chapter
The influence of genetic make-up on our behavior has long been underestimated.
Chapter
At the heart of the teachings of the great religions is the promise of a paradisiacal afterlife for those who follow the right path in compliance with divine commandments and the teachings of the great founders of religions. On earth, however, this path often proves to be quite arduous and is not always characterized by peacefulness. The right path...
Chapter
By studying the brain-biological correlates of aggression and those of compassion, it has become possible to understand why structural and functional disturbances of these brain regions are associated with an increased propensity to violence. This is supported by numerous studies of the brains of violent offenders
Chapter
A profound knowledge of the multilayered, interrelated causes of the different manifestations of violence is a prerequisite for the most accurate possible prediction and effective prevention.
Chapter
Violence is not the work of evil forces, although it is sometimes tempting to assume that it is. It is the product of a mentality shaped by genetic, biographical and current social influences.
Chapter
Amok and terror are rare events, but they are all the more attention-grabbing because they are regularly accompanied by high numbers of victims. What is the probability of a rampage? Who are the perpetrators? Can such acts be prevented?
Chapter
Almost weekly we receive news about terrorist attacksTerror attacks and everyone has an idea of what terror is. Nevertheless, there is no consensus worldwide on what can be called terror. Depending on the political, ideological, religious and social system, opinions differ. Accordingly, the term is used vaguely and variably in different political c...
Chapter
In addition to genetic, brain-biological and biographical constellations, the current social environmentSocial environment, group-dynamic effects and the overall social situation play a decisive role in the multidimensional causal structure of violence.
Chapter
Aggression and resulting violence are complex phenomena with multiple interrelated causes. Violence occurs not only in its physical form with the aim of physically damaging, subjugating, eliminating or annihilating others.
Chapter
Events such as the deliberate crash of the Germanwings plane in March 2015, and the rampages in Oslo/Utøya Island in July 2011, in Las Vegas in October 2017, and Hanau, Germany, in February 2020, whose perpetrators are said to have been mentally ill (see Chaps. 16 and 17), gave rise to the impression that people with psychiatric disorders are somet...
Chapter
ComparedPsychology of violence to the brain-biological approaches to explaining the occurrence of violence, which has only become possible in recent decades with the rapid development of neuroscience, especially brain imaging techniquesImaging techniques, psychological theories of violence have a long tradition. They play a key role in understandin...
Chapter
Violence rarely occurs spontaneously for the first time in adulthood, and when it does, it is usually a symptom of a brain diseaseBrain diseases, a mental disorderMental disorders or massive stressors. More often, violence is the product of a lifelong development, the most formative stages of which are in childhood and adolescence, when the brain a...
Chapter
The term hedonism derives from the ancient Greek word hedone, which means “joy, pleasure, delight, sensual desire.” In view of the immense number of victims of violence as well as the psychological and material long-term damage, one would assume that violence is abhorred by everyone, or at least cannot be experienced as pleasurable, and that violen...
Chapter
The use of physical violence is a maleMale violence domain; 90% of serious acts of violence are committed by men (see Chap. 3, Figs. 3.3 and 3.4). This applies to all forms of individual as well as collective violenceCollective violence. Why?
Chapter
In the vast majority of cases sexual violence is committed by men. What are the motives? Who are the perpetrators?
Article
Background GABAergic interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a key enzyme in GABA synthesis, may also be altered. Here, we have simultaneously evaluated GAD-immunoreactive (GAD-ir) neuropil and cell profiles in schizophrenia-relevant brain regions, and ana...
Article
Full-text available
Although the expression of co-stimulatory molecules plays an important role in the immune system, only little is known about their regulation in dementias. Therefore, we determined the expression of CD28, ICOS (CD278) and CTLA-4 (CD152) by CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 19), Alzh...
Chapter
Amok und Terror sind zwar seltene, dafür aber umso aufsehenerregendere Ereignisse, da sie mit hohen Opferzahlen einhergehen. Wie hoch ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines Amoklaufes? Wer sind die Täter? Lassen sich solche Taten verhindern?
