Bernd Friedrich

Bernd Friedrich
RWTH Aachen University · IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c.
Head of Institute

About

861
Publications
285,012
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Introduction
This account represents the performance of the entire department team at IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University (Germany). We perform applied research and education in pyro-, hydro- and vacuummetallurgy, metal refining and applied electrochemistry with upscaling to demo-sizes. We are developing production technologies of scrap conditioning/recycling, residue minimisation and waste processing, such strongly contributing to the global "circular economy" targets.
Additional affiliations
July 1995 - June 1999
VARTA Portable Batteries Germany and Czech. Republic
Position
  • Plant Manager
January 1988 - June 1995
GFE Nuremberg
Position
  • Head of Department
January 1984 - December 1987
RWTH Aachen University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
October 1978 - December 1987
RWTH Aachen University
Field of study
  • Non Ferrous Metallurgy

Publications

Publications (861)
Presentation
Full-text available
Due to the rising demand of Lithium-Ion Batteries in many applications like electric mobility or portable consumer goods the scrap volumes arising in the future are likely to increase, too. Nonetheless, exact calculations are challenging because the highly dynamic market, also in view of battery chemistries, is subject to uncertainties. Scenario-ba...
Presentation
Full-text available
Since the demand for Li-Ion batteries in different fields of application has increased within the last years, also the necessity of specific battery recycling processes has gained attention. The main questions addressed are referring on the worldwide and, in contrast to that, European opportunities of recyclers in terms of throughput and plant avai...
Presentation
Full-text available
In the field of metallurgical processing, the efficient extraction of critical (trace) metals from electric and electronic scrap is one of the most challenging disciplines. In the occasion of today’s concerns regarding the supply of critical metals, the Institute of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling (IME), associated with the RWTH Aachen Unive...
Presentation
Full-text available
With the increasing amount of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and the growing complexity of the equipment, recycling is facing new challenges. Not only is it necessary to achieve the highest possible recycling efficiencies, but also to manage the material diversity of the waste. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) as central compone...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a pyrometallurgical recycling method for end-of-life NdFeB magnets by oxidizing them in air and subsequently smelting them. The smelting process enabled the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs), producing a new reach concentrate separating the iron as a metallic phase. From the products of smelting, the metallic phase showed a...
Article
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Magnesium-based materials with exceptional properties are being widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as in electronic equipment and Mg-based implants. The development of many advanced engineering structures and precision devices prompts the demand for high-purity Mg with better performance and service. However, the curren...
Article
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Due to their remarkable magnetic properties, such as a high maximum energy product, high remanence, and high coercivity, NdFeB magnets are used in a variety of technological applications. Because of their very limited recycling, high numbers of spent NdFeB magnets are widely available in the market. In addition to China’s monopoly on the supply of...
Presentation
Full-text available
Process Flow Alternatives for LIB Recycling
Article
Ultra-high-purity magnesium has gained importance in the electronics and biomedical technological fields positioning it as one of the most valuable pure metals in the market. Due to its high reactivity and unique physical properties, vacuum distillation is the process of choice for its purification. Recently, liquid condensation techniques have imp...
Article
To enable a long-term presence of humans in space, it is essential to use extraterrestrial raw materials to reduce the need for transporting resources or produced materials from Earth. In recent years, a lot of research has been conducted on different ISRU processes, such as regolith excavation, mineral processing and the extraction of oxygen using...
Article
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A large number of battery pack returns from electric vehicles (EV) is expected for the next years, which requires economically efficient disassembly capacities. This cannot be met through purely manual processing and, therefore, needs to be automated. The variance of different battery pack designs in terms of (non-) solvable fitting technology and...
Article
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The impact of rare earth oxide (REO) concentration on the deposition process and selective recovery of the metal being deposited from a molten fluoride salt system was investigated by applying deposition of Nd and Pr and varying the concentration of REO added to the electrolyte. A ternary phase diagram for the liquidus temperature of the NdF3-PrF3-...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this presentation a method for recovering lithium from lithium-ion batteries by environmentally friendly methods is presented. The so-called Early-Stage Lithium Recovery enables both high lithium purities and high lithium leaching efficiencies. In the frame of increasing demand for energy storage and commodities, secondary raw materials are an...
Presentation
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This presentation was held on the German greenBatt Research Cluster funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research for the project ecoLiga. In detail, the latest progress within the cooperation especially in terms of graphite extraction by flotation and solution purification is discussed. Especially, the flotation performed by HIF in Dresden...
Article
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In the context of the rising demand for electric storage systems, lithium–sulfur batteries provide an attractive solution for low-weight and high-energy battery systems. Considering circular economy for new technologies, it is necessary to assure the raw material requirements for future generations. Therefore, metallurgical recycling processes are...