Chapter
Ohne Alkohol und Drogen wäre das Gewaltproblem zwar nicht aus der Welt geschaffen, es wäre aber wesentlich weniger präsent. Welche Zusammenhänge bestehen zwischen Missbrauch von Suchtmitteln und Gewalt?
Chapter
Gewalt entsteht im Kopf; das heißt, sie ist an die Aktivität bestimmter Zentren in unserem Gehirn gebunden, die ihrerseits stimulierenden oder hemmenden Einflüssen sie umgebender Schaltkreise des Gehirns in Abhängigkeit von Informationen aus dem sozialen Umfeld unterliegen. Die hirnanatomischen und hirnphysiologischen Voraussetzungen zur Entstehung...
Chapter
Die Anwendung körperlicher Gewalt ist eine männliche Domäne; 90 % schwerer Gewalttaten werden von Männern verübt. Das gilt für alle Formen individueller wie auch kollektiver Gewalt. Warum ist das so?
Chapter
Häufigkeit und Ausmaß individueller und kollektiver Gewalt unterliegt in Abhängigkeit von der Weltregion sowie von der historischen und sozialen Situation ganz erheblichen Schwankungen. Orientierende statistische Daten zur Beschreibung der Intensität des Gewaltproblems werden hier mit Fokus auf Deutschland vor dem Hintergrund der weltweiten Situati...
Chapter
Für gewalttätiges Verhalten sind nicht nur pathologische Abweichungen der Hirnanatomie und -physiologie relevant, sondern auch der Hirnchemie. Diese wird von einer Vielzahl von Hormonen und neuronalen Überträgerstoffen beeinflusst. Die wichtigsten hiervon sind Testosteron, Ocytocin, Kortisol und Serotonin.
Chapter
Der Einfluss des Erbgutes auf unser Verhalten wurde lange unterschätzt. Er ist aber sowohl hinsichtlich Gewaltneigung wie auch mitmenschlicher Wesenszüge erheblich. Welche Gene spielen eine Rolle und wovon hängt ihre Aktivität ab? Was bewirken Gene im Gehirn? Lässt sich durch Genanalysen das Risiko für Gewalttaten bestimmen?
Chapter
In dem multidimensionalen Bedingungsgefüge von Gewalt spielen neben genetischen, hirnbiologischen und lebensgeschichtlichen Konstellationen das aktuelle soziale Umfeld, gruppendynamische Effekte sowie die gesellschaftliche Gesamtsituation eine entscheidende Rolle. Nur dadurch wird erklärbar, warum im Verlauf der Geschichte und in verschiedenen Welt...
Chapter
Im Vergleich zu den hirnbiologischen Erklärungsansätzen für das Zustandekommen von Gewalt, die erst mit der rasanten Entwicklung der Neurowissenschaften, insbesondere der hirnbildgebenden Verfahren in den letzten Jahrzehnten möglich wurde, haben psychologische Gewalttheorien eine alte Tradition. Sie stellen eine andere wichtige Ebene zum Verständni...
Chapter
Im Zentrum der Lehren der großen Religionen steht die Verheißung, durch Beschreitung des rechten Weges unter Einhaltung göttlicher Gebote in ein paradiesisches Jenseits zu gelangen. Auf Erden erwies sich dieser Weg jedoch oft als recht beschwerlich und war nicht immer durch Friedfertigkeit gekennzeichnet. Der rechte Weg zum Guten wurde im Verlauf d...
Chapter
Gewalt ist nicht das Werk böser Mächte, obwohl es manchmal naheliegt, das anzunehmen. Sie ist Produkt einer Mentalität, die von genetischen, biografischen und aktuellen sozialen Einflüssen geformt wird. Unsere genetische Ausstattung, die auch die Anlage zu Aggressivität und Gewalt beinhaltet, ist das Resultat einer über viele Millionen Jahre gehend...
Chapter
Ereignisse wie der absichtlich herbeigeführte Absturz der Germanwings-Maschine im März 2015 und die Amokläufe in München im Juli 2016, Münster im April 2018 und Hanau im Februar 2020, deren Täter im Vorfeld psychisch erkrankt gewesen sein sollen (s. Kap. 16, Amok und School shooting), ließen den Eindruck entstehen, dass psychisch kranke Menschen mi...
Chapter
Eine profunde Kenntnis der vielschichtigen ineinandergreifenden Ursachen der unterschiedlichen Erscheinungsformen von Gewalt ist die Voraussetzung für eine möglichst treffsichere Vorhersage und eine effektive Prävention. Vorhersage von Gewaltereignissen ist nur in engen Grenzen möglich und mit einem erheblichen prognostischen Unschärfebereich verbu...
Chapter
Sexuelle Gewalt wird in 98 % der Fälle von Männern ausgeübt. Was sind die Motive? Wer sind die Täter?
Chapter
Der Begriff Hedonismus leitet sich von dem altgriechischen Wort ‚hedone‘ her, was ‚Freude, Vergnügen, Lust, Genuss, sinnliche Begierde‘ bedeutet. Angesichts der immensen Opferzahlen von Gewalt sowie der psychischen und wirtschaftlichen Langzeitschäden sollte man annehmen, dass Gewalt von jedem verabscheut wird, jedenfalls nicht lustvoll empfunden w...
Chapter
Durch die Erforschung der hirnbiologischen Korrelate von Aggression einerseits und Mitmenschlichkeit andererseits wurde es möglich zu verstehen, warum strukturelle und funktionelle Störungen dieser Hirnregionen mit einem erhöhten Risiko gewalttätigen Verhaltens einhergehen. Dies wird durch zahlreiche Untersuchungen der Hirne von Gewalttätern belegt...
Chapter
Aggressivität und daraus resultierende Gewalt sind komplexe Phänomene vielfältig ineinandergreifender Ursachen. Gewalt tritt nicht nur in physischer Form auf mit dem Ziel der körperlichen Schädigung, Unterwerfung, Beseitigung oder Vernichtung anderer. Häufiger sind Praktiken von psychischer Aggression in Form von Mobbing, Intrigen, Stalking, Bullyi...
Chapter
Die größten Katastrophen der Menschheit wurden verursacht durch kollektive Gewalt in Form von Kriegen und Völkermord. Dieses Kapitel bietet neben einer Kurzdarstellung der historischen Dimensionen Erklärungsmöglichkeiten für das Zustandekommen solcher Ereignisse aus phylogenetischer, sozialwissenschaftlicher, psychologischer und neurowissenschaftli...
Chapter
Fast wöchentlich erreichen uns Nachrichten über Terroranschläge und jeder hat eine Vorstellung davon, was Terror ist. Dennoch gibt es weltweit keinen Konsens darüber, was als Terror bezeichnet werden kann. In Abhängigkeit vom politischen, weltanschaulichen, religiösen und sozialen System gehen die Meinungen hierüber auseinander. Entsprechend unscha...
Chapter
Gewalt tritt nur selten erstmals spontan im Erwachsenenalter auf und wenn, dann ist sie in aller Regel als Symptom einer erst dann auftretenden Hirnerkrankung, einer seelischen Störung oder massiver Stressoren zu werten. Viel häufiger ist Gewalt das Produkt einer lebenslangen Entwicklung, deren prägendste Stadien im Kindes- und Jugendalter liegen,...
Article
Full-text available
The Habenula is increasingly being investigated in addiction. Reduced volumes of other relevant brain regions in addiction, such as nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus and hypothalamus have been reported. Reduced volumes of the habenula as well as reduced neuronal cell count in the habenula have also been reported in mood disorders and an overlap be...
Article
Because its secretion is changed in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood, the neuronal polypeptide VGF (nonacronymic) has been discussed as a biomarker for neuropsychiatric disorders. We have shown an enhanced VGF expression by T-cells from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we investigated the VGF expression by peripheral monocy...
Book
Warum tun Menschen so etwas!? Dies ist oft die erste Frage, die sich aufdrängt, wenn wir in den Medien oder im echten Leben Zeugen von Gewalt werden. Dieses Buch gibt umfassende Antworten: Es erklärt die Ursachen von Gewalt nicht aus der eingeschränkten Sicht einer einzelnen Fachdisziplin, sondern verbindet die Erklärungsansätze aus Hirnforschung,...