Article
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The main objective of this research was a systematic development of advanced micro/nanostructured materials based on the most used metal-oxides for ORR and metal-oxides with an extremely low-loading of Pt for comparison. Hybrid composites compared were: MnO2, La2O3, mixed lanthanum manganese oxides (LMO), and mixed lanthanum manganese oxides with r...
Poster
Full-text available
Today’s potential production methods for high entropy alloys show difficulties as they involve high-purity metals and reveal high energy consumption. In contrast, metallothermic reduction generally allow for decreasing production costs and time factors and thus overall efficiency by the use of exothermic enthalpy released during the reaction. Such,...
Poster
The demand for rare earth elements (REE) have become extremely high following their increased application in high-tech products. It is particularly pronounced in fabrication of powerful magnets used in green technology. To secure long term sustainable use of REE, recycling and recovery of these materials became of significant importance. The REE ar...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Stanković, S.; Kamberović, Ž.; Friedrich, B.; Stopić, S.R.; Sokić, M.; Marković, B.; Schippers, A. Abstract: The automotive industry is in the process of transformation from the traditional production of vehicles with engines powered by the combustion of fossil fuels to vehicles powered by electric energy. This revolutionary transformatio...
Article
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The Ni/Y2O3 catalyst showed high catalytic activity. Based on this, the aim of this study was to create Ni/Y2O3 nanocomposites powder with two innovative technologies, Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) and lyophilisation. In the USP process, thermal decomposition of the generated aerosols in an N2/H2 reduction atmosphere caused a complete decomposit...
Article
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The exothermic carbonation reaction includes the degradation of alkaline earth metal (mainly Mg-, Ca-) oxides, hydroxides or silicates under participation of carbon dioxide under aqueous conditions and the formation of stable carbonates with long-term storage of carbon dioxide. The extent of reaction depends on different influencing factors, which...
Poster
Full-text available
Recycling is highly dependent on the material stream to be treated. If the waste stream contains valuable materials, recycling is rewarding, this can change if the amount of valuable materials is reduced. Lithium-ion battery technology is subject to a constant optimization process in which no cell chemistry has yet finally prevailed. However, the p...
Article
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The high demand for critical materials, such as rare earth elements, indium, gallium, and scandium, raises the need for an advance in understanding the unit operations in non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. Unit metallurgical operation processes are usually separated into three categories: (1) hydrometallurgy (leaching, mixing, neutralization, preci...
Article
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The anode effect can occur during neodymium and didymium oxide electrowinning, causing a surge in the electrochemical cell voltage, interrupting the process, and increasing the greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, we develop a mathematical model, based on the mass balance of gas bubbles evolving from the anode, to understand the influence of som...
Article
Fluorinated carbon materials have a wide range of applications due to their versatile properties. Functionalisation of carbon materials with fluorine enhances their properties and open their applications to new fields. Fluorinated graphene, in particular, has highly attracted researchers due to its 2-D structure, high hydrophobicity, wide bandgap a...
Article
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In the future, it will become increasingly important to recover critical elements from waste materials. For many of these elements, purely mechanical processing is not efficient enough. An already established method is pyrometallurgical processing, with which many of the technologically important elements, such as Cu or Co, can be recovered in the...
Article
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Determination of the extractive behavior of ionic species from lateritic ore leachates is complex, since the leachates are pregnant with tens of different ions in, as a rule, multiple oxide states. To examine the possible pathways of intrinsic electrochemical extraction of the crucial elements Ni and Co, it was necessary to make model solutions of...
Article
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Polygonal Pt nanoparticles were synthesized using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) at different precursor concentrations. Physicochemical analysis of the synthesized Pt particles involved thermogravimetric, microscopic, electron diffractive, and light absorptive/refractive characteristics. Electrochemical properties and activity in the oxygen reduc...
Presentation
Full-text available
The production of ferrochromeFerrochrome via carbothermic reduction in submerged arc furnaces is an energy-intensive process relying on the usage of coal and coke as reducing agents. The pre-reduction of chromite in a rotary kiln is currently carried out to decrease the specific electric energy consumption in the smelting furnace. However, as fossi...
Article
Red mud is an industrial waste produced during the bauxite refining in the Bayer process. Increasing efforts have been recently paid to produce red mud geopolymers with feasible engineering properties. Meanwhile, the environmental compatibility of red mud geopolymers as construction material has not been clearly investigated. To facilitate clean pr...
Article
This paper presents a scientific contribution to the development of lightweight/high-performance Al –Li alloys suitable for semi-solid processing. Thermodynamic calculations identified the most promising compositions with focus on the solidus – liquidus interval, fraction of solid-versus-temperature and phase reactions. The synthesis of Al –Li prec...
Article
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The use of ceramic solid particle technology in TES-integrated CSP plants offers a high solar�to-electricity ratio and enhanced storage densities, thanks to their high operational temperatures and wide temperature ranges. Metallurgical slags with composition similar to that of the state�of-art bauxite particles can be used as a sustainable and econ...
Article
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The oxidation state of iron in minerals is an important part of analysis. Especially for minerals used as a raw material for metallurgical processes, the oxidation state has a significant impact on the process. One crucial impact is the varying carbon requirement in smelting furnaces, which can be significantly different if the oxidation state is n...
Article
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Mixed oxides have received remarkable attention due to the many opportunities to adjust their interesting structural, electrical, catalytic properties, leading to a better, more useful performance compared to the basic metal oxides. In this study, mixed oxides NiO/ZnO/Al2O3 were synthesized in a single step via the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method...
Article
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Scandium (Sc) applications in solid oxygen fuel cells, aeronautics and heat exchange systems are forecasted to increase significantly without a sufficient continuous Sc supply for Europe. ScaVanger is an EU project for upscaling Sc extraction and purification technologies from various TiO2 pigment production residues. High purity Sc2O3 and ScF3 wil...
Article
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Hybrid nanomaterials based on manganese, cobalt, and lanthanum oxides of different morphology and phase compositions were prepared using a facile single-step ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) process and tested as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The structural and morphological characterizations were completed by XRD and SEM-ED...
Article
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The increasing demand for Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles sheds light upon the Co supply chain. The metal is crucial to the cathode of these batteries, and the leading global producer is the D.R. Congo (70%). For this reason, it is considered critical/strategic due to the risk of interruption of supply in the short and medium term. Due to th...
Article
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The production of ferroalloys and alloys like ferronickel, ferrochromium, ferromanganese, silicomanganese, ferrosilicon and silicon is commonly carried out in submerged arc furnaces. Submerged arc furnaces are also used to upgrade ilmenite by producing pig iron and a titania-rich slag. Metal containing resources are smelted in this furnace type usi...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation shows a general project overview of the projects at the IME that deal with lead or contain possible applications for the lead industry. In addition, the complexity of lithium-ion battery recycling in contrast to lead-acid battery is discussed.
Conference Paper
All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) exhibit high specific energy density and improved safety features compared to commercial lithium-ion batteries due to the lack of flammable liquid electrolyte. Currently, researchers focus on material development and processing technology to overcome barriers that hinder the widespread industrial implem...
Poster
Full-text available
The recycling of batteries is a very important point in the European circular economy to return back rare materials like lithium to the production of batteries. For hydrometallurgical recycling processes, the industry commonly uses mineral acids for their leaching process, which leads to non-biodegradable waste water. In this context, the investiga...
Conference Paper
Electrodeposition of neodymium and praseodymium metal from molten NdF3+PrF3+LiF+ 0.5wt.% Pr6O11+0.5wt.% Nd2O3 electrolytes on W was investigated using voltammetry at 1050°C. The square wave voltammetry confirmed that Nd electrodeposition is a two-step reduction process: first, involving one electron exchange (Nd(III)→Nd(II)) and second, involving t...
Presentation
Full-text available
The greenBatt recycling project is part of the umbrella concept of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for battery research. The mission of the cluster is to develop, design and apply innovative technologies, methods and tools for an energy- and material-efficient battery life cycle and closed material cycles. The project g...
Presentation
Full-text available
Neodymium and praseodymium were electrochemically co-deposited onto Mo cathode applying constant potential, from fluoride-based molten salts containing the corresponding rare earth oxides. According to the recorded voltammograms, it appears that in the investigated system, the electrodeposition of neodymium proceeds as a two-step reduction process:...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation about the Circular Economy Strategy of the RWTH Aachen University at the ASK 2021 Conference
Presentation
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The excellent chemical resistance of gold is an important property of the precious metal, but it becomes a disadvantage when it comes to gold extraction. Many metallurgical processes are based on highly aggressive and very toxic reagents. Ecological developments are forcing the industry to develop efficient alternative methods to cyanide, the predo...
Presentation
Full-text available
Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are an important component in energy transition in Germany and worldwide for the storage of electricity in the field of energy supply and electromobility. Valuable metals such as lithium (Li), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) are used in the production of the LIBs. This is why the recycling of these raw materials at the end o...