Book
Where does violence come from? How can people do such things? These are often the first questions that arise when we witness violence in the in the media or in real life. This book provides comprehensive answers by combining the explanatory approaches from criminology, sociology, psychology, psychiatry, brain research, genetics, pedagogy, historica...
Chapter
Gewalt hat sowohl hirnbiologische wie auch psychosoziale Ursachen. Letztere sind Gegenstand zahlreicher sozialwissenschaftlicher Analysen. Dagegen sind die neurobiologischen Korrelate von Aggression und Gewalt kaum bekannt. Das Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die phylogenetischen und erbbiologischen Grundlagen, über hirnstrukturelle, hirnfunktion...
Article
Full-text available
In schizophrenia, decreased hippocampal volume, reduced oligodendrocyte numbers in hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) subregions and reduced neuron number in the dentate gyrus have been reported; reduced oligodendrocyte numbers were significantly related to cognitive deficits. The hippocampus is involved in cognitive functions and connected to the hypo...
Article
An increasing number of clinical, epidemiological and genetic studies as well as investigations of CSF and blood suggests that neuroinflammation plays an essential role in the etiology of schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, direct neuropathological evidence of inflammation within the brain tissue remains sparse and the regional distribution...
Article
Full-text available
Background Terrorism belongs to the extreme forms of violence that have so far received little attention in psychiatric research and are rarely mentioned in textbooks of psychiatry. After terror attacks, however, the question regularly arises whether terrorists suffer from mental disorders.Objective and methodsThe aim of this review is to summarize...
Book
Die Autoren des vorliegenden Sammelbandes präsentieren Beiträge zum Themenfeld der gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit aus transdisziplinärer Perspektive. Vorgestellt werden aktuelle theoretische und empirische Befunde aus unterschiedlichen wissenschaftlichen und praktischen Disziplinen. Der Inhalt • Individuelle und kollektive Gewalt - neuro...
Article
There is increasing recognition in the neurological and psychiatric literature of patients with so-called isolated psychotic presentations (ie, with no, or minimal, neurological features) who have tested positive for neuronal autoantibodies (principally N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies) and who have responded to immunotherapies. Although th...
Article
Full-text available
Innate immunity has been linked to initiation of Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, risk of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and schizophrenia (Sz) is increased after various infections in predisposed individuals. Thus, we hypothesized an analogous role of innate immunity with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) in non-affective psyc...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The direct exertion as well as the visual perception of violence can have a hedonistic effect and elicit positive arousal in predisposed individuals. This appetitive aspect of aggression in healthy subjects has been neglected in psychiatric research so far. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether subjects...
Article
Full-text available
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus was recently proposed as a potential new treatment target for opioid addiction. DBS requires computer-assisted-3D planning to implant the stimulation electrode precisely. As volumes of brain regions may differ in addiction compared to healthy controls, our aim was to investigate possible...
Article
Personality, psychopathology, and motives of 44 surviving offenders committing mass murder in Germany over 25 years (1984–2009) were analyzed using court files and psychiatric expertises. Initially, 123 mass murders in Germany were detected in the time period 1980–2010 (inclusive deceased offenders). Using a data entry form based on ViCLAS (Violent...
Chapter
Unavoidably, psychiatrists and criminologists have to cope with evil, as very often they are asked to provide psychiatric explanations for heinous behaviors that have nothing to do with our sense of humanity, except that they are perpetrated by men and also, although less often, by women (it is a real novelty of the last few decades that women may...
Article
Full-text available
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume c...
Article
Full-text available
N-Methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) antibodies (Abs) could play a role in neurodegenerative disorders. Since, in these diseases, NMDA-R Abs were detected in serum, but only sporadic in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the origin and impact of the Abs are still unresolved. We examined the presence of NMDA-R Abs in serum and CSF using a cell-b...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the thalamus in schizophrenia has increasingly been studied in recent years. Deficits in the ventral thalamus have been described in only few postmortem and neuroimaging studies. We utilised our previously introduced neurodevelopmental animal model, the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of the ventral thalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats (Wolf et...