Article
Full-text available
Electrodeposition processes of neodymium and praseodymium in molten NdF3 + PrF3 + LiF + 1 wt.%Pr6O11 + 1 wt.%Nd2O3 and NdF3 + PrF3 + LiF + 2 wt.%Pr6O11 + 2 wt.%Nd2O3 electrolytes at 1323 K were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and open circuit potentiometry were applied to study the electrochemical reduction of Nd(III) and...
Article
Full-text available
AgCu nanoparticles were prepared through hydrogen-reduction-assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) and the Hydrogen Reduction (HR) method. The changes in the morphology and crystal structure of nanoparticles were studied using different concentrated precursors. The structure and morphology of the mixed crystalline particles were characterized th...
Presentation
Full-text available
Metallurgical processes for the production of several non-ferrous metals are accompanied by the generation of mineral residues like heavy metal-bearing slags. Consequently, huge amounts of hazardous material, still containing high concentrations of recoverable elements like lead and zinc, are put on landfills. This environmentally unfriendly approa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metallurgische Prozesse zur Herstellung von Buntmetallen sind stets mit der Entstehung mineralischer Reststoffe wie schwermetallhaltigen Schlacken verbunden. In diesem Zusammenhang werden große Mengen umweltgefährdender Materialien, welche hohe Gehalte an recyclebaren Wertmetallen wie Blei und Zink enthalten, deponiert. Dieser umweltbelastende Ansa...
Presentation
Full-text available
Today´s recycling processes for end of life Lithium-Batteries (LIB) suffer from low weight-based efficiencies, as most of the developed and practiced processes focus only on valuable metals (Co, Ni and Li). They industrially reach in maximum 60%, which is below the upcoming new European directive. Recycling components that currently receive less at...
Article
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Aluminum and aluminum-based alloys have been used for many years. In view of the increase in material purity requirements of advanced technology products, research regarding high-purity aluminum has gained significant attention in recent years. In this review, we seek to describe the fundamental purification principles and the mechanisms of various...
Article
Full-text available
Electrochemical decomposition of spent catalyst dissolved in molten salts is a promising approach for the extraction of precious metals from them. This article reports the results of the study of aluminum electrowinning from the xLiF–(1-x)AlF3 melt (x = 0.64; 0.85) containing 0–5 wt.% of spent petroleum Pt/ -Al2O3 catalyst on a tungsten electrode a...
Article
Coal fly ash (CFA) is a potential mineral resource from which to recover Al and other valuable metals. In this study, a new processing technology for the recovery of Al and Ti from CFA has been developed and comprehensively investigated. The baking process applied in previous work has been improved by using microwave heating and a mixture of H2SO4...
Article
The aim of this work is to evaluate a feasible mean for recycling off-spec Al-Mg-Sc alloy (Scalmalloy®), a distinctive lightweight alloy used in additive manufacturing processes. The first attempts are carried out to define a safe procedure due to its dangerousness and to obtain a first view of the agglomeration of powders. The experiments were con...
Patent
Full-text available
Verfahren zur Herstellung einer insgesamt 25 bis 100 Gew.-% Edelmetall umfassenden Sammlerlegierung umfassend 0 bis <97 Gew.-% des Edelmetalls Silber, 0 bis 75 Gew.-% mindestens eines Edelmetalls ausgewählt aus Gold, Platin, Rhodium und Palladium, sowie 0 bis 75 Gew.-% mindestens eines Nichtedelmetalls ausgewählt aus Kupfer, Eisen, Zinn und Nickel,...
Article
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The electrorefining process of the non-commercial Cu anodes was tested on the enlarged laboratory equipment over 72 h. Cu anodes with Ni content of 5 or 10 wt.% and total content of Pb, Sn, and Sb of about 1.5 wt.% were used for the tests. The real waste solution of sulfuric acid character was a working electrolyte of different temperatures (T1 = 6...
Article
The role and influence of strontium and its oxide on structure and capacitive response of materials containing mixed lanthanum cobalt oxides, LC, and lanthanum strontium cobalt oxides, LSC, as a capacitive materials were investigated in this study. The mixed oxides were synthesized by the single-step ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique. The...
Presentation
Full-text available
The volume of WEEE scrap fractions is increasing in the era of further digitalisation. The recycling of WEEE in pyrometallurgical copper production is primarily aimed at the extraction of copper and precious metals. Lead reduction furnaces, in which lead is extracted from oxides, offer a further recycling option. The advantage of using lead is its...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High entropy alloys (HEAs) are an emerging young alloy group with growing attention in recent years. Especially, HEA including refractory metals (RHEAs) with outstanding properties even at high temperatures show great potential to meet the rising requirements in special applications like in aerospace or nuclear industry. In detail particular suitab...