Article
Full-text available
The role of monocytes and macrophages in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Recently, we have shown that the number of CD14+ monocytes remained constant during healthy aging and in AD patients. Although only little is known about the function of activated macrophages and microglia...
Article
Perception and practice of violence have hedonistic aspects associated with positive arousal (appetitive aggression). Earlier studies have mainly investigated the aetiology of aggressive behaviour in forensic/psychiatric patients. The present study examined structural brain characteristics in healthy people practicing violent sports (martial artist...
Article
Full-text available
The hypothalamus is at the core of the stress responses systems of the brain. Most interestingly, even though changes of HPA-function have been observed in opiate addiction not much is known about structural changes of the hypothalamus. Volumes of hypothalamus in heroin addicts (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 12) were assessed by using morphomet...
Article
Full-text available
Current pathophysiological models of schizophrenia suggest that stress contributes to the etiology and trajectory of the disorder. We investigated if allostatic load (AL), an integrative index of neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic dysregulation in response to chronic stress, is elevated in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and first-episode psych...
Article
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineat...
Article
Full-text available
The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in...
Article
Full-text available
Die forensische Psychiatrie widmet sich als Subspezialität der Schnittstelle von Psychiatrie und Recht. Sie wendet zu Diagnostik, Beurteilung, Therapie und Forschung Paradigmata und Erkenntnisse aus der allgemeinen Psychiatrie unter Beachtung der speziellen Erfordernisse rechtlicher Fragestellungen und Rahmenbedingungen an und ist daher in ihrer wi...
Article
The hippocampus is involved in cognition as well as emotion, with deficits in both domains consistently described in schizophrenia. Moreover, the whole volumes of both the anterior and posterior region have been reported to be decreased in schizophrenia patients. While fewer oligodendrocyte numbers in the left and right cornu ammonis CA4 subregion...
Article
Full-text available
In schizophrenia, previous stereological post-mortem investigations of anterior, posterior, and total hippocampal subfields showed no alterations in total neuron number but did show decreased oligodendrocyte numbers in CA4, an area that corresponds to the polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus (DG). However, these investigations identified oligodendr...
Article
Background: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA synthesis and alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission related to glial abnormalities are thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potential differences regarding the neuropil expression of GAD between paranoid and re...
Article
Full-text available
Resting-state fMRI studies have gained widespread use in exploratory studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. Graph metrics derived from whole brain functional connectivity studies have been used to reveal disease-related variations in many neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression (MDD). These techniques show promise in developing diagno...
Chapter
Die beeindruckenden Dimensionen von Ursachen und Folgen individueller und kollektiver Aggression und Gewaltanwendung sind allseits ersichtlich. Umso erstaunlicher ist, dass dieses Thema in den psychiatrischen Lehr- und Fachbüchern bislang kaum Beachtung fand, obwohl es naheliegt anzunehmen, dass abnorme Funktionsweisen des Gehirns in erheblichem Ma...
Chapter
Neben psychosozialen Einflüssen, die über das Prinzip der Neuroplastizität Hirnstruktur und -funktion nachhaltig beeinflussen können, spielen primär hirnpathologische Prozesse nicht nur bei der Verursachung hirnorganischer Psychosyndrome sondern auch bei schizophrenen Erkrankungen und affektiven Störungen eine bedeutende Rolle. In den letzten Jahre...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The septal nuclei are important limbic regions that are involved in emotional behavior and connect to various brain regions such as the habenular complex. Both the septal nuclei and the habenular complex are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods: We characterized the number and density of calretinin-...
Article
The human diagonal band of Broca is connected to other parts of the limbic system, such as the hippocampus, that are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to characterize the volume and anterior-to-posterior distance of the human diagonal band of Broca (vertical limb) from post-mortem brains obtained from three groups: health...
Article
The central serotonergic system is implicated differentially in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the main source of serotonergic innervation of forebrain limbic structures disturbed in both disorders. The study was carried out on paraffin-embedded brains from 27 depressed (15 major depressive disor...